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Book collection of the High female courses of N.P. Rayev in a main library of the Gertsenovsky university

g. V. Galasyeva,

chief librarian of a main library


The collection of editions XVIII allocated from fixed assets — the beginning of the 20th century from library of the former private Historico-literary and legal courses of N.P. Rayev is stored in department of the rare book of a main library the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia. The high female courses ("The free women's university") of N.P. Rayev were founded in 1905 and existed till 1917 [1]. In 1918 a part biblio-

flow N.P. Rayev's courses was a part of future main library. In particular, wrote A.I. Gradusov about it, heading library of the Leningrad state Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen [2] many years.

Nikolay Pavlovich Rayev (1856-1919) is a son of the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg and Ladoga of Palladium [3], the valid councilor of state, in 1912 is approved in

hereditary nobility. After the termination of a gymnasium studied in Lazarevskoye institute of east languages which finished in 1878. Almost all life of N.P. Rayev was devoted to activity on a field of national education. At the beginning of the career he served as the inspector and the director of national schools, in 1894 fulfilled duties of the official of special instructions at the minister of national education. In 1895 N.P. Rayev was confirmed to the post of the director of the St. Petersburg high female courses and worked on this post till October, 1905, until appointment of national education as the member of council of the minister.

In 1905 N.P. Rayev became the initiator of opening in St. Petersburg of new private High female courses (since 1906 — the St. Petersburg free women's university). He fulfilled duties of the director of courses till August 30, 1916, that is until its appointment as the chief prosecutor of the Holy Ruling Synod

[4]. N.P. Rayev's activity on this post was nondurable (till March 3, 1917), but this period was reflected in memoirs of the prince N.D. Zhevakhov who was appointed the chief prosecutor's companion

[5]. Data on Nikolay Pavlovich Rayev's life are not enough, from N.D. Zhevakhov's memoirs we learn about the identity of this wonderful person: "It was the ordinary, modest person not only who was not hiding the origin as do many, left the spiritual environment, and on the contrary, kept respectful devotion to the estate and anxious with its fate. There was in it no desire to be drawn and make an impression, any unnatural movement and insincere gesture" was not (Page 130). "N.P. Rayev was a personality uncommon. The pious, educated, loving throne and the fatherland..." (Page 259).

For service to the fatherland Nikolay Pavlovich Rayev was awarded with Stanislav I's awards and the II degrees, Anna I and the II degree, Vladimir II and the III degree. Its destiny on -

to the sla of February, 1917 it is tragic: some time it disappeared, was interrogated by Cheka; in Civil war got over on the South of Russia. Lived in the Caucasus at the former metropolitan Pitirim [6], very much needed, sang on a choir; died it is unknown in 1919 (the place of death — whether Armavir, whether Stavropol). But his name remained in the history of Russian education including thanks to the historico-literary and legal courses founded by it.

Invaluable experience work as the director of the Bestuzhevsky courses created in 1878 thanks to vigorous and gratuitous activity of the progressive Russian public, university professors and also the advanced women of that time gave N.P. Rayeva (first of all — M.V. Trubnikova, A.P. Filosofova, N.V. Stasova, V.P. Tarnovska). This experience allowed him to become the founder of new educational institution later. The high female courses which were called Bestuzhevskimi by the name of their founder and the first director, professor of the Russian history of the St. Petersburg university K.N. Bestuzhev-Ryumina (1829-1897) were a rare phenomenon among all educational institutions existing in Russia at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century: it was the only highest women's educational institution with university programs and professors. Here such famous figures of the Russian science as D.I. Mendeleyev, A.N. Beketov, M.M. Kowalewski, D.D. Grimm, A.I. Vvedensky taught,

And. A. Kotlyarevsky, M.Ya. Pergament, etc. The prestige of this non-state higher educational institution which existed from 1878 to 1918 was high, and attractive force it consisted, first, in the highest level of teaching, and secondly, in conscious aspiration of the Russian woman to education.

