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FEATURES of REPRESSIVE POLICY of the SOVIET POWER IN THE LATE THIRTIES



UDK 94(471.084.6

FEATURES REPRESSIVE POLICY of the SOVIET POWER IN THE LATE THIRTIES

This article is devoted to the repressive policy of the Soviet power in 30-e years of the XX century. The author uses the archive materials of the Central Black Earth allowing to establish the reasons and consequences of repressive policy of the Soviet state.

Belgorod state university

Features of repressive policy of the Soviet state in the 30th years. Ideological and political fight in power structures was complete.

In the 30th of the 20th century the relative weakening of repressive policy and the beginning of a restoration of justice concerning innocently condemned citizens with is observed

1938-1939. Then a number of orders of party and government, again confidential, mass arrests were suspended, criminal cases began not only to be reconsidered and to stop in the absence of an event or corpus delicti, but also to be pronounced justificatory sentences.

And there is a natural question: why mass repressions and cleanings stopped and why Stalin took this step?

As a result of mass political repressions which peak fell on 1937-1938 in party leadership there was a full redistribution of the power from hands of old guard in hands of the party youth nominated directly by Stalin who reached, at last, the higher authority. During social shocks of scales unprecedented before there was a new hierarchical social structure based on the system of party nomenclature appointments. Everyone could count on promotion because daily somebody pulled out from ordinary life, and its place was taken by another. Inexperienced and often very young representatives of new elite received the immense power, but they still had traditions and legitimacy. In a sense his founder Stalin and the state security agencies controlled by it was the most dangerous enemy of a new class. Undoubtedly, also other objectives of "big cleaning" were achieved: many dissidents and doubting are destroyed, society in general is intimidated. Objects of quickly growing industry of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs received hundreds of thousands of new slaves.

At the same time, mass arrests caused great losses to the industry, agriculture, operation of the party and Soviet device. They reached such scope that began to threaten scientific industrially and to the military capacity of the country. Repressions also affected political moods in the country. Only the attempt to seize a situation was the reasonable decision in the circumstances conditions. Therefore signs of some relative weakening of repressive policy during the whole 1938 are observed

In January, 1938 the plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party adopted the resolution "About Mistakes of Communist Party Organizations at an Exception of the Communists of Party, about the Formal and Bureaucratic Relation to Appeals Expelled from the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) and about Measures for Elimination of These Shortcomings". In it responsibility for unreasonable mass exceptions of communists of party that practically always meant further arrest, was assigned to the local party organizations in which "not only the careerists seeking to move forward on these exceptions took roots, but was also enemies of the people much" 1. Thus, responsibility for repressions was relieved from Stalin and his environment.

Finally to pay off, Stalin suggested to create the commission on check of activity of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR, having entered the head of department of personnel of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) G. Malenkov and L. Beria appointed in August, 1938 the deputy people's commissar of internal affairs of the USSR there.

1 The CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee. M.: Politizdat. 1992. T. 7. Page 8-17.

According to the offer of the commission the resolution SNK USSR and Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) "About arrests, public prosecutor's supervision and investigation" was accepted on November 17, 1938. In it it was noted that in 1937-1938 the bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs under the direction of party did a great job on defeat of enemies of the people and an espionage and diversionary agency of foreign intelligence services. And, though, again all fault for mass repressions was shifted to the enemies of the people who made the way this time already in bodies of Prosecutor's office and People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR which "consciously perverted the Soviet laws, bringing to trial and subjecting to arrest on the trifling bases, and, even in general without the slightest grounds, created with the provocative purpose of "case" against innocent people, tried to avoid party control and the management, and, thereby, to facilitate to itself and the allies a possibility of continuation of the anti-Soviet subversive activities" 2, in the resolution it was openly told about groundlessness of many arrests, put falsifications service of security, weaknesses of public prosecutor's supervision. Measures for strengthening of legality were defined. In particular, production of any mass operations on arrests and eviction was forbidden bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and Prosecutor's office of the USSR ". To execute arrests only under the resolution of court or from the sanction of the prosecutor" 3. The quoted document became first signs of the process of recovery of victims of mass political repressions which dragged on for decades.

