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The Russian Far East in 1965-1985: specifics of industrial development of the region



n. M. Platonova

The RUSSIAN FAR EAST In 1965-1985:

SPECIFICS of INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT of the REGION

Work is presented by department of the theory and history of state and law of the Far Eastern Federal University of means of communication.

Acceleration of social and economic development of the Far East, active development of its rich mineral raw material resources in 1965-1985 were caused by a number of historical features of development of the region which was and continues to remain the Pacific outpost of Russia.

N. Platonova

RUSSIAN FAR EAST IN THE 1965-1985S: SPECIFIC CHARACTER OF THE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION

The accelerated socio-economic development of the Far East, active development of its mineral and raw material resources in the 1965-1985 were conditioned by a number of historical peculiarities of the development of the region, which was and continues to be Russia’s Pacific outpost.

The Russian Far East occupies more than 40% of all territory of Russia (more than 6 million sq.km), but with insignificant population of 6,486,400 people and density - 1.2 persons on 1 sq.km (it is less than 5%), which is distributed very unevenly [26, page 19]. The region differs in considerable economic potential, in a basis koto-

horns lie unique mineral and raw, biological and water resources. In many respects successful realization of this potential, increase in investment and innovative activity, strengthening of mutually beneficial interregional and border cooperation with the countries of the Asia-Pacific pool in modern uslovi-

yakh are considered by the Government of the Russian Federation as a necessary condition for successful integration of the country into a world economic system.

At certain stages of the development the Russian State differently approached the solution of problems of east territories. In the context of the main political and social and economic changes which happened in the country also the Far East developed. 1965-1985 are characterized as the period connected with updating of issues of the accelerated social and economic development, involvement and fixing of the population in the region. The analysis of contemporary records demonstrates that for this 20 anniversary the large-scale work connected with creation in the Far East of a powerful industrial basis was carried out. In total from 1965 to 1985 about 500 industrial enterprises were constructed. Among them there were largest industrial new buildings. In September, 1967 the first stage of the Amur pulp and board mill with an annual capacity of 75 thousand tons of cellulose was accepted in operation; at the beginning of 1968 in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, installation of buildings of the plant on production of metalwork began; in the regional settlement of Amursk on the bank of the lake of Drop, construction sawing began spring of 1969

woodworking plant; same year the first stage of the central mining and processing factory of Solar mining and processing works began to work; in February, 1971 in Komsomolsk-on-Amur the plant of large-panel housing construction was put into operation; in December, 1975 the first stage of the Amur engineering plant with the high-mechanized and automated production facilities became operational; in January, 1985 in Sovetskaya Gavan the plant of large-panel housing construction [30, l began to work. 2-8; 21, l. 24; 41, page 156; 31, l. 8; 24, l. 40; 39, page 1;

40, page 1], etc. In total for the specified period the industrial and production funds increased by 4.1 times: in Primorsky Krai - in 5.2; in Khabarovsk Krai - in 7.7. On Distant

The East more than 100 enterprises for production of building materials were constructed and reconstructed that allowed to increase production of cement and precast concrete. Thus, the Far East to the standard status of a military outpost on the Pacific coast got position of industrial base of the country in the east.

Conditionally specified chronological period can be divided into two stages: 1965-

1974 and 1974-1985

Since the second half of the 1960th, the soviet leadership carried out the action program which received the reflection in solutions of September (1965). A plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU "About improvement of management of the industry, improvement of planning and strengthening of economic incentives of industrial production" [35, page 640] and the XXIII congress of the CPSU (1966) and also in a number of party and governmental decrees. For example, "About improvement of management of the industry" of September 30, 1965; "About improvement of planning and strengthening of economic incentives of industrial production" of October 4, 1965, etc. [35, page 646, 658; 16, l. 187-190]. Among them a specific place was held the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR No. 638 "About measures for further development of productive forces of Far Eastern economic region and the Chita region" of July 8, 1967 [36, page 475] and No. 368 "About measures for further complex development of productive forces of the Far East and East Siberian economic region" of May 25, 1972 [13, by l. 43]. In the specified documents the strategy of the public industrial policy in the Far East, realization of actions of party and government of social and economic orientation was defined and also problems of complex development of the national economy of the region and rational use of human resources were updated. At the same time it should be noted that the being outlined measures which had to give dynamics to development of economy remained within directives -

ny control levers and the lag which developed in former decades in high technologies. Industrial development of the Far East during 1965-1985 completely coincided with these negative all-union trends.