The serious break in development of the non-state sector of the higher education in Russia happened at the beginning of the 20th century. The developed socio-political and economic situation in the country objectively

led to the fact that in December, 1905 Nicholas II according to the report of the minister I.I. Tolstoy allowed to open private higher educational institutions in Russia. Creation of a legal basis led to rapid growth of the free higher school. If in 1905 in Russia there were only 14 non-state higher educational institutions, then from 1905 for 1913 their number was replenished with 62 more educational institutions [7]. Participated in development of projects of the organization of non-governmental higher education institutions both the famous scientists, and just citizens are the patrons interested in development of national education. So, in 1907 the great Russian psychiatrist V.M. Bekhterev founded Psychoneurological institute at which, except the creator, such famous scientists as E.V. De Roberti, M.M. Kowalewski, A.F. La-zursky, D.N. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky, P.F. Lesgaft, E.V. Tarle, I.A. Baudouin de Courtene taught, here in 1915 there began teaching activity future world famous sociologist P.A. Sorokin [8]. In 1908 at the initiative of the liberal intellectuals of Moscow at the expense of the major general in resignation A.L. Shanyavsky the Moscow city public university of Shanyavsky at which P.P. Lazarev, P.N. Lebedev, V.I. Vernadsky, K.A. Timiryazev, G.G. Shpet, etc. taught was founded. Projects of these universities were supported by P.A. Stolypin [9]. Non-state higher educational institutions were free from excessive academism, from narrow orientation on training of bureaucracy, in them there was a subject system of training guaranteeing personal freedom of the student and teacher. Besides, they were more available, in questions of reception of listeners the big democratism took place. On rates of development the "free" higher school at the beginning of the 20th century overtook state. In the course of the activity it considerably strengthened pedagogical, legal, medical, economic education.

Nikolay Pavlovich Rayev in 1905 founded Historico-literary and legal courses and was elected them by the director. According to "Rules about S. - the St. Petersburg High female courses opened by the valid councilor of state N.P. Rayev", courses consisted of two faculties: historico-literary and

legal; on the first the following objects were read: divinity, psychology, logic, pedagogics, philosophy, the Russian literature, general literature, the Russian history, general history, art history, on the second — all types of the right (from church to international), political economy, statistics, Latin [10]. The thoroughness of training of listeners was conventional. In 1912 the commission formed at Scientific committee of the ministry of national education carried to the category university a number of private high female courses among which there were also N.P. Rayev's courses. It meant that graduates of courses could pass the state examinations in the imperial universities and gain the full diploma. The quality of education was provided with the highest level of teaching personnel.

N.P. Rayev personally cared for involvement of the best Russian professors to teaching on courses. The certificate to they are its addresses to trustees of the St. Petersburg educational district which remained in archive. So, in the letter of August 8, 1906 N.P. Rayev asks about the approval by professors of courses of the philosopher and psychologist Alexander Ivanovich Vvedensky (1856-1925), jurists Lev Iosifovich Petrazhitsky (1867-1931) and Mikhail Andreevich Reysner (1868-1928), historians Sergey Vasilyevich Rozhdestvensky (1868-1934) and Pavel Pavlovich Mitrofanov (1873-1917), the classic philologist Faddei Frantsevich Zelinsky (18561925), historians of literature Nestor Aleksandrovich Kotlyarevsky (18631925) and Fedor Aleksandrovich Brown (1862-1942) [11]. On July 1, 1911 N.P. Rayev

asks to approve as the teacher of philological faculty of the undergraduate Lev Vladimirovich Shcherbu (1880-1944), in the future the famous linguist who made a big contribution to development of phonology, a lexicography and psycholinguistics. L.V. Shcher-ba gave lectures on the Russian, Old Church Slavonic, Greek and Latin languages, on phonetics, comparative grammar and general linguistics. On March 11, 1914 N.P. Rayev petitions for attraction to teaching the privatdozent of the St. Petersburg university, in the future the outstanding representative of the Russian religious philosophy Nikolay Onufriyevich Lossky (1870-1965), and on September 9 the same year invites to read history of philosophy of Semyon Lyudvigovich Frank (18771950) [12].

