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In article the process of involvement of nomadic Kalmyk society in the all-Russian management system is analyzed. On the basis of studying materials of Provision on management of the Kalmyk people of 1847 the characteristic of governing bodies and court in Kalmykia, their structure and functions is presented.

The article reviews the process of integration of the nomadic Kalmyk society into the Russian administrative system. On the base of materials of Regulations on Kalmyk People Administration of 1847 governing bodies and court of Kalmykia, their structure and functions are characterized.

European Russia, nomadic people, Kalmyks, statehood, management, legislation, social system; European Russia, nomads, Kalmyks, statehood, administration, legislation, social structure.



Aleksandrovich is the head of the department of the state and the right of the Kalmyk state university to a kotapyogkag @

To the middle of the 19th century management of the Kalmyk people underwent some changes in comparison with the beginning of the century in connection with registration of a system of "guardianship". The provision of February 23, 1847 on management of the Kalmyk people prepared by the Ministry of the state imushchestvo was edited according to the Situation of April 30, 1838 developed by the minister of the state imushchestvo count P.D. Kiselyov for the state peasants where the system of "guardianship" found the brightest expression.

The provision of 1847 consisting of 11 chapters, 254 articles supplemented and developed the Provision of 1834 which is earlier adopted for Kalmyks. If the first Situation in the main laid the legal framework further development of Kalmykia, then the Provision of 1847 created additional precepts of law for introduction of the Kalmyk people to the all-Russian management.

According to Situation on February 23, 1847, management of Kalmyks was transferred from the Ministry of Internal Affairs to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the state imushchestvo. In the administrative relation Kalmykia was subordinated to the Astrakhan governor. Direct management of Kalmyks was entrusted to the managing director of the Astrakhan chamber of the state imushchestvo who at the same time was entitled the Main trustee of the Kalmyk people.

According to new Situation, the Main trustee became the highest official of Kalmykia with a wide volume of powers. He acquired the right to discharge noyonov-owners from management of uluses and to convoke ulusny descents.

The main objective of the Main trustee consisted in the organization of management, ensuring public order in uluses, the correct distribution of kocheviya, rational use of lands. He directed the police service formed generally of the Astrakhan Cossacks. The trustee had to be engaged in transfer of Kalmyks to settled lifestyle and also the device of settlements on the Kalmyk roads. The main trustee exercised control of work of all ulusny institutions, the organization and elections of officials and also the correct distribution and taxation and performance povinnostey1. In the

1 PSZ of the Russian Empire, the 2nd meeting, t. 22, No. 21144, page 358.

activity the trustee was guided by the Russian legislation.

For management of Kalmyks at the Astrakhan chamber of the state imu-shchestvo the office consisting of the adviser, the deputy from the Kalmyk people, the official for special instructions, the clerk, the accountant, two heads of a desk, their assistants and clerks was founded. Besides, were ranked the doctor with two paramedics as the Kalmyk management and the veterinarian. The deputy from the Kalmyk people representing the interests of the population was elected for 3 years the Kalmyk nobility.

According to the Provision of 1847, the control system in uluses changed a little. The joint ulusny management into which the noyon-ulu-co-owner or the ulus's governor, the ulusny trustee with the assistant entered was created, and not the owner, but the trustee began to play a major role. All orders on the ulus proceeding from his name were only agreed with the owner. At the same time police functions and observation of correctness of taxation from Kalmyks subject to the owner were assigned to the trustee. Also trustees of uluses gave written certificates on absence from uluses of Kalmyk commoners. Tickets for employment were given by ulusny managements with payment of 15 kopeks by silver in the public Kalmyk capital. In tickets the monetary guarantee of the owner of the ulus, governor or zaysang for the leaving commoner was noted. Trustees of uluses were appointed by chamber of the state imushchestvo according to the proposal of the Main trustee and were approved as the governor.

Except the listed persons, three tax collectors (demchea), the translator (tolmach), clerks were a part of ulusny management. The military team was at the disposal of ulusny management. Directly the ulusny trustee signing documents with the noyonom-owner supervised the work of ulusny management. Disagreements between them were allowed by the Astrakhan chamber of the state imushchestvo. Functions of a notariate were also assigned to ulusny managements.

