The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Formation of modern regional symbolics

o. I. Zakutnov


Work is presented by department of cultural science of the Astrakhan state university.

The research supervisor — the Doctor of Philosophy, professor A.P. Romanova

The main ways of formation of modern symbolics of regions of the country not only as a result of development of the federal relations, but also as result of disintegration processes in the territory of Russia are considered.


The basic ways offormation ofstate regions ’modern symbolics are considered not simply as a consequence of federal relations development, but also as a result of the disintegration processes in Russia.

The symbol came to Latin of Ancient Greek sumbolon, which, in turn, goes back to more ancient sumballein form, literally translated as "to throw together" [3, page 18]. Originally this word designated a part of a subject, for example the ring which is pulled down in half which two halves served as the password at a meeting of two people. Now the word "symbol" has two values: the first is an image which kind of acts on behalf of some subject which can have absolutely other form (for example, the triangle can be a symbol of a subject which has no anything triangular), or — an abstract concept (for example, the image of an owl is a wisdom symbol). Under such value the word "symbol" is used in "The magic queen" of Spencer (1590). The second word meaning "symbol" — the written sign which describes any quality, size or process — those are alphabet letters, punctuation marks, figures, notes, mathematical symbols, etc. For the first time in it value the word "symbol" began to be used in England in

XVII century [8, page 10].

The English word "sign" — sign — comes from Old French signe which the Latin word signum, "mark", i.e. some image made by the person which meaning is known has the predecessor. For the first time in this value it appeared in English in the 14th century, having slowly replaced token over time. From 15th century the word sign began to meet as the verb "sign", and the signature was the cross with most of which of our ancestors "signed" letters at the end instead of putting the names.

Now the word sign designates any common graphic

the image — as the symbol designed to transfer any specific message (for example, in mathematics), and gesture,

expressing any information or team. This word designates also posters, banners and other means for the announcement, information, etc. for prevention or the instruction [8, page 10].

The main difference between a symbol and the sign is that the sign has practical, unambiguous value: "not to smoke", "danger", "pass here". The symbol has a much bigger possibility of feedback, it bears the values sometimes contradicting each other. Many symbols incorporated both most ancient, and newer ideas of people of space, the place in it, about the acts, about of what they have to be proud and what to respect. Many symbols are taken advantage by psychology as reflect depths of human consciousness and subconsciousness. The simple ideas expressed by the symbol bearing emotional coloring get new force, expand the sense from a special case to generalization: the heart which is cut out on a tree is a symbol, but not the sign.

A special case of symbols are emblems. The emblem, according to Losev, is "a special purpose symbol and therefore having the nature of convention or a konven-tsionnost", "precisely fixed, conventional, but, despite the convention, quite conventional sign as the widest, and the narrowest value" [8, page 148].

Emblems of the state are in the sense of a ratio in them the general and single not than other, how exactly symbols, but only more special purpose. For example, A.F. Losev carries a two-headed eagle to emblems [3, page 6].

The word "coat of arms" comes from the German Erbe that the inheritance means. For the first time this term is mentioned in the decree of 1692. Till this time our ancestors spoke only about "seals" and "kleyna" (brands). The coat of arms is "the emblem assigned to the person, a sort, the region, the earth, the state, descended (person as the member of a sort) or existing until there is this type of the state", "issued is graphic under laws of heraldry, located on the respective field called a board, and carrying a certain importance color" [7, page 12].

To understand the beginning of information about group of the coats of arms, it is necessary to remember sources, starting with the term "heraldry". The concept "heraldry" represents unity of two definitions: heraldry — the discipline studying the coats of arms, the history of their emergence and use at the same time the heraldry is also science about drawing up the coat of arms, about data of a certain group of the coats of arms. From there are concepts: "noble heraldry", "Russian heraldry", "Soviet heraldry".

In such aspect we used the term "heraldry" for a research of the territorial coats of arms and institute of the city coat of arms as the source originating in the Russian Empire.

One of bright representatives of the coats of arms of the Russian Empire is the two-headed eagle. This symbol contains more than three thousand years. It was one of widespread symbols in Sumer culture. This symbol was well known ancient Kheta, and in the capital of the Hettsky state the most ancient image of the two-headed eagle (13th century BC) cut on the rock was revealed. There are versions of appearance of a two-headed eagle in Russia: east (from the Golden Horde); Byzantine (from Byzantium through Ivan III's wife the successor of the Byzantine throne Sofya); Balkan (from Bulgarians or Serbians); from the coat of arms of emperors of the Sacred Roman Empire Gabsburgov [6, page 67].

Also the city coats of arms are of great interest. For the first time they are mentioned in the Big state book of 1672 (Titulyarnik).

There with some use of heraldic receptions drawings of 33 coats of arms of the cities and areas which entered a full title of the Russian tsar were reproduced. The coats of arms concerned them: Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Pskov, Kazan, etc.