At law department, except called above L.I. Petrazhitsky and M.A. Reysner, also other famous jurists taught. So, lectures on commercial law were given by the doctor of civil law, the author of the concept of the employment contract Lev Semyonovich Tal (1867-1933). History of the Russian right was taught by professor Dmitry Mikhaylovich Odinets (1883-1950) and professor Nikolay Pavlovich Pavlov-Silvansky (1869-1908). In a collection of courses of N.P. Rayev there are several copies of books from a private library of N.P. Pavlov-Silvansky, in particular, one with a dedicatory inscription to the owner from the author: V.N. Peretts. "Historico-literary researches and materials". (SPb., 1900). It should be noted that Vladimir Nikolaevich Peretts (1870-1935), the ordinary academician of Imperial academy of Sciences, was invited in November, 1916 to teaching on N.P. Rayev's courses.

Initially the higher female education in Russia, the relation to which was very ambiguous, was forced to lean on a private initiative. That care of increase in level of culture and education of the nation in general was more significant than university professors (K.N. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, D.I. Mendeleyev, A.N. Beck -

t, A.M. Butlerov, V.M. Bekhterev,

And. N Strannolyubsky), patrons — representatives of the educated liberal intellectuals (N.P. Rayev, A.L. Shanyavsky), representatives of grand-ducal dynasties (at the initiative of the grand duke Konstantin Konstantinovich it was founded in 1903. Imperial women's Pedagogical Institute).

About aspiration of the Russian women to education, says about appeal of the High female courses, in particular, the fact that by 1910 such courses existed in all university cities and the large cultural centers of Russia — from St. Petersburg, Warsaw and Yuryev to Novocherkassk, Tomsk and Tiflis. Graduates of courses proved in various fields of activity: to pedagogics, to psychology,

commerce, library science, art. Anna Andreevna Akhmatova (1889-1966) was the best-known listener of the High female courses of N.P. Rayev. About it she wrote in the memoirs: "Having moved to St. Petersburg [from Kiev, in 1910 —], I studied on the High historico-literary courses of Rayev. At this time I already wrote the verses which entered my first book" [13]. One more of the names connected with N.P. Rayev's courses — a name of the literary critic of the beginning of the 20th century Taisiya Yakovlevny Ganzhulevich (1880-1936). In a collection from library of courses there is a copy of a research of T.Ya. Ganzhulevich "Dostoyevsky and Herzen in the history of the Russian consciousness" (SPb., 1907). This book is valuable the fact that on it there is dedicatory inscription H. P. Ry-vu: To "Nikolay Pavlovich Glubokouvazhayemy from the former listener and author".

The library of Historico-literary and legal courses of N.P. Rayev was formed, obviously, throughout all their history — of donations of publishers and book sellers, donations of professors and individuals supporting the idea of female education and also by acquisition of books through Society for bringing of means to the High female courses [14]. A collection of books from this library,

stored in department of the rare book, contains 211 units. It editions in Russian and foreign languages: French and German. Chronological framework of a collection: XVIII \beginning of the 20th century

Books have quite good safety — they are bound and partially restored. On each edition there are ex-librises and stamps speaking about belonging to this educational institution. First, it should be noted superex-librises is the abbreviations on backs of books executed by gilded stamping, they two types: "V.Zh.K. N.R." and "N.P.R.". Secondly, it is the labels and stamps located on the upper edge of the fly-leaf or title page: 1) the font lithographed label from paper of a grayish-bluish shade with full name of educational institution: "Historical library literaturn. and Legal High Female Courses of N.P. Rayev", below — designations: "Case, shelf, No., inventory, year"; 2) stamps blue ink — or in a rectangular frame, or without fringing: "Libraries Historico-literary and Legal V.Zh. Kursov of N.P. Rayev". These signs, as a rule, are present at the book together.