Along with the purpose of strengthening of bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs the resolution of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) "About workers for People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR" 4 in which to Management of personnel of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), personally to Malenkov, it was recommended to pick up group of party and Komsomol workers for work in the state security agencies was accepted. Thereby "cleaning" and replacement of shots in the state security agencies was predetermined that, first of all, meant dismissal of those employees who served with Echinoid, and carried out mass repressions in 1936 - 1938. (Earlier, in August, 1938, Ezhov was appointed the people's commissar of the river fleet that could be considered as the first step to its gradual discharge from affairs).

And on December 8, 1938 the Pravda reported that Ezhov "at own request" is exempted from performance of duties of the people's commissar of internal affairs of the USSR and is replaced on this post by Beria. It is characteristic that in the letter addressed to Stalin Ezhov recognized as the shortcomings contamination of personnel of the state security agencies as careerists and enemy elements and the actual defeat by it external razvedki5.

At once after Ezhov's removal were arrested, and then and his closest assistants - Frinovsky, Zakovsky, Redens are shot. Also heads of departments of a narcomat of internal affairs, many chiefs of regional managements of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, chiefs of prisons and camps, the investigators who were directly forging criminal cases were shot. There is a contradiction: on the one hand, investigators are shot for falsification of affairs, on the other hand, sentences on these affairs remained in force. From here it is possible to draw a conclusion that physical elimination of performers of repressions pursued a main goal - to cover up arbitrariness tracks.

An important link in the course of folding of repressive policy was adoption in 1938 of the new Law on judicial system of USSR, federal and autonomous republics and reorganization of the judicial system according to this law. Despite dictatorship of ruling party, declaration of independence of court and submission only to its law it was apprehended by most of employees of courts and prosecutor's offices as turn in judicial practice to respecting the rule of law including by hearing of cases under the political articles.

Certain changes underwent also the court sessions of military courts and Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR which were differing in earlier blaspheming formality and ending in 10-15 minutes. So, on July 22, 1939 court session of a military court of the Oryol military district on consideration of the case on a charge of the counterrevolutionary former editor of "The Kursk truth" V.I. Knyazev, though took place behind closed doors, without participation of protection and witnesses, but more than three hours proceeded. The court refused to Knyazev a call of additional witnesses in view of the fact that all of them are condemned and serve sentence. As follows from the minutes, was not only the indictment is announced, but also testimonies of the defendant including concerning yes -

are in detail listened
2 RTsHIDNI. F.17. Op. 3. 1003. L. 85.
3 RTsHIDNI. F.17. Op. 3. 1003. L. 86.
4 RTsHIDNI. F.17. Op. 3. 1004. L. 1.
5 RTsHIDNI. F.17. Op. 3. 1003. L. 82-84.

chi indications on preliminary investigation under the influence of physical impact. In the last word he asked to check all evidence because "was not a counter-revolutionary and did not suspect of it the persons working with it" 6. Though Knyazev was sentenced to execution, to it allowed to appeal against the decision of a military court in a cassation order. And the Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR replaced to it a capital punishment for 10 years of labor camps.

In December, 1938 the joint resolution SNK USSR and All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) "About an order of coordination of arrests" was accepted. From this point permissions to arrests of deputies of the Supreme Council of the USSR and the Supreme Councils of federal republics were recommended to be coordinated with the chairman of presidiums of the relevant Councils. It was allowed to arrest leading workers of narcomats, the central institutions, scientists, professors, the military personnel only in coordination of the management of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR with the corresponding national commissioners. On arrests of members and candidates of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) the consent of the first, and in its lack of the second, the secretary of regional, city, regional, regional committee or the Central Committee of the Communist Party on accessory was required. It installed, let and relative confidence of "nomenclature" in its security. Activity of security service was as a result limited. It would be desirable to give such fact, even in the spring of the same, 1938 security officers could arrest, and then and to shoot on fabricated charge of the chairman of the Kursk regional executive committee I.Ya. Smirnov, "the Supreme Council of the USSR which is unanimously elected on December 12, 1937 by the deputy". After the first interrogation which is "skilfully" conducted by the investigator Vilensky, awarded the order the Red Star for performance of responsible tasks of party and in connection with the 20 anniversary of bodies of Cheka-OGPU-NKVD of the USSR, and, after fired from them, Smirnov "frankly admitted" the counterrevolutionary activity. Admitted also that it

"was a participant of the anti-Soviet organization, was engaged in wrecking and prepared attempt at Stalin and members of the government" 7.