As one of the important reasons of so close attention of Moscow to need of strengthening of industrial and social and economic development of the Far East the foreign policy situation on the Soviet-Chinese border served. In the second half of the 1960th the fueled tension between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the USSR developed into provocative attacks of the Chinese military on boundary territories of the Far East. The military conflict on the Soviet-Chinese border took place in March, 1969. The Chinese authorities organized on the Ussuri River on the site of Iman-sky boundary group the large armed provocation. Two weeks later, on March 14, 1969 they tried to send the Chinese troops on the island Daman which were broken by the Soviet frontier guards. After these events of the relation between the People's Republic of China and the USSR a long time were in extremely not a stable, contradictory state.

As a result of cardinally changed international relations between two countries enough the urgent need accelerated social clearly was designated

economic development and settling of the Far East. In this regard the decisions designated in the resolutions of the Soviet government and the Central Committee of the CPSU stated above were updated both for the region, and for the country in general.

Need of construction of the Far East steel works was caused by a variety of reasons. First, ferrous metallurgy was the main for development of mechanical engineering and construction, an important condition of production of means of production and hardware of all branches of the national economy. Moreover, the region was perspective in respect of growth of volumes of shipbuilding, ship repair and others

branches of mechanical engineering. However it was located far from the main industrial centers of the country, and transportation of metals to the Far East managed too expensive. In this regard the industrial enterprises of the region tested an acute shortage in metal-rolling products [25, l. 370]. Secondly, hydroelectric power stations on the Zeya River in the Amur region and state district power plant in Primorsky Krai were capable to provide with the cheap electric power the metallurgical and overworking industrial enterprises which are again constructed [7, l. 84]. And, at last, the third reason - in the south of the Far East was available rich mineral resources for development metallurgical, mining and processing industry [19, l. 109].

Despite above-mentioned favorable factors, a long time of need of east territories for metal rolling were not satisfied. It became the basis for commissioning of additional capacities for electric melting at the Amurstal plant in Komsomolsk-on-Amur which was one of the largest Far East enterprises of ferrous metallurgy with the finished cycle of production of metal. Its reconstruction began after adoption of resolution No. 638 (1967). In March, 1969 in Komsomolsk-on-Amur there arrived the first group of young workers for construction of the martin furnace and the 1700 rolling mill with which input on October 29, 1969 the plant began to release welded pipes, a bent profile and cold-rolled tin. Full reconstruction and expansion of the plant were completed by the end of 1970 [23, l. 117]. Nevertheless it did not solve a problem of providing the Far East with own metal. In structure of an industrial complex of the region Amurstal took the insignificant place. In a total amount of release of gross output its share made not many more than 1%. Thus, the plant provided needs of the region for ferrous metals, approximately for 40%, but every year they increased. So, if in 1960 the metal consumption in the Far East made

887 thousand tons, in 1975 - 2.5 million tons, and in 1985 -
3 million tons [33, page 20]. The main suppliers of the lacking volume became and a hire there were metallurgical enterprises of the Urals and Western Siberia. As a result product cost, made of metal which was brought from the western parts of the country, was nearly 27% higher, than from metal which was produced on the place. Subsequently development of the Amurstal plant was defined as the reefficient enterprise which was engaged in processing of the scrap of ferrous metals which is formed in the national economy of the Far East [9, l. 5].

It should be noted that when in the early seventies the question of need of construction in the east of the country of large iron and steel works with the finished cycle rose, some design organizations which were engaged in studying the questions connected with development of metallurgy in the Far East considered that in the region the consumption of metals develops more slowly, than in other regions of the country. Input that rates of its development will not be able to justify a construction of the large metallurgical enterprise here was made. As a result discussion of this problem lasted for 20 years, up to 1990. By calculations of economists, in 1970 the need of the Far East would have to exceed million tons by 1990, so, in the long term own source of raw materials could not provide such power of the new planned enterprise.

However further, in process of construction of the Baikal-Amur railway line (BAM) and development of its zone, development of productive forces of the Far East region and significant increase in need for metal rolling, there was a question of need of construction of the large metallurgical enterprise again. One of important problems was the choice of the area of its placement. Insignificant distance from raw materials sources to areas of production and consumption of metal were the main condition of its successful functioning. Big the scientific researcher

I will hold down work on problems of development of ferrous metallurgy in the Far East carried out the academic council on problems of economic development of zone BAM. Four options of possible placement of iron and steel works were discussed:. Free in the Amur region, Komsomolsk-on-Amur in Khabarovsk Krai, Mr. Chulman in Yakutia (Sakha Republic) and Nerchinsk in the Chita region. The greatest advantage was at Free, but did not follow implementation of the project. In the long term all this negatively affected development of the machine-building, ship-building and ship-repair industries, production and repair of the equipment for mining, forest and fishing industry of the Far East.

