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Role of a regional and local press in increase in culture of the Mari village in the 60-80th years of the 20th century



v to the Mariyskaya Pravda newspaper the bibliography on defensive subject from summaries of help and bibliographic department of library was systematically published.

Summer of 1942 Management of propaganda and promotion of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee gave the special instruction on distribution of reports of Sovinformburo. The special attention, was told in it, has to be given to reproduction and timely bringing to the population of reports of Sovinformburo [Politprosvetrabota 1942: 26].

This instruction found a living incarnation in work of Republican scientific library. The Spravochnobibliografichesky department of library regularly transferred for printing to the Mariyskaya Pravda newspaper the review of fiction about Patriotic war, novelties on defensive literature with summaries. In the first half of the year 1942 in the newspaper one thematic review of defensive literature was printed [HECTARE of RME F. R-993: 47].

In 1942 from newspaper cuttings 6 albums with materials about the Great Patriotic War, reports of the Soviet information bureau, materials of the 18th party conference, the 8th session of the Supreme Council of the USSR, war in the Balkans, Africa, on the Mediterranean Sea, etc. were issued

In the first half of the year 1942 the methodical office of library carried out work on cultural mass service on recruiting station where except service the literature led readings, discussions, "Fighting leaves" were issued; 41 loud readings were carried out and 4 issues of the wall newspaper are issued [HECTARE of RME F. R-993: 48].

As much as possible to bring closer the newspaper and the book to the population during war, the main focus of work of Republican scientific library was directed to the organization of libraries-peredvizhek. Never earlier the network peredvizhek covered so many organizations, as in wartime. They operated in military units, on propaganda centers, in collective farms and state farms, in hospitals.

The Mari republican scientific library for January 1, 1942 organized 25 libraries-peredvizhek [HECTARE of RME F. R-993: 39], and during 1942 in 22 libraries recursors issued 6,240 books, from them 4,863 books for 16 peredvizhek military units. Besides, to hospital and military units it was given out on

continuous use about 10,000 books collected at the population [HECTARE of RME F. R-993: 11].

Work of libraries-peredvizhek with newspaper materials which were the main means of explanation of a political situation was especially volume. The bright essays, articles, stories, feuilletons published in newspapers gave the chance to be aware of all major events of military everyday life. They made the enormous mobilizing impact, specified ways of active participation in defense of the country. Telling about events at the front, about heroic feats of the Soviet soldiers, the staff of Republican scientific library skillfully connected them with back life. They intelligibly and convincingly brought home of women, pensioners, teenagers that the victory is forged in the back at the front.

The methodical office of library in the years of war made out a board with newspaper cuttings "Workers Mari the ASSR in Days of Patriotic War" and a board of Sovinformburo [HECTARE of RME F. R-407: 67].

The message board served as the visual aid for acquaintance of visitors of library with the current events on fronts of Patriotic war. In the center of this board the schematic card with the indication of the front line was placed, reports of Sovinformburo were daily updated, sometimes short recommendatory lists about modern events were located here. The fresh new magazines and newspapers received by library, information on what new performances and movies were shown what were given lectures what new books were received that the reader can receive in library and in various departments were located on the same board. This board enjoyed wide popularity among visitors of library.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. The state archive of the Republic of Mari El (further - HECTARE of RME). F. P-1. Op. 5. 420.
2. HECTARE of RME. F. R-993. Op. 1. 22.
3. HECTARE of RME. F. R-993. Op. 1. 23.
4. HECTARE of RME. F. R-407. Op. 1. 171.
5. HECTARE of RME. F. R-407. Op. 1. 182.
6. Politprosvetrabota. 1942. No. 11-12.
7. Companion of the propagandist. 1942. No. 1.

The ROLE of the REGIONAL AND LOCAL PRESS IN INCREASE in CULTURE of the MARI VILLAGE In the 60-80th YEARS of the 20th CENTURY

V.I. Fishing Mari state university

In process of growth of general education cultural technological level of country people its interest and in such printed word what periodicals were increased. It first of all was shown in a fast uveliche-

scientific research institute of a newspaper and magazine subscription. In 1967 in the Mari republic 12 regional newspapers were issued, their single circulation exceeded 50 thousand copies - it was much more, than in 1966 [1].