Arrival Beria in the management of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR coincided with the first wave of rehabilitation. Already in the second half of 1938 several dozen people recognized as arrested innocently were released. This event caused the mass of rumors. Rumors spread, inflated, creating illusion of mass release, generating euphoria of hope in society. The fact is that on December 26, 1938 there was a Directive of the people's commissar of internal affairs Beria and the Prosecutor of the USSR Vyshinsky about consideration of complaints to decisions of the three of 1937-1938 and about revision of investigative affairs on these complaints. It granted the right to chiefs of allied, autonomous People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and also regional and regional departments of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs in case of recognition of abnormality of the made decision and need of its cancellation to issue decrees on diversion. Not too numerous facts of rehabilitation of 1939-1940 which were a consequence of this directive in the people were called "beriyevsky".

The outlined tendency to weakening of repressive policy was confirmed at the XVIII congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) which was taking place in March, 1939. At this congress there were neither disputes, nor heated discussions, nor criticism of an event in party for the reporting period. Delegates of primary Communist Party organizations were capable to sing the praises only of Stalin to whom they were obliged by the career development and who remained the only thing from large figures of generation of old Bolsheviks, those who played in party an important role since the October revolution. New shots came to the power in three areas: management of economy, government and party. But all three spheres were closely connected and somewhat duplicated each other. Besides all "new people" were, first of all, party members and considered any appointment as the next party assignment. Each of promoted workers could count on fast promotion. And the one who became a part of a nomenclature system received such privileges of most of which of the population of the country could only dream: spacious apartments, medical care, specialized shops and distributors. But the system of the nomenclature lists approved by People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR and personnel managements of appropriate level allowed to exercise control over any party or professional position in the country. When the official was displaced with

6 UFSB archive of the Russian Federation across Kursk region. T. LECTURE HALL of P-6493. L. 67.
7 UFSB archive of the Russian Federation across Kursk region. T. LECTURE HALL of P-4208. L. 121.

positions and furthermore it was expelled from party, or it was arrested, and it, and his family lost all the privileges.

Speaking as

at a congress Stalin, noted that cleanings of 1933-1936 were, inevitable and positively affected a condition of party, at the same time it was forced to recognize that their carrying out was followed by numerous mistakes. His statement that in new cleanings there is no need any more, became to some extent policy for bodies of prosecutor's office, court and national security. It should be noted that Zhdanov conferred all responsibility for "mistakes" on local party organy8 again.

The fact that mass cleanings were condemned is important. The XVIII congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) approved new, more "democratic" edition of the party charter. Conditions of reception and duration of candidate term became uniform for all from now on and did not depend on a social origin of entering. legalized the right for the appeal, and, therefore, and on restoration in party.

In 1938-1940 the indicative rehabilitation was carried out: 164800 people 9 are restored in party, mass arrests are suspended, activity of "three" in the center and on places is stopped. As body of extrajudicial repression only the Special meeting at People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR remained. On November 26, 1938 Beria signed the order on a procedure of requirements of the resolution "About Arrests, Public Prosecutor's Supervision and Investigation". The order of the new people's commissar of internal affairs forbade production of any mass operations on arrests, the simplified investigation order was cancelled. It was offered to execute arrests only under the resolution of court or from the sanction of the prosecutor, "three" were liquidated. And on November 9, 1939 the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR issues the order "About Shortcomings of Investigative Work of Bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs" ordering to release from custody illegally arrested on the whole country, to establish strict control over respect for all criminal procedure norms.

As the report work of an investigative part of management of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs for 1939" 10 confirms ", the Kursk security officers held "the operational investigative events providing immediate elimination of the defects and perversions taking place in 1933-1938".

For this purpose all investigative affairs which remained unfinished for January 1, 1939 returned to supplementary examination for "careful verification of proofs of the charge shown to arrested, performance in the course of supplementary examination of the appropriate measures of the Code of Criminal Procedure of RSFSR".