Despite a variety of mineralnosyryevy resources, especially in the south of the Far East, the country leaders continued to show excessively great economic interest more likely to export from the region of raw materials, but not finished goods. So, in May, 1964. The head department of ore mining and chemical industry of SNH RSFSR in "Remarks and additions to actions for development of productive forces of the Far East for ore mining and chemical industry" noted that in the development plan on 1966-

1970 . The Far East economic council provided in Primorsky Krai construction of the enterprises with complex use of raw material resources on the basis of processing of non-ferrous and boron-containing metals. On the basis of fields tin *, tungsten and polymetallic ores of the Armu-Imansky Region of Primorye, along with the operating extracting and processing enterprises, the regional authorities assumed construction of large base of nonferrous metallurgy. In the same area with use of the electric power of Seaside state district power plant construction of chemical steel works which capacities could process concentrates of non-ferrous metals of all Far East [8, l was planned. 26]. Meanwhile, the most part of these offers did not find the

reflections in further development plans for the national economy.

In 1965, in connection with acute shortage drills ** in the USSR which was used generally for the enameling industry the State Planning Committee of the USSR allocated special capital investments for the accelerated release of danbu-ritovy concentrates as substitute drills on Primorsk Mining chemical plant. Regional authorities of all levels took urgent measures for expansion of production capacities of plant and implementation of the state order. However a half of consumers refused receiving finished goods from seaside plant because the big party of concentrates was purchased abroad and its cost was below a domestic analog. There was a contradiction between production and sale of concentrates. At the same time from the plan of production it was not removed. In 1973 the secretary of Seaside regional committee of the CPSU A.N. Gulchenko brought up a question before Council of ministers and the State Committee for Construction of the USSR of need of expansion of Seaside Mining chemical plant again, but was refused [1, l. 1, 5]. The main supplier of oil and gas in the Far East region was the Sakhalin region. So, on Sakhalin for years of the eighth five-years period (1966-1970) 13 million tons of oil were extracted and

4.2 gas bcm. However processing enterprises in the area were not. Therefore the Sakhalin oil on pipelines arrived on Khabarovsk and Komsomol - on - Cupid oil refineries, and then by sea finished oil products delivered to the area again [29, page 26]. Thus, specialization of the Far East economy had pronounced raw focus and was defined by the fact that processing of raw materials in finished goods on the place was much more more expensive, than in other regions of the country.

Resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR No. 638 (1967) and No. 368 (1972), in effect, which were the strategic program of industrial development of east territories had to sposobstvo-

to vat to development of productive forces, inflow and fixing of human resources due to commissioning of new production capacities, construction of facilities housing and cultural and social purpose. However the analysis of contemporary records demonstrates that performance of many social and economic indicators of these government acts or were not carried out, or their execution dragged on. So, in December, 1969. The presidium of Council of ministers of RSFSR noted that Light Industry Ministry of RSFSR did not perform a task on construction of the enterprises of light industry in the territory of the Far East. From eight objects which commissioning was planned within 1967 — 1971 at a stage of construction there were six, but it was carried out by extremely slow rates. On Ministry of the Food Industry of RSFSR - from twenty two enterprises two were entered. On the Ministry of the local industry of RSFSR - from twenty four enterprises four [18, l. 220, 221]. With great difficulty planned targets and economic heads of the Far East plants such as Dalselmash, Daldi-zel, Energomash, Amurstal, Amur-litmash, Power transformers, the Hoisting-and-transport equipment, Electrotechnical carried out. About it it was repeatedly noted at a meeting of bureau of the Khabarovsk regional committee of the CPSU. To raise some indicators, heads of the plants were forced to reduce during 1968-1971 rates of housing construction by 30%. As a result already by the end of 1968 of housing it was constructed 3 times less, than it was required [11, l. 63, 64].

In Primorye the regional authorities faced the same problems. For example, from 1970 for 1974 the Ministry of the coal industry of the USSR allocated to Primorskugol plant of capital investments for 19.5 million rubles less, than it was provided by Resolution No. 368 (1972) and task IX of a five-years period (1971 — 1975) [4, l. 23]. As a result of the loudspeaker

growth rates of coal mining in the region gradually decreased. If in 1971 it made

9.3 million tons, in 1972 - 9.4 million tons, and in 1973 -
9 million tons [3, l. 4b].