Thematically books of this meeting answer orientation of courses - it is editions on the history of Russia and other countries, philosophy and psychology, philology and law, on cultural history. Let's note the most interesting and indicative copies of a collection. Here the examples of books of the 18th century on the Russian history characterizing by the value the level of library of courses.

Feofan Prokopovich. "Truth of will monarchical. In definition of the successor of the power: Charter blazhennyya and eternal dostoynyya memories derzhavneyshago sovereign our Pyotr Velikago." (M., 1726. Book of the Cyrillic press, 50 l.). Feofan Prokopovich is an outstanding figure of "Scientific team of Peter I", the influential theologian and the philosopher, the author of the well-known treatises "Spiritual Regulations", "A word about the power and ches-

ti royal", "A reasoning on godlessness" and others. In "The truth of will monarchical" it characterizes will of the monarch as the only legal source of the law. And though F. Prokopovich's ideas had no real consequences because the decree of the sovereign on a succession to the throne had concrete force, "The truth of will monarchical" is the important document of a Petrovsky era and the most interesting literary monument.

"The chronicler containing the Russian history from 6714/1206 summers to 7042/1534 summers, that is, before reign of the tsar Ioann Vasilyevich who serves as continuation to Nestorov to the chronicler" ([M], 1784). This valuable edition is the first publication of the chronicle according to the list of Typographical library No. 48 [15].

"Regulations blagochestiveyshago sovereign Pyotr Velikago. about management of the Admiralty and Shipyard and about positions of Board Admiralty..." ([SPb.], 1795). The first edition "Regulations." appeared in 1722, subsequently the document was repeatedly republished; the main provisions of the administrative sea legislation were enshrined in it.

The rare and valuable edition of the beginning of the 18th century in French — Konvolyut.

1) [Swedish jokes or stories secret

the affairs happening in the kingdom in Karl XI's reign] (Stockholm, 1716);

2) [The notes of the state item of Robinson reflecting current situation in Sweden] (London, 1718). On a format, the drawing of a font and the nature of a cover this book belongs to so-called "elzevira". Confirmation of it is the publishing Elzevirov brand on the title page — the image of the globe. On the front fly-leaf of the book the stamp ex-libris of Library of the General Staff as the certificate of "life story" of the book remained.

From editions XIX — the beginnings of the 20th century on the Russian history can be distinguished the following: A.L. Shletser. "Nestor: Ruskiya of the chronicle in drevle-slavensky language / Slichen-nyya, perevedennyya and objyasnennyya Augustus Shletser. Part I. — Dm Lane. Yazykov"

(SPb., 1809) [16]; N.V. Kalachov. "Archive of the historical and legal data relating to Russia" (M., 1855) [17]; N.P. Semyonov. "Release of peasants in reign of the emperor Alexander II: Chronicle of activity of the commissions on country business: In 2 t." (SPb., 1891) [18]. From the books devoted to the history of other countries we will note the following which left at the beginning of the 20th century:

V. Bedzhgot. "Political system of England" (M., 1905) [19]; I. Teng. "Origin of modern France: In 5 t." (SPb., 1907) [20]. It is necessary to call the remarkable book of culturological orientation created by the German scientists: "The Hellenic culture / In statement of Fr. Baumgarten, Fr. Poland, Richard Wagner. — M. And. Berg Lane, under the editorship of the prof. F.F. Zelinsky" (SPb., 1906). This monumental work on ancient art came out in Germany in 1905 and at once was transferred to Russian.