For January 1, 1939 across Kursk region was materials on 834 accused in production of an investigative part of UNKVD, from them: arrested in 1937 - 148 people; arrested in 1938 - 686 people

Besides, in bodies of prosecutor's office and courts remained under consideration of investigative affairs on 1478 defendants. It assumed a possibility of return of a part of these affairs to supplementary examination in UNKVD as "most of them were finished and transferred on jurisdiction when investigative work was not reconstructed in a new way yet and investigation on affairs was made in the simplified ways with existence of essential defects and perversions of methods of the investigation". And, really, on supplementary examination 306 materials returned. In total in time from January 1, 1939 to January 1, 1940 by management of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs across Kursk region it was finished the investigative proceedings initiated in 19371938 on 903 defendants. From them 400 it was condemned for different terms, including: regional court - 265, military courts - 51, the Special meeting at People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR of-84 defendants. Investigative affairs on 503 defendants were stopped: management of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs across Kursk region - on 348, regional court - on 97, a military court - on 20, prosecutor's office - on 38 defendants.

Analyzing dismissed cases, investigators of UNKVD across Kursk region noted such violations of legality as keeping of arrested under guards without sanction of the prosecutor, absence in the these cases for further investigation, not carrying out within several months of interrogations of defendants. On another investigative matters, in

8 CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee. M.: Politizdat. 1985. T. 5. Page 366.
9 Great Patriotic War. 1941 - 1945. Severe tests. M, 1995. Page 49.
10 UFSB archive of the Russian Federation across Kursk region. T. 10. Op 3. 8 (1940). L. 121.

result of additional investigation groundlessness of the carried-out arrests and lack of proofs of charge was established.

For review of the decisions of the former three of UNKVD, consideration and verification of complaints of convicts at an investigative part of management the special group of the qualified employees which studied 1550 archivings was created. Results of check are as follows: it is upheld decisions - 1167, the term of punishment is reduced - to 99 convicts, is released behind the termination of affairs - 344 people including Ya.E. Kozlov. On December 12, 1936 the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) excluded bureau of the Konyshevsky district committee from members of the party of the former chairman of the Yuryevsky Village Council Ya.E. Kozlov "for loss of party documents and as Trotskyist".

On May 21, 1937 the special board of the Kursk regional court found Kozlov guilty that "it at the ceremonial meeting devoted to the 19th anniversary of the October revolution allowed an unhealthy statement in the political relation, and sentenced to imprisonment for a period of 5 years with defeat in electoral rights for 3 years" 11. Because in business there were no sufficient proofs of guilt of Kozlov, and the bases for the bringing to its court were not available, management of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs across Kursk region dismissed on June 1, 1940 criminal case with release it from custody. And here in party it was restored fifty years later. Posthumously.

In general, according to the estimates of V.P. Popov, by the beginning of 1940 the quantity put in the USSR a little decreased that was a consequence of weakening of repressive policy. In total in 1939-1940 for political motives all judicial and extrajudicial authorities condemned 135 thousand 695 people that is nearly 10 times less, than in 1937-1938 when 1 million 344 thousand 923 people were brought to trial

Decrease in the pronounced "firing" sentences became even more essential. In the 1939-1940th to the death penalty on charges of counterrevolutionary and other especially dangerous high treasons it was sentenced 4201 people (in 1937-1938-681692 people) 12. In Kursk region in the 1939-1940th 610 people 13 were condemned While only during the special operation declared by the order of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR No. 00447 "Repression of the former fists, criminals and anti-Soviet elements" and which is carried out from August 6 to December 31, 1937 8354 people suffered 14 Mitigation of repressive policy in the 1939-1940th were expressed also in quite sharp increase in number of verdicts of not guilty what it was not necessary and to dream a year ago of. So, in Kursk region 5 verdicts of not guilty in 1939 and 3 were pronounced - in 1940 15

According to the resolution of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) "About workers for People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR" and the relevant order of Beria No. 59 of May 3, 1939 cleaning of bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs continued. On the compromising materials from management of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs across Kursk region in

the 1939-1940th 13 people, from them 8 - nomenclatures of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of CCCP16 were fired.