Quite often heads of regional committees of the CPSU conducted long correspondence with the central ministries and departments, proving and proving, and at times and just eliciting, to accelerate the solution of financial or organizational issues which was already provided by the specified resolutions. For example, during 1973-1974. The seaside regional committee of the CPSU repeatedly brought up a question before the Ministry of forestry and wood industry of reconstruction of the Ocean plywood plant which date was annually postponed [2, l. 13, 4b, 53].

The main reasons for the situation were that the ministries were limited in the state capital investments. Many construction organizations of the Ministry of construction of the enterprises of the heavy industry of the USSR had no necessary production capacity for implementation of large-scale state projects and also rates of development of the local industry of building materials were insufficient.

In the second half of the 1970th the economic situation practically changed a little. So, the party and soviet leadership of the country considered that in the X five-years period (197b — 1980) the basic purpose of the industry of the eastern regions of RSFSR is in satisfying needs of the western areas of the country for some types of raw materials and semi-finished products. As a result the most part of their products was taken out to other regions and the republics of the USSR and only an insignificant part was used on the place. For example, about 80-85% of products of the plants "Daldiesel", "Energomash", "Amurstal" took out out of borders of the Far East and sent for export as not all products which are turned out by them found consumers within the region. At the same time metal as it was specified earlier, for production of cars was imported. Because of narrowness threw -

lurgichesky base on the West also took out a lot of scrap metal. As a result transport costs for its transportation increased the cost of steel which was made at the Amurstal plant, approximately for 80%. Thus, at first from the West on the East of the country brought metal, and then in the form of ready cars sent it to the West to the most remote regions of the European part of the country. At the same time the Far East industrial complex still needed intensive development of the production serving internal needs of the region and also the industries connected with processing of natural resources to a stage of end products.

Only by the end of the XI five-years period (1985) in the Far East the gradual reorientation of machine-building production which main objective was a satisfaction first of all of the needs for cars and the equipment of local industries began: power engineering specialists, fuel, metallurgical, petrochemical, forestry and wood industry, construction, transport and agriculture. The fact that, for example, in some designs of the equipment during this period specific conditions of its operation in the eastern regions of RSFSR began to be considered demonstrates to it and also special attention was paid to production of machine-building products in northern execution.

Construction of BAM which took place within the program of long-term development of the Far East was one of significant aspects of the second stage (1974-1985). All complex of unique natural resources of the region, the mobilization policy of the state were focused on successful economic development and use of huge low-populated east territory of the country. About it the American professor of the University of Hawaii D. Stefen noted in the monograph "the Russian Far East: history" (1994): "BAM crossed an era of stagnation as the comet which is leaving behind the shining stream of disinterested feats" [38, river 266].

In February, 1975 there was a resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU "About an initiative of groups of workers of rendering the patronage help in construction of facilities of the Baikal-Amur railway line" [37, page 359, 360]. So, the Horsky woodworking plant in Khabarovsk Krai took part in BAM production of superplanned products. At the Ussuriysk woodworking plant in Primorsky Krai the reconstruction of the shop of housing construction and, since 1977 was specially carried out, the plant became the main supplier of prefabricated houses for builders of the railway line [5, l. 111]. During 1974 by various industrial enterprises of the Far East it was shipped for new buildings of BAM of 800 thousand m3 of timber and 75 thousand m3 of a sexual lath in excess of the plan. In the first four months 1975 the builders received from chiefs of 750 excavators, 7 thousand cars and 900 bulldozers [34, page 72]. However at the end of 1974 concerning the patronage help at some enterprises there was a paradoxical situation. The Amur lesoderevoobrabatyvayushchy plant got into difficulties as from 150 predpri-yaty-customers some, being covered with orders for BAM, began to demand from plant construction materials [14, l. 51; 15, l. 18]. About need to make the list with the instruction of all enterprises customers the management appealed to the Khabarovsk regional committee of the CPSU. Nevertheless up to the end of construction of the highway it was not made.

For 1965-1985 the deficiency of human resources was important specific feature of industrial development of the Far East. In many respects successful formation and development of an economic complex of the Far East depended not only on existence of mineralnosyryevy sources or a condition of industrial production. The main problem was that east territories remained sparsely populated that, in turn, generated deficiency working

force which is especially qualified. In spite of the fact that growth rates of the population were higher srednesoyuzny here, they did not correspond to problems of the accelerated settling of the region. The state annually spent huge amounts of money for the actions connected with resettlement and an organizational set of labor.