In the historico-literary and legal direction of the High female courses of N.P. Rayev, certainly, books on philosophy and psychology were necessary. In a collection of courses we will select as an example the following editions on these sciences: F.A. Lange. "History of materialism and the critic of its value in the present / Under the editorship of the Vl. Solovyeva" (Kiev; Kharkiv, 1900) [21]; G. Gefding. "Essays of the psychology founded on the experience / Lane with it." (SPb., 1908)

[22]. In this row it should be noted such remarkable editions as the lithographed lectures. They were widespread in higher educational institutions of Russia of the end XIX — the beginnings of the 20th century, in particular on the High female courses, because of a lack of textbooks and also owing to big demand of lectures of the famous scientists giving the courses. In collection H. P. Ry-va there are two copies of the lithographed abstracts of lectures on logic of professor A.I. Vvedensky: 1) "Lectures on the Logician / Prof. A.I. Vvedensky; chitanny on the High Female Courses. — St.-Petersburg 1897-98"; 2) Konvolt. "Lectures on the Logician / Prof. A.I. Vvedensky. Vys-

shy Female Courses. 1899-1900 [In 2 h] there are Lectures on psychology. Part II. 1900-1901"

[23]. By rules of reproduction of the lithographed lectures they had to be signed by either the author of abstracts, or the director of educational institution. In the first copy each printed page has the signature black ink: "Director Rayev" or Rayev. At the second copy of lectures except N.P. Rayev's signature there is a personal signature of professor A.I. Vvedensky.

The copy of the lithographed lectures belonging to N.P. Rayev is even more remarkable: "History of ancient Russian literature / Lecture professional. I.A. Hats-on. — The high Female Courses. — 19031904. — SPb." [24]. At it there is also a personal signature: "The director of the courses Rayev", but also — on the left edge of pages is available a font inscription: "Directors S. - the St. Petersburg High Female Courses". These copies of the lithographed lectures were, obviously, in a private library of N.P. Rayev during his activity on a post of the director of Bestuzhevsky courses, then they were transferred by the owner to library of the courses based by it.

From books of the philological direction of a collection it should be noted, except I.A. Shlyapkin's lectures, a research of other famous Russian scientists: F.I. Buslayev. "Historical essays of the Russian national literature" (SPb., 1861); "Monuments of ancient Russian literature, / Published gr. Grigory Kushelevym-Bezborod-co" (SPb., 1862); A.N. Veselovsky. "Southern Russian bylinas" (SPb., 1884); V.A. Bogoroditsky. "Essays on linguistics and Russian" (Kazan, 1910). Here it is necessary to call the 1st edition of the istorikokhudozhestvenny narration "Travel across the Holy Land in 1835." (SPb., 1838). The author of this rare book Abraham Sergeyevich the Habit (1795-1869) — the statesman, the writer and the traveler, the polyglot and the translator, the passionate bibliophile. "A travel across the Holy Land

in 1835", carried on traditions of the previous Russian literature, is a research of the scientist-pilgrim, it was estimated by contemporaries as "the best description of the Holy Land existing in the Russian literature". The scientific description of monuments of the Holy Land is presented in the book by the most prominent Russian historian of the Byzantine and Old Russian art, the archeologist Nicodemus Pavlovich Kondakov (1844-1925) "An archaeological travel across Syria and Palestine" (SPb., 1904). The edition in good safety, with a superex-libris on a back.

Among so-called didactic works ("Spiritual Vladimir Mo-nomakha", Sylvester's "Domestic tyranny", "The fatherlike will" of Pososhkov) there is the following book from N.P. Rayev's collection:

V. N. Tatishchev. "Spiritual to my son" (SPb., 1896). "Spiritual" was published in the "Russian Great Library Published under Redaktsiyeyu A.N. Chudinova" series [25]. The book generalizing experience of difficult life of "the father of the Russian history" was elected by the publisher as one of samples of the Russian classics; on a book frontispiece Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev's portrait.

