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Role of labor unions of Kuban in sphere of formation and medical care of the population on the eve of war (1940 - 1941)


UDC 331.105.44 (470.62)


© 2011 of A.Yu. Golev

Kuban state technological university, Kuban State Technological University,

Moskovskaya St., 2, Krasnodar, 350072, Moskovskaya St., 2, Krasnodar, 350072,

The policy and activity of the Soviet party and state structures, labor unions in elimination of illiteracy and semi-illiteracy, sphere of formation and medical care in the last pre-war years on the example of Kuban are considered. They were carried out in the conditions of mobilization economy and were directed to implementation of the Soviet socialist project. Historical experience of the solution of the questions designated in article in the Soviet state is of interest to studying pre-war history of the USSR which successor is modern Russia.

Reviews the policy and activity ofsoviet governmental structures, trade unions in the spheres of illiteracy and poor literacy liquidation, education and medical care in the last years before the war on the example of the Kuban Region. They were carried out under conditions of mobilization of economy and were directed to the implementation of soviet socialist project. The historical experience of solutions identified in the article in the Soviet state is ofinterest to study the pre-war history of the USSR, legal successor ofwhich is modern Russia.

1940 - 1941 - third and fourth of the third five-years period became history of the USSR as years of Stakhanov work, technical progress, new records and discoveries. At the same time the inevitable threat of aggression of fascist Germany demanded acceptance of a number of the measures directed to increase in fighting capacity of the Red Army, increase in its number, improvement of quality of military equipment, weapon, personnel. Respectively it was also the period of systematic preparation of all economy and army to war. Stability of a totalitarian political regime after tough "cleaning" of party and state and military elite in 1937 - 1938 allowed to do it.

Restructuring of economy was promptly carried out. Much less cameras, hours, sewing machines, bicycles began to be made and be on sale. And aircraft engines, tanks, fighters, bombers, guns became the main thing in production plans. From 1928 to 1940 9 thousand new enterprises which were equipped with the latest not only, but also foreign equipment and technologies were constructed, and in the majority were ground under "defence industry". On the same vector there was also a conversion of the old plants and enterprises (in Krasnodar are the plants of Sedin, "Red litas", in Tikhoretsk - the plant to them. Thieves').

In this general mobilization economy was as a component and economy of GULAG: for January 1, 1939 in prisons there were 350 thousand prisoners, in ispravi-

telno-labor camps (ITL) - 1.3 million people, in the correctional facilities (CF) - 365 thousand people, in labor colonies - about 1 million. Most of prisoners worked at buildings, transport, in ore mining industry.

237 thousand collective farms where nearly 100 million people worked, delivered the products at "fixed prices" which were 10 - 12 times lower than market.

In the military doctrine there was a return to the Russian classical military heritage - instead of the war of maneuvre approved at the time of Civil the static war following from huge space of the USSR and invulnerability of a considerable part of its potential was adopted again; the principle of one-man management is entered, and now commanders could make decisions without participation of commissioners; the drafted new disciplinary charter granted to commanders the right to punish soldiers, and soldiers had no right to appeal against actions of commanders. In RKKA about 4 thousand repressed commanders were returned.

By 1941 defense industry of the USSR began to release all types of arms which reached a victory in war subsequently.

And though the leading role was assigned to development of the heavy industry, the considerable attention of party, Soviet and public bodies and organizations was aimed at the development and the social sphere, increase in welfare and cultural level of the people.

1937 - 1941 are the first years for Krasnodar Krai as the administrative and territorial unit existing and now with some toponymic changes. After the period of experiments with administrative-territorial division of the South of Russia (from 1920 to 1937 Kuban was a part of three administrative and territorial units) the unity of historically developed territory of Kuban within independent edge with the center in Krasnodar was restored. Formation of the new region which had the richest natural resources chronologically coincided with progress of industrialization of the USSR. It promoted a new view on the economic capacity of the region, to further development of its economy in a format of all-union mobilization economy of that period.

At this particular time such construction projects as the Krasnodar combined heat and power plant, the ZIP, Tshchiksky and Shapsug reservoirs, ridging of coast of the Kuban River, reconstruction of the enterprises of the light and food industry were initiated, forced and carried partially out. Large sums were made in the agricultural and social sphere, in particular in health care and education. Daily the press and radio reported about expansion of a socialist competition, new labor initiatives, about completion of construction of new factories, plants, schools, hospitals, houses. In all large cities - Krasnodar, Armavir, Kropotkin, Maykop, Novorossiysk, Tuapse, Yeysk, Tikhoretsk - there were objects of cultural value: museums, theaters, clubs, movie theaters. In total on edge there were 16 museums, 11 theaters, 2621 clubs, 119 movie theaters, 85 recreation centers. In 1940 82 newspapers with a circulation of 274,700 copies, from them 78 city and regional were issued.