According to the Provision of 1847, the structure of judicial authorities changed. All-Kalmyk administrative sou

the debny body — zargo was abolished in 1848, and the affairs entering its competence were transferred to the Astrakhan chamber of criminal and civil proceedings. The Ulusny court zargo was balanced in the rights with volost raspravami1. Criminal and civil cases were considered here by the officials appointed by administration. The top punishment was the court of appeal for the lower punishment.

Ulusny zargo consisted of the chairman (noyon-owner), two members (ulusny trustee and his assistant), two assessors elected by an ulusny descent from among the zaysang which do not have aimags for 3 years and if such was not, then from among commoners. The Ulusny court zargo considered cases on civil and criminal cases, resolved guardianship issues. It worked under control of the trustee, the Astrakhan chamber of criminal and civil court and also monthly reported to chamber of the state imushchestvo. Zargo considered receivership proceeding with the claim price to 30 rub

Aimags patrimonial zaysang still operated; in aimags where they were not, the foreman from bezaymachny darlings-sangov was elected. Hotona were headed by the heads elected on aymachny descents from commoners and confirmed to the post by the Astrakhan chamber of the state imushchestvo.

Spiritual management concentrated in hands of a lama — the highest ecclesiastic and the head of all Buddhist temples. Lama was elected at a congress of clergy and approved by the decree imperatora2. Observation of improvement and the maintenance of hurul (temples), of morality of ecclesiastics and also construction in the clergy, assignment of ministries, control of observance of church ceremonies belonged to fundamental obligations of a lama. Besides, it possessed judicial functions concerning ecclesiastics and laymen on family and marriage affairs (divorce, reconciliation of spouses, etc.). Lama in essence was an official and submitted to the Main trustee of the Kalmyk people. New Situation predusmatri-

1 Essays of history Kalmyk ASSR. Pre-October period. — M, 1967, page 244.
2 K.N. Maximov. History of national statehood of Kalmykia. — M, 2000, page 60.

a shaft for Kalmyks an opportunity to accept Orthodoxy.

At the same time, according to the Provision of 1847, in the Kalmyk uluses and aimags according to laws for the state peasants ulusny and aymachny descents appeared. The structure and competence of these descents coincided in the main lines: ulusny — with volost descents, aymachny — with rural. The Kalmyks who did not have own economy, judged and did not reach 25 years could not participate in descents.

Ulusny descents were convoked by the Main trustee once in three years. In them ulusovladelets, darlings Sanga, foremen, heads and commoners (one from 20 tilt carts), and took part in aymachny descents — zaysang, foremen, heads and commoners (one from 5 tilt carts). On ulusny descents elections of officials, distribution of duties and other questions of public value were discussed. Aymachny descents were engaged mainly economic in-prosami1. On aymachny descents for 3 years the foreman, hotonny heads was elected, distribution of natural duties was discussed, guardianship issues were resolved. Absence on a descent without valid excuse attracted imposing of a penalty of 1 rub in favor of the public capital. The age of the elected persons should not have exceeded 60 years.

The provision of 1847 confirmed those restrictions of the power of noyon and zaysang over ordinary Kalmyks who were established in 1834. Lands in communal use are allocated to Kalmyks. It is authorized to Kalmyks to pass into the Cossack estate, it is authorized to trade in the cattle and livestock products freely. Noyona and zaysang had no right to sell, give and put the podvlastnykh2.

Kalmyks had to pay is scarlet - the ban (tax) of 8 rub 15 kopeks silver in a year and to carry out natural duties: to provide supplies to the officials sent to uluses, tilt carts for placement of ulusny management and officials, to bear cordon service, to perform works on construction of roads.

1 PSZ RI, the 2nd meeting, t. 22, No. 21144, page 352 — 353.
2 In the same place, page 349-350.

It was forbidden to make collecting from kalmy-kov-commoners over established norm3.