HISTORICAL SCIENCES ►►►►►

In 1967 a republican competition and the first round of the All-Russian competition on the best execution and printing execution of regional newspapers was held. Journalists and printers of the republic in this regard did a great job on improvement of activity of editorial offices and printing houses and achieved noticeable results in improvement of quality of newspapers, in production improvement, introduction of more modern equipment.

For more active involvement of working and rural correspondents in editions raionwide photo contests and competitions on the best stories were held.

Widely work exchange of experience practiced. Mutual checks were carried out, reviews of quality of registration and printing execution of newspapers were prepared. Exchange of delegations, the seminars and workshops organized by management on the press at Council of ministers of MACCP also stirred up activity of editorial offices and printing houses.

the jury of a competition unanimously decided to declare as the winner the Volzhskaya Pravda newspaper. To the winner newspaper the first cash bonus and the diploma of the first degree were awarded.

"The Volga truth" improved on maintenance, registration and printing execution. Preparation of printing forms and the press became with observance of the established rules and requirements of technological instructions here. The newspaper was originally imposed, widely and skillfully used illustrative and design materials. The quality of the press was high. Terms of preparation of the newspaper and its exit were caused by the operation schedule which was maintained by the editorial office and printing house accurately. And it is not accidental therefore every year the number of readers of "The Volga truth" increased. In 1967 its circulation reached ten thousand copies.

The second awards in the sum of 100 rubles and diplomas of the second degree were awarded under the terms of a competition to the novotorjyalsky regional newspaper "Selskaya Nov" and the zvenigovsky regional newspaper "Peredovik".

"Rural nov" and "Leader" on registration, imposition and the press favourably were original from other newspapers, quality and accurate observance of the schedule of an exit. These newspapers were well illustrated with local photographic materials.

Incentive diplomas for high quality of registration and printing execution were awarded by

to the newspapers "Put K Kommunizmu" of Medvedev's area, Orshansky district and "Banner" of Mari-Tureksky district "Forward".

The result of joint purposeful work of journalists and employees of the printing enterprises showed that in the republic there are all opportunities to improve quality of regional newspapers [2].

In 1974 the single circulation of local newspapers in comparison with 1965 increased almost twice, magazines - more than by 3 times, and the circulation of the books published in the republic was 1325200 copies [4: 95].

Without activists of the press there could not be really no publication. From depths of life the voluntary correspondents bore its breath, sense and its new strokes on pages of newspapers.

Savoir vivre and ability to bring to the reader the essence of production, spiritual, social and psychological features and communications in collectives allowed rural correspondents to influence quickly a personal labor example and the printed word the course of implementation of plans and socialist obligations, results of a socialist competition. Many activists of the press had these qualities. In staff of state farm "Lenin's Way" of Morkinsky district a lot of work was carried out by the political informant A.S. Sergeyev. He managed Kozhlayersky rural library in which conversations, meetings, debates were arranged, helped other political informants to pick up the necessary literature more deeply to study a performance subject, imparted experience political mass work in collective. It was often seen on fields and farms, he always was among people. It helped it at issue of the state-farm wall newspaper, "alarms" or "lightnings", by preparation of correspondence for performances with the regional or republican press. It was an active selkor of the Mary Commune newspaper.

More than hundred twenty activists were at the ring-govsky regional newspaper "Peredovik". Quite often on its pages there were notes, sharp signals, reports by P.N. Nikolaev who headed a selkorovsky post in collective farm of Ulyanov.

A bigger non-staff correspondent case was at the gornomariysky regional newspaper "Leninsky Put". By means of selkor this publication successfully held many organizatsionnotvorchesky events - mutual testings of the competing collectives, raids, musters of selkorovsky posts. The release of pages of activists of the press with obligatory individual author's correspondence practiced here. Selkora brought live, fresh thoughts on meetings of club of business meetings which materials were published in the newspaper.

The correspondence school of selkor worked in the Volga district. Here so-called big short meetings entered practice. On them readers acted as observers of newspaper publications in a quarter. Annually the editorial office of the regional newspaper held competitions on the best rabselkorovsky materials in various genres.

Selkora were witnesses of processes of social and economic development, intensity of methods of managing. Every year education and culture in the village was higher and higher. In this regard the role of rural correspondents immeasurably increased in distribution of all new, advanced.