The XVIII All-Union conference of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) approved the State Planning Committee of development of the national economy of the USSR accepted by the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and SNK USSR for 1941 and offered the Soviet and public organizations including to labor unions to concentrate attention and forces on the solution of one of the main welfare objectives: to increase number of pupils at elementary and high schools up to 36.2 million people and in higher education institutions up to 657 thousand people to bring the total costs of welfare actions to 48 billion rubles. In this regard issues of education, elimination of illiteracy and semi-illiteracy, training of youth were put into the forefront.

During the pre-war period in Krasnodar Krai there were elementary, incomplete high and high schools, total about 1500 units. From them more than 60% were the share of initial and only about 30% for incomplete averages and 20% for high schools (in absolute figures - 499 and 305 respectively) [1, page 523]. 12,219 teachers were the share of only 370,779 pupils of schools. Elementary schools were fully completed by teachers. For work at high schools more qualified personnel was required. The social status of the teacher, especially in rural areas, was high, but a problem was the financial position of teaching which continued to remain difficult.

Except work at schools the teachers together with cultural soldiers should continue to solve a problem of elimination of illiteracy among adult population. Especially as in the early forties the concept about the diploma leaned on that which was formulated at the IV congress of labor unions of the North Caucasian edge (on March 27 - on April 1, 1932). Then it was underlined that "now the concept about the diploma other, than was a row of years back. For us semiliterate is the same illiterate" [2].

Were necessary to the plants and collective farms not simply able to read and write, but the people possessing higher preparation, able to put knowledge into practice. Transferring of the center of gravity on training of semiliterate opened a new stage of fight for education of masses.

According to the reference of regional department of national education "About elimination of illiteracy among adult population of Krasnodar Krai for 1940", for January 1, 1941 across Krasnodar Krai was registered illiterate - 63,248 people, semiliterate - 125,735, the smaller number of adult population studied the diploma much: illiterate - 24,098, semiliterate - 28,735 [3, l. 1]. Finished elimination of illiteracy and 3 areas received acts of the regional state commission: Shteyngardtovsky, Stalin rural, Kaganovich-sky Krasnodar, Novorossiysk and Maykop. Besides, acts of end and illiteracy on edge were handed to 736 enterprises, 498 collective farms, 11 state farms, 42 village councils [3, l. 1].

In February, 1941 at the highest party and state level the plan of mobilization on the basis of which large mobilization events were held was approved. They revealed one of negative points - illiteracy of recruits. Therefore the special attention was drawn to account and elimination of illiteracy and semi-illiteracy among the youths of premilitary age who are subject to an appeal in the Red Army in 1941. By the beginning of academic year in the region from youths of premilitary age 1922 - 1923 year of birth were registered illiterate - 442, and semiliterate - the 4254th persons. For April 15, 1941 it is trained illiterate and transferred to the semiliterate 326 people and studied according to programs semiliterate for 4 classes - 2058 people [3, l. 3]. Existence in edge of such large number of untrained youths of premilitary age was caused first of all by the fact that the regional department of national education supervised this work not just poorly, and often formally and did not know its state in each certain area.

As well as the whole country, edge was in great need in medical, pedagogical and engineering shots, and considering agrarian orientation of the region, - and in the qualified agricultural experts. For this reason from all average professional educational institutions, 90% trained in three listed directions.

In 1940 technical schools and other average special educational institutions in the region was 46, in them 12,126 people studied [4, page 755]. In the regional center in average special educational institutions 143 teachers taught and 3082 people Krom of Krasnodar studied average professional institutions were in Armavir - 4, Kropotkin - 2, Maykop - 5, Novorossiysk - 5, Anapa - 1, Tikhoretsk - 2, Ust-Labinsk - 1, in Vannov-

the sky area - a normal school, Labinsk - technological school of a secondary agricultural education and nursing school, Sloviansk - agricultural technical school and obstetric school.

Practically all higher educational institutions were in Krasnodar. In its five higher education institutions (institute of winemaking and wine growing, chemical Institute of Technology, Pedagogical Institute, teacher's institute, medical institute) 5368 students studied and 480 teachers taught. In 1939 these higher education institutions let out 211, 82, 152, 293 and 284 experts respectively [1, page 524]. On one institute had the cities of Novorossiysk and Maykop.

For creation of more favorable conditions for fruitful work of scientists of the higher school and scientists of the Union Medsantrud, holding for them cultural actions and also improvement of a material and financial condition of the Krasnodar house of scientists the department of promotion and propaganda of regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in May, 1941 left with an initiative to issue the agreement between regional committee of the union of the higher school and regional committee Medsantrud on the maintenance of the Krasnodar house of scientists on the cooperative beginnings. The presidium of the Krasnodar regional committee of the Union Medsantrud received the consent of the Central Committee of the Union on participation financing in 1941 of 30 thousand rubles on the maintenance of the House of scientists [5].

In the sphere of medical care the situation was as follows: the qualified medical care for the population could be provided in medical hospitals (hospitals) which was by 1940 188, including in the cities - 37, in rural areas - 151, with 5108 and 3831 beds respectively [1, page 525], policlinics and out-patient clinics - 364, stations of emergency medical service - 27 (data for 1941) [4, page 756].