The provision on need of resettlement and fixing of families for a voluntary order to the Khabarovsk and Seaside regions, the Amur and Chita regions was focused on satisfaction of primary economic needs and also on the solution of demographic and personnel problems of the Far East. It was impossible to carry out fast settling of the Far East territories and development of productive forces only by local community. Resettlement of a large number of people from other regions of the country was required. The central, regional and regional authorities at the same time tried to solve two important problems. First, it was necessary to determine the amount of resettlements, and secondly, to resolve an issue of fixing of able-bodied population in the region. The internal political course of the Soviet government accepted in the second half of the 1960th first of all was directed to granting wide social benefits for immigrants. So, in Resolution No. 638 (1967) the Far East territories obtained the long-term credits for preparation of construction of houses for the newcomer of the population. In turn, the state paid the last a single allowance of 150 rub for the head of the family and 50 rub on each family member and also immigrants obtained the credit for construction of a house with outdoor constructions in the sum

4 thousand rubles from which 50% of the loan were repaid at the expense of the government budget, etc. [36, page 482].

Nevertheless the problem of resettlement and fixing of shots in the Far East was solved extremely difficult. The main reasons consisted in insignificant provided

population st in living space, the high prices of some main food, remoteness from the central regions of the country and considerable transportation costs. The living standards of Far Easterners, the population of Seaside, Khabarovsk regions and the Amur region were much lower, than in the central and western regions of the country. For example, in comparison with the central regions of the country in the south of the Far East bread, grain, bakery and pasta was 10% more expensive, meat - for 12%, sugar - for 15%, milk - for 50%. Transportation costs of locals exceeded expenses of inhabitants of the center by 2.5-2.8 times. Many tariffs for household services were also much higher [6, l. 19]. By calculations of the sector of the standard of living of TsENII at the State Planning Committee of RSFSR, excess of cost of life in the southern areas of the Far East in comparison with the southern regions of western it is frequent RSFSR made 35-50%, in northern areas this gap was even more considerable [27, page 12].

It should be noted that in the 1970th governmental activities on increase in material well-being and cultural level of residents of the Far East were carried out. So, the monetary income of the population in all edges and areas of the region was raised, for workers and employees the regional coefficient 1.20 to the main salary *** was established, the minimum amount of salary is increased, the salary of average paid categories of the workers occupied in construction on repair and construction and the enterprises of the industry of building materials is raised. Retail prices for food products [17, l were reduced. 333, 334;

12, l. 95; 10, l. 68-70]. Increase in living standards of Far Easterners is demonstrated by dynamics of growth of the average salary of workers and employees. For example, in the Sakhalin region it grew with 171 rub in 1960, to 223.4 - in 1970, and in 1980 made 303.7 rub. However in the late seventies of the price of air tickets were a little raised. So, flight cost from Southern

Sakhalinsk to Moscow increased from 130 rub to 150 rub [28, page 12]. Nevertheless in a certain measure it promoted increase in welfare and the real monetary income of the population. However according to SOPSA **** at the State Planning Committee of the USSR in the late seventies the cost of life of the population of the Far East region remained on -

to former is 30-50% higher, than in the central and western regions.

Inflow of the population to the Far East considerably amplified from the beginning of construction of BAM. So, if during the period since 1961 on

1971 the population, for example, of Khabarovsk Krai increased from 1188.0 to
1396.0 one thousand people, Primorsky Krai - from
1432.0 up to 1800.0 thousand people and the Amur region - from 733.0 to 825.0 thousand people, during 1971-1975 the population of the Far East in general increased by 5.5% (while across RSFSR - for 2.9%). For
10 years (from 1970 to 1980) the population of the Far East increased by 17% while countrywide only for 8%. However on a share of the Far East as it was noted earlier, more than 40% of territories whereas the population made only 7.3% were necessary, i.e. the demographic problem remained still current [32, page 19]. High was also turnover of staff in various industries. For example, in the mechanical and wood-processing engineering industry it averaged about 50% of a payroll [20, l. 46]. So, in forestry of the Sakhalin region which part 22 forestries were to the second half of the 1960th there were no constant shots. All work was performed by forces of forest protection or seasonal workers. Constant shots in forestries appeared only in 1965. It were 50 constants of workers. In
1975 their number increased to 804 people [29, page 112].