On some reconsidered investigative case direct forgeries and falsifications were established. So, the former chief of Tomarovsky district office of UNKVD sergeant of state security of Moves together with the subordinate Lensk in July, 1937, when conducting the investigation "on affairs on former the fists repressed as the mass operations performed at that time fabricated materials about allegedly opened and liquidated insurgent organization" 17. Were arrested and brought to trial the 110th persons. By the carried-out inspection it is established that "Moves and Lensk, forced arrested to sign with measures of physical impact in advance made indications about participation of defendants in the anti-Soviet organization, made testimonies of witnesses on behalf of the persons who were actually not interrogated appended signatures on these protocols, attached in affairs fraudulent documents about allegedly

11 UFSB archive of the Russian Federation across Kursk region. T. LECTURE HALL of P-1354.
12 V.P. Popov the State terror in the Soviet Russia. 1923 - 1953: sources and their interpretation//Domestic archives. 1992. No. 2. Page 28.
13 UFSB archive of the Russian Federation across Kursk region. T. 10. Op. 3.
14 V.G. Karnasevich, Cancers V.V.O repressions of 1937 (on materials of Kursk region)

>//The South of Russia in the past and the present history, economy, culture. Materials of the international practical conference. Belgorod. BELGU. 1998. Page 91.

15 UFSB archive of the Russian Federation across Kursk region. T. 10. Op. 3.
16 UFSB archive of the Russian Federation across Kursk region. T. 10. Op. 3.
17 UFSB archive of the Russian Federation across Kursk region. T. 10. Op. 3.

kulak past of defendants". Moves and Lensk appeared before a Military court of troops of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR.

Among convicts to a capital punishment also the former deputy chief of UNKVD on Kursk region Simanovsky appears. He took the most active part in exposure of the "Integrated right Trotskyist block" headed by the former secretaries of regional committee of party Ivanov, Usherenko and the chairman of regional executive committee Tsarevym18 created by imagination of local security officers. Simanovsky was accused that he "was a participant of the anti-Soviet conspiratorial organization existing in bodies of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and for its task carried out enemy subversive activities" in operational investigative work of UNKVD the Moscow, Kursk, Oryol regions and DmitLa-ge of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the USSR. During operation "on withdrawal of counterrevolutionary elements carried out unreasonable arrests, widely applied the perverted investigation methods prohibited by the law: falsification of investigative documents and beating of arrested, etc." 19

One more feature of the first rehabilitation attracts attention: executives, investigators were shot for falsification of affairs, and sentences on these trumped-up cases remained in force and case were not reconsidered. On November 20, 1939 the former chief of the Mtsensk RO UNKVD on the Oryol region Pikalov was sentenced by a military court of troops of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of Kursk region to 7 years of labor camps. In a sentence it was noted that Pikalov, "directing special operation on withdrawal of kulak and other counterrevolutionary element in 1937-1938 on the Mtsensk district, followed a criminal way of a perversion of revolutionary legality and methods of investigation, created a system mass unreasonable and without availability of any compromising materials of arrests of citizens". Together with it judged some other employees and perjurers. At the same time from under arrest released 158 residents of the Mtsensk district. Justice it seems triumphed. But the majority of illegal decisions remained in force. The victims of lawlessness continued to carry a brand of enemies of the people for a long time, their family suffered. Moreover, on December 9, 1941. The presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR made the decision on Pikalov's pardon and removal of criminal record from it! The mode remained is faithful to itself. A game in legality ended. The most odious figures of political investigation too much knowing, and therefore the dangerous to the mode and called "the enemy elements which made the way in ranks of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs" were sacrificed.

Should note

that changes in a political policy happened, scales of repressions were limited, however completely did not stop. They also could not stop. The blows struck to party and society that it was possible to speak about a little real democratization were too hard. In February, 1939 Beria authorized execution big (413 people) groups of party, Soviet, Komsomol, economic and military workers.