From books on law we will allocate only the most valuable in a collection: Bekkariya. "The reasoning on crimes and punishments / Is translated from Italian into French by Andrey Morellet, and from it on Russian Dmitry Yazykov" (SPb., 1803) [26]; "The code, on which court and punishment... it is made, composed and printed at Alexey Mikhaylovich. — The tenth stamping" (SPb., 1820) [27]; "The most ancient Russian right in its historical disclosure / Composition of I.F. G. Evers. — Ivan Platonov" translated from German (SPb., 1835) [28].

Books in foreign languages (French and German) take an important place in a collection of the High female courses of N.P. Rayev. It researches on the history of Russia, France, the Ancient world, work on psychology (first of all — the German school), books about classical and sovremen-

ache to the world literature. They were published in Paris, London, Heidelberg, Leipzig. Let's call some the most valuable books: René Descartes. "A reasoning on a method truly to direct the mind and to find the truth in sciences" (Paris,

1838); Albert Vandal. "Napoleon and Alexander I. The Franco-Russian union during the First empire: In 3 t." (Paris, 18911893); Richard Meyer. Goethe (Berlin, 1905).

Obviously, N.P. Rayev's identity and his long-term successful activities for development of the highest (including women's) formations caused the deserved respect of contemporaries. Dedicatory inscriptions on the books presented to it demonstrate to it. Here some examples from a collection of courses. First, it is the translation of the famous book of F. Keyr "Imagination and memory" (SPb., 1896). On the title page a dedicatory inscription: To "Dear Nikolay Pavlovich Rayev from the translator". Ekaterina Ivanovna Maximova (1857-1905) — the first woman in Russia who acquired the right of a message of class in philosophy in a higher educational institution, the talented translator translated the book. The book by L.I. Petrazhitsky "The university and science is of interest: Experience of the theory and technology of university business and scientific self-education" (SPb., 1907). The dedicatory inscription on it says: To "Nikolay Pavlovich Glubokouvazhayemy Rayev from the author". The research is devoted to the most important problems of the higher education: to "basic provisions of university didactics" and "general beginnings of the highest autodidacticism (technology of scientific self-education)" [29]. Emergence of the similar book was essentially important to start the XX century — the period of growth of the Russian higher school, search of ways of optimum university training. In a collection there is also gift copy to N.P. Rayev from the known Moscow publishing house "Association of a skoropechatna A.A. Levenson — "A historical essay and the description of workshops" (M., 1903). The book is devoted to the history of emergence and activity of printing house,

specifics of lithographic business. It pre- This first bibliotekovedchesky grant

the issued edition in leather in Russian is red. His author — known

a cover, with gilded stamping, about color- the librarian of the Bestuzhevsky courses Ekate-

the ny fly-leaves executed in style Reena Vyacheslavovna Balobanova (1847-1927),

modernist style; the book is decorated chromolithography- the historian of literature, the translator, the theorist

mi from V. Surikov's pictures, V. Vasnetsov, and the practician of library science.

I. Shishkin's

>, I. Fedotova, fototipiya. Short characteristic of books from kollek-

On a single sheet is available donative tion Historico-literary and yuridiche-

the inscription saying that the copy sky courses of N.P. Rayev testifies about

is nominal: "G. Its Prevoskhoditel- that the high level of teaching on

to a stvo to Nikolay Pavlovich Rayev. No. 145". courses it was provided, in particular, kachest-

About N.P. Rayev library, obviously, zabo- wine library stock, sovmeshcha-

it titsya especially, understanding its the major yushchy in itself rare historical editions

a role in educational and scientific activity and the latest works domestic and zaru-

courses. This care — characteristic feature bezhny scientists of the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century

activity of founders, organizers and Studying structure of a book collection spo-

teachers of the High female courses. sobstvut to formation of representations about

Among listeners also were entuzia- development of the higher education, including

sta — collectors of library and it serve- women's, in Russia the beginnings of the XX century.

telnitsa. In a collection of courses of N.P. Rayev Ex-librises and dedicatory inscriptions on

small, but very valuable book books is stored allow to judge possible pu-

"Library science" (SPb., 1901. the 1st prod.). tyakh formations of a collection.