Thus, on the one hand, mobilization of internal forces contributed to the economic development of east territories of the country, with another - process of the accelerated industrial development of areas Distant

The East it was accompanied by a number of serious problems, one of which was the shortage of labor in an industrial complex of the region. Insufficient security of the Far East with human resources negatively affected rates of development of the national economy. Neediness of industrial new buildings of labor extended terms of input of the enterprises at full capacity, slowed down growth rates of production, reduced cost efficiency of an economic complex of the region. For these reasons the period of development of many enterprises dragged on here for many years. The state sustained the big losses reaching one quarter of the general amount of capital investments on their construction.

Acceleration of rates of settling of areas of the Far East and increase in survival of new settlers, significant improvement of the mode of reproduction demanded creation of higher level of a complex of vital conditions, incentives of big attractive force here. Among them are regional standards of funds of the enterprises and their profits, preferential terms of financing of the national economy, payment of the latest technological means, decrease in the tariff rates for transportation of goods and passengers.

In general, from 1965 to 1985 the Far East passed a difficult and contradictory way. In a nation-wide historical context this period is characterized as stagnation and stagnation, however east territories in the same time endured the period of active industrial and transport construction, activization of the migration processes directed to the East. Inconsistency of economic policy vyra-

pressed close not only that many party and governmental decrees of strategic orientation had declarative character, urging to pay special attention to practical use of natural wealth and complex development of east territories, social problems which needed to be solved in the conditions of specific features of the Far East region were not considered. As a result many economic and political solutions of the end of the 1970th were extremely not coordinated, the number of directive indicators increased, disorganization in an economic complex accrued. The crisis phenomena especially began to amplify in the 1980th when Yu.V. Andropov became the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Party, Soviet and economic organizations of the power staked not on improvement of economic mechanisms, and on increase in planned and labor discipline on production. The managing mechanism gained expensive character more and more, was poorly susceptible to technical progress, transition to scientific technologically type of production did not follow.

In modern conditions the realization of the ideas put in the government federal target program "Development of the Far East and Transbaikalia until 2013." is directed to the solution of many economic problems and elimination of social shortcomings of the region. Guarantee of the advancing formation and complex development of various infrastructures of the Far East is expansion of deep processing of resources on the place and the state subsidizing of modern geostrategic projects.

* Specific weight of explored reserves of tin in Primorsky Krai was 25% to all-union stocks.

** A drill - mineral of a class of borat; it is used for welding and soldering of metals, for production of glass and ceramics.

*** The coefficient 1.20 was established for the Khabarovsk, Seaside regions and the Amur region, except the areas equated to the region of the Far North.

**** SOPS is Council for studying productive forces at the State Planning Committee of the USSR.

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3. GAPK. F. P- 68. Op. 53. D. 215.
4. GAPK. F. P- 68. Op. 53. D. 265.
5. GAPK. F. P- 68. Op. 54. D. 302.
6. GAPK. F. P- 68. Op. 55. D. 232.
7. GAPK. F. P - 435. Op. 13. D. 188.
8. GAPK. F. R - 540. Op. 4. D. 104.
9. GAKhK (Gosudarstvenny arkhiv Khabarovskogo kraya). F. P - 35. Op. 10. D. 30.
10. GAKhK. F. P - 35. Op. 25. D. 290.
11. GAKhK. F. P - 35. Op. 96. D. 42.
12. GAKhK. F. P - 35. Op. 100. D. 60.
13. GAKhK. F. P - 68. Op. 53. D. 215.
14. GAKhK. F. P - 617. Op. 15. D. 34.
15. GAKhK. F. P - 617. Op. 15. D. 63.
16. GAKhK. F. R - 137. Op. 25. D. 227.
17. GAKhK. F. R - 137. Op. 25. D. 290.
18. GAKhK. F. R - 137. Op. 25. D. 296.
19. GAKhK. F. R - 137. Op. 25. D. 264.
20. GAKhK. F. R - 137. OP. 35. D. 247.
21. GAKhK. F. R - 1036. Op. 3. D. 394.
23. GAKhK. F. R - 1036. Op. 3. D. 407.
24. GAKhK. F. R - 1036. Op. 3. D. 430.
25. GAKhK. F. R - 1663. Op. 1. D. 319.
26. Dal&nevostochny federal&ny okrug. 2007: stat. sbornik/Territorial&ny organ Federal&noy sluzhby gosudarstvennoy statistiki po Khabarovskomu krayu. Khabarovsk, 2008. 178 s.

27.

Annice Hope?
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