In the second half of HUS — H1H of century the bulk of all coats of arms of the cities and provinces of the country was created. These coats of arms mostly "were thought out" in St. Petersburg, and then complained to the cities and provinces special imperial decrees. So there were in the 18th century coats of arms of Tomsk, Orenburg, Kostroma, Kaluga, Lipetsk, Kurgan, Omsk, in the 19th century — Krasnoyarsk, Kuznetsk, Barnaul, Blagoveshchensk, Vladivostok, Novocherkassk, Stavropol, Khabarovsk, Chita, the Kuban and Kamchatka regions.

Many city coats of arms within the 19th century when they formed the basis of the coats of arms of provinces (as a rule, the coats of arms of provinces then in general coincided with the coats of arms of their administrative centers, but there were also exceptions — the Orenburg province, the Kuban region), underwent considerable modification. So, the stool with a crown on the coat of arms of Tver replaced on the province coat of arms already a throne with Monomakh's cap, the single-headed eagle from a municipal coat of arms of Oryol turned into a two-headed eagle on the coat of arms of the Oryol province, the horse from the coat of arms of Tomsk on the coat of arms of the province was reared, etc. [7, page 15].

Thus, a certain row is formed: a symbol — the sign — an emblem — the coat of arms.

The most ancient existing symbols which formed the basis of modern regional official symbolics in Russia developed in in the XIII—XVII centuries. It is first of all the main element of the coats of arms of Moscow and the Moscow region — Georges the Victorious striking a snake. Besides, the municipal coat of arms of Moscow was most highly approved on December 20, 1781

In the report of the Senate "About the statement of the coats of arms to the cities of the Moscow province" the coat of arms is described as follows: "Georgy Svyaty on a horse how in the middle of the State Emblem, in the red field, striking with a spear of a black serpent". It was noted that Moscow

"old" has the coat of arms — it meant that the emblem existed to her official statement as the coat of arms.

The main elements of the modern coats of arms of the Novgorod and Pskov regions, Kirov and Vladimir, Perm, Smolensk, Yaroslavl, Tver and Ryazan regions belong to the earliest symbols of the 15th century.


In the 16th century creates symbolics of the Astrakhan region. After accession of the Astrakhan khanate to Russia in 1556 Astrakhan becomes one of the boundary fortresses of the Russian state protecting the mouth of Volga. The naked saber replaced subsequently with a sword symbolized protection of a crown, protection of porubezhny lands on the southern outskirts of the country. East sword said from where the danger to Russia proceeded and against what enemies it is directed. The Astrakhan cap, or the crown crowning the coat of arms was made for the tsar Mikhail Fedorovich — the first representative of a dynasty of Romanov — in 1627. The cap symbolized that the territory of the Astrakhan khanate was not from time immemorial a Russian, and was attached to the Russian state in certain time. The Astrakhan cap is stored in Armory of the Moscow Kremlin. Blue color of the field of the coat of arms speaks about one territorial and geographical feature of area — its arrangement in the lower watercourse of Volga [4, page 98].

Further development of the Russian symbolics is the share of the first quarter of the 18th century and is connected about Peter I's activities for formation of regular army to banners of the Russian regiments which at the time of Peter I were placed in the concrete cities from which received the name. These banners became then a basis of the coats of arms of those cities to which were attributed, and already from these cities passed to the coats of arms of provinces which centers were. The main elements of these coats of arms (elements of these coats of arms in the majority were imitation the European coats of arms and were taken from the Dutch book "Symbols and Emble-mat..." brought from Holland by Peter I) were thought up or personally by Peter I, or

his associates during the first third

XVIII century. These are the coats of arms of Arkhangelsk, Belgorod, Bryansk, Vologda, Voronezh, Kursk, Oryol, Penza, Samara, Simbirsk, Tambov, Tsaritsyno, St. Petersburg, Tula and Saratov. The first image of the main element of the coat of arms of Irkutsk which on the genesis goes back to more ancient coats of arms rather also belongs to the same time [2, page 85].

In the majority these modified coats of arms also restored regions now. The coats of arms of this time generally reflect specialization of regions at that time or emphasize any other features of the administrative centers and the territories surrounding them [1, page 234].

Russian regions and autonomous areas began search of the symbolics at the beginning of the 90th of the 20th century. St. Petersburg and Moscow as the most significant historic and economic centers of the country became one of the first regions (or territorial subjects of the federation) which restored the historical symbolics. The coat of arms of St. Petersburg was approved in 1991 right after the August events along with recovery of the historical name of the city.

The mayor of the capital Yu.M. Luzhkov signed on February 1, 1995 the law "About the Coat of Arms and a Flag of the City of Moscow".

On the same day deputies of the Moscow City Duma adopted the resolution on introduction of this law to action. Work on recovery of historical symbolics took place in the main centers of the country quickly and without any excesses.