The provision of 1847 reflected actions of the government for Christianization of Kalmyks. The Kalmyk commoners accepting Orthodoxy had the right to pass into estate of the state peasants or the Cossacks in case their owner did not adopt Christianity. The government compensated such transition from the owner or a zaysang to the last by delivery of the sum equal fivefold annual albanu4.

According to the Provision of 1847, functions of the Russian officials were considerably expanded and complicated. The main trustee, besides supervision of order in management, had to collect data on the number of Kalmyks, care for improvement of "moral and economic life" of the Kalmyk population, medical improvement of the Kalmyk uluses, providing "national food" in the Kalmyk steppe, development among Kalmyks of settled life, in particular for the device of settlements along the main roads passing on the Kalmyk kochevyam. According to the Provision of 1847, the trustee had a special assistant "for affairs

about settling of the roads, through the Kalmyk lands lying".

The provision of 1847 did not hide special care of the government of development of settled lifestyle in Kalmyks and occupation by their agriculture. The main trustee had to invite to himself noyon — owners and governors of uluses and to inspire in them need of settled life. He was obliged to define spaces for settlements and to be engaged in the device of new settlements. The Provision of 1847 imputes care of development of settled life and agriculture a duty to noyonam-owners and governors of uluses, and charges to ulusny trustees assistance of activity of owners in this direction and control of them.

Ulusny trustees also had to watch the trade course in the Kalmyk uluses that it did not depart from a government regulation and provided delivery of the Kalmyk cattle to the Russian markets.

3 In the same place, page 354.
4 In the same place, page 352.

Actions in the field of providing "national food" were expressed in the following: a part of the pokibitochny collecting coming to treasury began to be deducted in the so-called public Kalmyk capital which was replenished also with penalties, charge for tickets and the sums arriving from leasing of a part of the Kalmyk lands. According to the Provision of 1847, the Astrakhan chamber of the state imushchestvo in process of growth of the public capital had to prepare in uluses bread stocks "for deduction on it reasonable prices and for a holiday to the needing Kalmyks at the same price in what managed at preparation" 1.

The system of "guardianship" provided the organization of medical care for the population in the Kalmyk steppe. In uluses the Kalmyk clergy, gelyungi-em-chi (physicians), holding big authority with Kalmyks was engaged in treatment of patients. However this medical care using methods of the Tibetan doctoring could not provide need of the population completely. So, smallpox became a terrible scourge for Kalmyks. The government began to promote an ospoprivivaniye among the Kalmyk population, rules of an ospoprivivaniye were approved, from the circle of Kalmyks constant shots of ospoprivivatel were created. In the steppe the first paramedics appeared, however their activity was complicated by conditions of the Kalmyk nomadic life. Despite difficulties, actions for creation of network of medical institutions, epidemiological service were an initial stage organi-

1 Essays of history Kalmyk ASSR. Pre-October period. — M, 1967, page 247.

zation of the state health care in Kalmykii2.

The government also paid attention to development of literacy among Kalmyks. However functions of the first Kalmyk schools came down only to that "to get skillful translators, tolmachy and in general officials who, owning foreign and Russian, could examine smaller difficulties with life of Kalmyks subsequently and that to render considerable service to the government".

The provision of 1847 accurately defined the status of feudal lords. Noyony-vladeltsy, darlings Sanga owning aimags, and members of their families treated hereditary noblemen, had the right to arrive on military and civil service. Of darlings Sanga were equated by Bezaymachnye to honourable citizens and if they were engaged in agriculture — to hereditary noblemen. In general the Provision of 1847 was directed to acceleration of integration of the Kalmyk society into social structure of Russia.

Thus, by the end of the 40th of the 19th century a transfer of Kalmykia in the system of the all-Russian public administration was made. It was given a shape of the state guardianship pursuing a main goal — to transform management of Kalmykia on the all-Russian sample. At the same time it is important to note positive value of Provision of 1847 providing actions of the government for improvement of the standard of living of the Kalmyk population.

2 For more details see: E.A. Komandzhayev. Formation of the state health care system in Kalmykia at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries//Problems of national and general history. — Elista, 1998.
James Ford
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