Punitive measures did not promote improvement of the situation in the organization of production, training of qualified personnel. Owing to these features, new repressive laws in the industry were in the late thirties adopted, fight against "squandering of collective-farm lands" amplified, the pogektarny allotment of preparations in the village is entered. The resolution SNK USSR, Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and VCPS "About Actions for Streamlining of Labour Discipline, Improvement of Practice of the National and Social Insurance and Fight against Abuses in This Case" measures of responsibility for violations of labor discipline (on December 28, 1938) became tougher. For 20 minutes any worker or the employee could be fired for delay. The hour working day at seven-day working week was established by the decree of June 26, 1940 the 8th, unauthorized departure of workers and employees from the enterprises and institutions was forbidden. Working hours of each worker increased on average for 33 hours a month. "Unauthorized leaving from the enterprise was punished by imprisonment for a period of up to four months, a truancy without good reason - condemnation to corrective-labor works on the place rabo-

18 V.G. Karnasevich. Business of the integrated right Trotskyist block//History and culture: past and present. Materials of reports and messages of the Second correspondence nauchnometodichesky conference. Kursk. KGPU. 1999. Page 46.
19 Requiem. The book of memory of the victims of political repressions on Orlovschina. Oryol. 1994. Page 36.

you for a period of up to six months with deduction to 25% of the earned payment" 20. The decree of July 10, 1940 equated to wrecking with all that it implies release of substandard products.

In 1939-1941 also the condemnation order according to lists remained though at the same time and underwent changes. In cases when condemnation "as the Law of December 1, 1934" was supposed, the people's commissar of internal affairs, sometimes together with the Prosecutor of the USSR, gave addressed to Stalin a note with a request for the corresponding sanction. The exact number of subjects to execution and condemnation in the camp was most often specified in a note, lists planned to condemnation were attached to it, as a rule. On the basis of this note of the Politburo issued the formal resolution then the Military board of VS USSR considered cases on the zasedaniyakh21. However, it is necessary to notice that during this period the Military board possessed after all a certain share of freedom, and from time to time she sent some affairs for supplementary examination, sometimes changed also a punishment measure. Such cases were surely coordinated by Stalin.

Also the Commission of the Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) on lawsuits continued these years the work. She still considered sentences of all judicial authorities to execution, first of all sentences of courts and tribunals that did not stop doing also in 1937-1938, but also and - after a two-year break - sentences of Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR, in those exceptional cases when case was considered not "as the Law of December 1, 1934".

Thus, mitigation of repressive policy in 1939-1940 was carried out when ideological and political fight in power structures was almost complete, elements which potentially the Chairman of Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR Ulrich or Beria with could oppose the Stalin mode are liquidated. As it was noted above, the wave of arrests subsided at the beginning of 1939. Several thousands of arrested during terror were then are unbound. Obviously, Stalin wanted to force the people to believe that already prostrate Ezhov was the main organizer of terror. This maneuver was aimed also at calming public opinion, to limit a role of retaliatory bodies, and to lay blame for mass repressions on Ezhov and his team. This trick made certain success. In the face of the terrible destiny many from being in prison believed that imperialists, carrying out the anti-Soviet plot, occupied also the state security agencies. They saw that communists, same as they, are destroyed in a large number. As they also knew that these people are not guilty of crimes in which they are forced to confess, there had to be some other explanation for the events. They knew that the fascist modes pursue communists, send them to concentration camps, and from here "the fascist theory" of big terror was a natural conclusion that was in every possible way duplicated in mass media. Therefore, the weakening of repressive policy which was outlined in 1938 was caused by the changes of party shots of various levels, the crisis phenomena which are the most significantly shown in the economic sphere. However rehabilitation remained only a facade behind which the retaliatory policy continued to take roots.

PECULIARITIES OF THE SOVIET AUTHORITIES& REPRESSIVE POLICY IN LATE 1930s

The article is devoted to the repressive policy of the Soviet authorities in late 1930s. The research is based on the archival materials of the Central Black Soil Re-M.I. VARVOLOMEEVA gion, which allow to reveal the causes and consequences of the Soviet State&s repres-

sive policy.

Belgorod State University

The author comes to a conclusion that the ideological-political struggle has become less rigid in late 1930s and, as a result, policy of terror has softened.

20 O.V. Hlevnyuk on June 26, 1940: illusions and realities of administration//Communist. 1989. No. 9.
21 A. Roginsky. Epilog//Firing lists. Moscow, 1937 - 1941. Book of memory of the victims of political repressions. M, 2000. Page 500.
Lisa Gordon
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