1. In a note of Department of national education by the category of educational institutions and higher educational institutions we read: "On the basis of the highest command on December 3rd, 1905 it is allowed to the valid councilor of state N.P. Rayev to open in St.-Petersburg private high female courses, with assignment of the name "Historico-literary and Legal Female Courses" by it. — CGIA SPb., t. 139, op. 1, No. 10526, l. 1.
2. A.I. Gradusova. Main library of the Leningrad state Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen//Libraries of Leningrad: Reference book. L.,
1948. Page 113. (A.I. Gradusova headed LGPI library from 1943 to 1972) See also library reference books: S.M. Babintsev. Libraries of Leningrad. M, 1964. Page 73; E.Z. Levinson. Libraries of higher educational institutions of the USSR. M, 1964. Page 365. In them it is noted that the basis of LGPI library of A.I. Herzen was made, in particular, by library of the High female courses of N.P. Rayev.
3. Preosvyashchenny Pallady (in the world — Pavel Ivanovich Rayev, 1827-1898), the graduate of the Kazan spiritual academy, the teacher of seminary and the priest, in 1861, after the death of the beloved spouse, accepted tonsured and followed a way of inochesky, and then and svyatitelsky service. In different years he was a bishop Ladoga and Vologda, Tambov and Ryazan, the archbishop Kazan and Sviyaga, the exarch of Georgia. In 1892 it is built in a rank of the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg and Ladoga and archimandrite of Holy Trinity Alexander Nevsky Lavra. In 1896 for active highly moral service it was granted by the Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called. In a collection of courses of N.P. Rayev there is a gift copy of the book of the pupil preosvyashchenny Palladiya M.S. Palmova "Idolatry at ancient Jews" (SPb., 1897), on a front cover gilded stamping a dedicatory inscription: "To His Most Reverend Eminence to Pallady to the metropolitan S. - St. Petersburg".
4. The chief prosecutor of the Ruling Synod — the secular official appointed the Russian emperor and who was his representative in the Holy Synod. After new appointment of N.P. Rayev according to the offer of the Ministry of national education "it was authorized to allow to temporary performance of duties of the managing director of the Petrograd high female historico-literary and legal courses

Sofia Georgiyevna Rayev", "served more than 10 years, since August 26, 1906, as the assistant to the director". — See: CGIA SPb., t. 139, op. 1, No. 10526, nn. 249, 250.