The acute shortage of doctors whom on all edge there were in 1939 1762 people was compensated by health workers of an average link. In areas, medical and obstetrical centers prevailed. For the beginning of their 1941 there were 385. In the regional centers there were out-patient clinics partly replacing hospitals. They were predecessors of policlinics. They were distinguished by insufficiency of doctors of narrow specialization and weak laboratory and diagnostic opportunities. The taken corrective measures had "shock", fire character. The management edge-zdravotdela was replaced and 24 persons from among doctors and paramedics are sent to work in quality zavrayzdrav-departments. From the cities 76 doctors were directed to strengthening of rural medical sites. However and for the beginning of 1941 in rural medical network there were not enough 303 medics (97 - doctors, 92 - the second doctors in district hospitals and district out-patient clinics, 114 - pediatrists) [6].

Weak also the pharmaceutical base was same. On average three pharmacies were the share of the area, only in the cities their number was higher (in Krasnodar - 12, in Novorossiysk - 7). Against the background of rather high birth rate the need for maternity hospitals was particularly acute. In this question in areas different pictures were observed, for example, the Slavic area had 7 ro-

efficient houses on 44 beds, and Ivanovsky approximately with the same population - only 3 maternity hospitals on 16 beds.

Climatic conditions and geographic location of edge allowed it to perform functions of the All-Union health resort. Only in the city of Sochi there were 40 sanatoria. Besides, Anapa, Gelendzhik and Goryache-klyuchevskoy areas had 28 sanatoria and 30 holiday houses. On one holiday house there were in Sloviansk and Tula areas, two holiday houses in the neighborhood of the city of Tuapse. All improving institutions were included into structure of Management of sanatoria and All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions holiday houses which was reorganized by the Resolution of the secretariat of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions of August 19, 1941 into Management of hospitals subsequently.

Issues of education were resolved also through cultural and educational work. In rural areas, cultural and educational work was conducted by clubs, libraries, recreation centers and reading rooms. Rural clubs were the main centers of culture in areas, the clubs had also collective farms, state farms, the enterprises. Their number was quite considerable. For example, only in Gulkevichesky district there were 56 clubs, in Labinsk - 40, in Kurganinskom - 44. Libraries in villages were served by reading rooms. In 1940 they were 490. In the cities, trade-union libraries prevailed. In total in the region v1939 their there were 542.

Aspiration to new, visible changes - the main line of the Soviet era of that time which was approved in essence. These changes were confirmed by what was created essentially new almost in all spheres: there was a new elite, new economy (branch), the new political order, new ideology, the new calendar, arose new institutions, even new rules in spelling.

The Stalin mobilization model of development of society and all its components (economy, policy, culture, the social sphere, ideology) at all its shortcomings allowed to bring the country out of fatal system crisis. And it was made in the conditions of mass lack of culture when tens of millions of Soviet people were not able neither to read, nor to write, in conditions when gained strength and the bureaucracy which paralyzed or leading up to the point of absurdity any undertaking in conditions when there was a continuous race for power in the Kremlin when in the territory of the Soviet Union dozens of intelligence agencies of the hostile states worked possessed the real power corrupted Soviet (and nowadays Russian).

Objective line of the social sphere of pre-war years - the focus on the person, was also carried out it purposefully and specifically, though from class positions. It is its immanent shortcoming. The created model of the ideokratichesky state differed in mobilization economy which basis was formed by working class. Under it, and through it and under all workers all social sphere was ground. Under workers first of all,

with all merits and demerits. Public organizations and labor unions became the integral and effective elements of this model. Labor unions as "driving belts" in the conditions of rigid party pressure, undertook a huge share of "draft" work on cultural politically education, education, social security of masses, having in many respects replaced government institutions.

Expansion and strengthening of material and technical resources, improvement of new socialist public relations of production were necessary. But the begun war interrupted the organizational period of formation of edge, and many plans were implemented in post-war years.

Came to edition


1. Krasnodar Krai in 1937 - 1941: documents and materials / sost. A.M. Belyaev, I.Yu. Bondar, V.E. Tokarev. Krasnodar, 1997.
2. Labor unions of the North Caucasus in fight for a five-years period: materials IV of a regional congress of labor unions, on March 27 - on April 1, 1932 Rostov N / D, 1932. Page 34 - 35.
3. The center of documentation of the contemporary history of Krasnodar Krai (further - TsDNIKK). F.1774A. Op. 2. 213.
4. Kuban in days of the Great Patriotic War. 1941 - 1945: Declassified documents. Chronicle of events: in 3 princes / sost. A.M. Belyaev, I.Yu. Bondar. Krasnodar, 2003. Prince 2, Part 1.
5. TsDNIKK. F.1774A. Op. 1. 166. L. 75.
6. In the same place. Op. 2. 162. L. 55.

On October 18, 2010

John Francis
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