The chief agronomist of collective farm "For communism"

And. A. Krylov and the chief economist of collective farm "Lenin's Way" S.A. Trofimova in the farms headed selkorovsky posts. They actively participated in work of non-staff department of economy rural

farms at the regional newspaper "Volzhskaya Pravda". Quite often brought up in the press problematic issues of development of agricultural production, increase in its cost efficiency [3].

In 1986 the residents of the Mari village received 369.7 thousand copies of periodicals, including 174.5 thousand newspapers and 195.2 thousand copies of magazines - on average in four editions on each family [4: 95].

Thus, regional periodicals, promoting the true values of culture, razvi-

a shaft spiritual needs of masses, brought high culture to the Mari village.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. Mari truth. 1967. March 30.
2. Mari truth. 1967. November 24.
3. Mari truth. 1975. March 14.
4. Social and economic development of the Mari village. Yoshkar-Ola, 1988.

UDC 946.0

EARLY ENEOLIT of the PENZA REGION

V. V. STAVITSKY

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of ancient history, Middle Ages and archeology

The first monuments of the early eneolit for territories of the Penza region are connected with the Mariupol and hvalynsky cultures which population appears here at the beginning of IVtys. BC also enters interaction among themselves and also local neolytic tribes. Further development of steppe districts of our region is connected with tribes of altatinsky archaeological culture which entered as one of components the culture of drevneyamny tribes subsequently.

By the law of unevenness of historical development of various geographical territories to an early eneolit of a steppe zone chronologically there correspond monuments of the developed and late Neolithic of a forest strip. Thus, ranneeneolitichesky antiquities of Sursko-Mokshansky Entre Rios have no local roots and their origin is connected with migrations of representatives of the southern cultures. At the beginning of the IV millennium BC the new population which was already familiar with metal gets into the southern borders of the Penza region from steppe territories of Volga-Don Entre Rios. It were the tribes entering into the Mariupol cultural and historical community called so on excavation of the burial ground at Mariupol in the territory of modern Ukraine. Burials in this burial ground were made in trenches where frames lay shoulder to shoulder, on a back with the extended legs. In process of appearance of the new dead they were buried in the same trench, thus, prolonging it. In graves the jewelry which is cut out from canines of boars and some stone tools meets. Pottery in a grave was not put, and left it on special sacrificial platforms [7]. Interesting feature of this ware is peculiar "vorotnichkovy" stuck on outer side of a nimbus. Possibly, similar "collar" served for strengthening of a throat of a vessel which was its most vulnerable part. And emergence of "collars" was preceded by similar nalepa, but perfect from the inside of a vessel. However they narrowed a throat and complicated access to contents. Besides "vorotnichkovy" stuck outside it was possible to use also for suspension. Vessels with "vorotnichkovy" thickenings in the territory of the Penza region were for the first time found on the Penza parking, then were rasko-

sirs of the settlement with similar ceramics at the village of Sofyino in Serdobsky district and at the village of Vedenyapino in Gorodishchensky district [6, page 84-87].

Carriers of "vorotnichkovy" traditions of production of ceramics came to the territory of our region from the South where in the Neolithic era and even at the beginning of the eneolit the mesolytic technology of production of tools on nozhevidny plates, but not on otshchepa continued to dominate, as in a forest zone. On the earliest monuments to the Mariupol community compound tools with edges from narrow nozhevidny plates - microlitas are rather widely presented. Also the majority of other tools had the small sizes. The similar microlytic complex of tools is found at excavation in the village of Vedenyapino. Among nozhevidny plates narrow copies with a width of 0.7-1.0 cm which were used as inserts prevail. A representative series is formed by the trailer scrapers executed on the section of plates, longitudinal chips or small otshchepa. On average plates and longitudinal chips 15 scrapers are executed. The majority of tips of arrows differs in extremely small sizes. Their form: ivolistny, triangular, with dredging at the basis, listovidny, listovidno-petiolar. Quartzitic tips of darts have listovidny and oval with the pointed end of an outline. Knives and edges are made on longitudinal chips and plates of the average and large sizes (fig. 1, 14-71).

Vessels from the settlement of Vedenyapino have poorly closed throat, or the nimbus which is smoothly unbent outside. Two vessels on outer side of nimbuses have vorotnichkovy thickenings, for one - a fillet from the inside. Among the bottoms one flat, other plano-concave. At figuration ispolzo-

Emily Megan
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