5. Memoirs of companion chief prosecutor Sv. Synod of the prince N.D. Zhevakhov. T. I: September-March, 1917. T. II: March, 1917 — January, 1920. M, 1993.
6. Pitirim (in the world — Pavel Vasilyevich Oknov, 1858-1920) — since November 23, 1915 is built in a rank of the metropolitan Petrograd and Ladoga, on March 2, 1917 is arrested by Provisional government, on March 6, 1917 is fired by the resolution of the Holy Synod on rest with stay in borders of the Vladikavkaz diocese.
7. See about it: The higher education in Russia: History essay till 1917 / Under the editorship of the prof. V.G. Kinelev. M, 1995. Page 138.
8. See: P.A. Sorokin. Long way: Autobiographical novel / Transl. from English Syktyvkar, 1991. Page 56.
9. See: P.A. Stolypin. Program of reforms: Documents and materials: In 2 t. T. 2. M, 2003.
10. Rules about S. - the St. Petersburg high female courses opened by of village of the village N.P. Rayev//CGIA SPb. t. 139, op. 1, No. 10526, nn. 4 (& #43; about.), 12.
11. See: CGIA SPb., t. 139, op. 1, No. 10526, l. 5 (on August 11 the list was approved).
12. See: CGIA SPb., t. 139, op. 1, No. 10526, nn. 98, 203, 211.
13. See: Amanda Haythe. Anna Akhmatova: Poetic wandering. Diaries, memoirs, A. Akhmatova's letters. M, 1991. — Transl. from English
14. The high female courses, being private educational institutions, were practically not financed by the state and existed thanks to activity of Society for bringing of means to courses. The members of this society understanding that female education — a component of national education, there were founders of courses, teachers, patrons and other voluntary donors. Other ways of financing of courses, except donations — membership fees of Society, collecting from public lectures of professors, book trade, lotteries, etc.
15. See about it: Summary catalog of the Russian book of the civil press of the 18th century: 1725 — 1800. M, 1964. T. II. Page 153.
16. "Nestor." — the main multivolume work of the German historian Augustus Ludwig Shletser working in the Russian Imperial academy of Sciences in 1761-1767; "Nestor." had positive impact on development of the Russian source study.
17. This well-known edition was begun in 1850 by the given erudite historian-lawyer Nikolay Vasilyevich Kalachov (1819-1885). N.V. Kalachov, the academician and senator, was a member of the Russian arkheografichesky commission; on its initiative in 1877 the St. Petersburg Archaeological institute which first director he was was founded.
18. Nikolay Petrovich Semyonov (1823-1904) is the famous statesman, the writer created the outstanding book which is documentary recreating a great era. Its work is especially valuable the fact that detailed records of meetings of drafting panels on drawing up "Provision" on an abolition of serfdom are its basis; the book was awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences.
19. It is the first translation into Russian of the book of Walter Bedzhgot (1826-1877), the famous English political scientist and the economist.
20. The book by Ippolit Teng (1828-1893), the French philosopher positivist, sociologist of art, the historian represents in fact the pamphlet against Jacobin dictatorship.
21. It is the Russia's second translation from German of the book of the famous philosopher-neokantiantsa Friedrich Albert Lange (1828-1875).
22. Book Garalda Gefdinga (1843-1931), outstanding Danish philosopher and psychologist, professor of University of Copenhagen, one of the best handbooks on applied psychology; in Russia the book sustained 7 editions from 1892 to 1932
23. Alexander Ivanovich Vvedensky (1856-1925) is a philosopher and the psychologist, the largest representative of the Russian Neo-Kantianism; since 1890 headed department of philosophy at the St. Petersburg university, also consisted professor of Women's Pedagogical Institute, the High female courses of N.P. Rayev and Bestuzhevsky courses.
24. Ilya Aleksandrovich Shlyapkin (1858-1918) is a historian of literature, an arkheograf and the palaeographer, the member of Society of fans of Old Russian writing, the passionate bibliophile,

author of the collection "Praise to the Book" (1917). Among his pupils at the St. Petersburg university there was Alexander Blok who was very highly appreciating lectures and works of professor. In department of the rare book there are several editions from a private library of I.A. Shlyapkin.

25. Alexander Nikolaevich Chudinov (1843-1908) is a writer and the teacher, the publisher; since 1891 edited two series of "The Russian of great library" in which masterpieces of the Russian and foreign classics were published.
26. Author of this book — Cesare Bekkariya (1738-1794) — Italian educator, lawyer, publicist; his ideas played an important role in formation of democratic principles of criminal law.
27. The cathedral code of Alexey Mikhaylovich — the code of laws of the Russian state adopted by Territorial cathedral in 1648-1649; remained acting till 1832
28. It is the well-known monograph by Johann Philip Gustav Evers (1781-1830), the German scientist who became the ancestor of historical law school in Russia, the sociologist, the teacher of the Derptsky university. On a spine gilded stamping a superex-libris: "N of P.-S.", obviously, the edition came to a collection of courses from a private library of N.P. Pavlov-Silvansky.
29. Lev Iosifovich Petrazhitsky (1867-1931) is professor of the St. Petersburg university, the jurist and the sociologist, the creator of the psychological theory of the right; 20 years headed department of the encyclopedia of the right, taught also Bestuzhevsky courses and law department of courses of N.P. Rayev.
Michael Martinez
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