During 2000 — 2001 work on development and the statement of stamp emblems of administrative districts and districts of the capital began [5, page 25].

In the mid-nineties create symbolics in the Khabarovsk and Stavropol regions, the Vladimir and Kemerovo region.

In 14 regions of the Russian Federation for this period the symbolics was not accepted, namely in Altai Krai, Volgograd, Lipetsk, Murmansk, Novosibirsk, Tula, Omsk, Orlov -

sky, Tambov, Astrakhan, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Magadan and Kamchatka regions, etc.

More than in forty regions of the Russian Federation the historical symbolics underwent partially changes: excluded many imperial regalia from it or replaced them with the corresponding Soviet. First of all imperial crowns which were excluded from the coats of arms Penza, Kurgan, Bryansk, Ulyanovsk and other areas underwent the sequester. On the coat of arms of the Ulyanovsk region from the historical coat of arms of Simbirsk there was only a white column (the historical coat of arms of Simbirsk represented a white column with a gold crown in the blue field), and the crown over a board of the coat of arms was replaced with ears, a gear and a seagull.

In composition of the same coat of arms are combined as elements of the Soviet, and imperial symbolics — the most striking example the coat of arms of the Rostov region in which staffs of flags on the coat of arms of area are intertwined with a tape of the Order of Lenin (the coat of arms of the Rostov region represents a heraldic board, in which azure (blue) field a silver column with the dark red (red) fortification put on an azure wavy belt about three towers, from which average above; in the extremity — the gold ear covering an azure wavy belt). The column is accompanied by historical Don regalia: on the right a silver pernach over silver also notch "bobylev" of a tail crosswise; at the left — a silver mace over those notch with an eagle and a bunchuka crosswise. Shchitoderzhatel — the black two-headed eagle arising over a board with gold beaks and dark red languages having the Russian imperial crown on each of the heads and topped in the middle with a big Russian crown with azure tapes. Behind board four put on -

a cross of a flag of the Rostov region on gold znamenny staffs with kopeyny tips, cords and brushes.

In the coat of arms of the Bryansk region the crown was replaced with a hammer and sickle. In a number of regions in a frame of the coats of arms the andreevsky and aleksandrovsky tapes connecting oak leaves replaced with tapes of the Order of Lenin — it occurred in those regions which were awarded the order at the time by it: in Smolensk, Penza, Bryansk (in the coat of arms of the Bryansk region, besides, also the tape of the medal "Guerrilla of the Great Patriotic War") areas, or just red tape (as in the coat of arms of Kursk region is still used), and in the coat of arms of Stavropol Krai the tape of colors of the Russian flag is used. In the coats of arms of Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Irkutsk region the oak branches in a frame of a board were replaced with cedar branches; the board of the coat of arms of Stavropol Krai is framed by wheaten ears, in the Ivanovo region — stalks of a flax and cotton, in the Smolensk region — flax stalks [5, page 28].

In such territorial subjects of the Russian Federation — Primorsk and Altai regions and also the Amur, Belgorod, Volgograd, Ivanovo, Kamchatka, Kaliningrad, Kemerovo, Lipetsk, Magadan, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk regions — it was necessary to create absolutely new symbolics.

Practically all existing symbolics of Russia is bedding of absolutely various stages of development of heraldry in our country.

Strengthening of statehood of modern Russia relies on historical tradition. Its modern symbols go back to historical roots, keep memory of fulfillments of the Russian state. The modern symbolics is result of development of the Russian statehood and has the rich history.


1. V.A. Artamonova, etc. Coat of arms and flag of Russia of the X—XX centuries/VA. Artomonova, G.V. Vilinbakhov, S.F. Faizov, A.L. Horoshkevich. M.: Yurid. litas, 1997. 560 pages
2. G.V. Vilinbakhov. Sword symbolics in the Russian state heraldry of the XUII-first quarter of the 18th century. L., 1987. 180 pages
3. A.F. Losev. Problem of a symbol and realistic art. M.: Thought, 1976. 185 pages
4. V.V. Pokhlebkin. From history of the Soviet emblematika//history Questions. 1978. No. 3. 102 pages
5. Yu. Rosich. Regional symbolics: in search of ideology: Part 1, 2)//Regions of Russia: Year-book of the Carnegie Moscow Centre. 1999. Page 23 — 37.
6. B.N. Serov. "State symbolics": Anthem. Coat of arms. Flag. M.: WACO, 2004. Page 66 — 69.
7. N.A. Soboleva. Russian urban and regional heraldry of XVSh — XIX of centuries of M., 1981. Page 12 — 15.
8. D. Foley. Encyclopedia of signs and symbols. M.: Veche Nuclear heating plant., 1997. 148 pages
Nathaniel Jones
Other scientific works: