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Category: History

Outstanding researcher and organizer of the Tajik historical science



karim Osim Kosimovich, -

doctor of historical sciences, professor rector of TGUPBP.

OUTSTANDING RESEARCHER AND ORGANIZER of the TAJIK HISTORICAL SCIENCE

One of the most important indicators of a historical role of the people in development of a civilization are monuments of written culture. In them rich historical experience of the people, its spiritual and material achievements is imprinted. Development of historical science testifies

about the high culture of the people. The historical science on particles collects and investigates data of written sources. In the 30th years of the XX century there is a formation of history of the Tajik people as independent branch of science. Many Russians and the Tajik scientists made an invaluable contribution to development of historical science, such as M.E. Masson, S.P. Tolstov, A.P. Okladnikov, A.Yu Yakubovsky, M.M. Dyakonov, I.P. Petrushevsky, A.M. Belenitsky, B.A. Litvinsky, E.A. Davidovich, A.N. Bernshtam, E.E. Bertels, I.S. Braginsky, S. Ayni, B.G. Gafurov, Z.Sh. Radzhabov, B. Iskandarov, A. Mukhtorov, N.N. Negmatov, R. Masov and others. The Tajik historical science reached the highest development in the 60th years, scientists - archeologists opened new archeological sites, the monographs generalizing researches on history of Tajiks among which "History of the Tajik people" in three volumes, 1963-1965 of the edition is important were published.

B. Gafurov is the recognized organizer of science. Since 1956 when the scientist headed Institute of oriental studies of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the oriental studies becomes one of the main directions of scientific research, at the same time this establishment acts as the main conductor of diplomacy of the USSR in east countries. The fact that B. Gafurov and in this field successfully combines both scientific, and political activity is interesting, executing the social order of the state and strengthening influence of the USSR in east countries. In parallel it pays close attention to development of oriental studies, including deep and comprehensive study of history of the Tajik people. This feature of activity of the great scientist is shown in the organization of numerous international scientific conferences.

In 1960 in Moscow there goes the international congress of orientalists, to the organizations and which carrying out B. Gafurov actively participated. It heads the Soviet Committee on the project of UNESCO "the East - the West", acts as the initiator of creation of the project of this organization for studying cultures of Central Asia. The scientist makes two scientific reports on the XXVI international congress of orientalists which took place in New Delhi in

1964. The big contribution was brought by the academician B. Gafurov in studying history and culture Kushan. On its initiative this question was included in the program of the project of UNESCO. According to its offer in September, 1968 in Dushanbe the International conference of UNESCO on history and the culture of Central Asia during the Kushansky era took place. This conference assisted deeper studying a role of the empire of Kushan in development of a world civilization. The scientific report of B. Gafurov on the subject "Kushansky Era and World Civilization" was approved by its participants. In studying history and the culture of the people of Central Asia the international symposium on art of an era Temuridov passing in September, 1969 in Samarkand which was discovered by B. Gafurov was of also great importance. The role of the scientist also in carrying out the XIII international congress of historical sciences which took place in Moscow in August, 1970 where scientists from 47 countries of the world took part is invaluable. In 1972 in Ashgabat on the project of UNESCO there takes place the International conference "UNESCO — Central Asia" which discussed problems of modern and contemporary history, social and cultural development of the countries of Central Asia in the 19th and 20th centuries 1 at the initiative of B. Gafurov the Publishing house of east literature and the Central east library are created.

The new bright era of development of historical science begins in the early seventies when the book by the academician B. Gafurov "Tajiks" was published.

The book "Tajiks" is a wreath of historical science of Tajikistan. On the value this research costs in the same row with classical D.D. Bartold, A.A. Semyonov, B.A. works

Litvinsky, S. Ayni, etc. At the time "Namunai of an adabiyota tozhik" (1926) of S. Ayni played an important role in protection of cultural wealth of the Tajik people. The book by the academician B. Gafurov also opened a new era of national consciousness. This invaluable work prepared a spiritual basis of today's national independence. At the same time independence gave a new impulse to knowledge of activity of the academician B. Gafurov as great scientist, opened new bright pages of his activity. Revival of a name and worthy fulfillments of this scientist and statesman is connected with creative initiatives of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon. The head of state highly appreciated merits of the academician B. Gafurov as statesman and great scientist. In the performances devoted to the 90 anniversary and in the subsequent to the 100 anniversary of the academician, the President of the republic fairly notes that "Tajiks" -

1 A. Mukhtorov, Sharipov Sh. Akademik Bobodzhon Gafurov. - Dushanbe: Irfon, 1983. - page 35 - 36.

the first full and generalized research on history of one of the most ancient people of the world, his author, having published results of the more than thirty years' work, showed to the international community a worthy contribution of our ancestors in history and a civilization of mankind. The president emphasized that this book as a torch, lit the dark and forgotten pages of history of the Tajik nation, woke consciousness, national pride and historical memory of the people. With bravery peculiar to the author he collected incontestable facts and showed thousand-year cultural and state tradition of Tajiks, at the same time gave an objective and fair assessment of historical experience of mankind and cultural heritage of other residents of Central Asia. According to the head of state, unlike other historians of the Soviet period ignoring national consciousness, B. Gafurov studies history of Tajiks and other people of Central Asia in close connection with the European history, proves to be as the Euro-Asian historian of a new era.

The president of the country puts B. Gafurov in one row with Sadriddin Ayni. He emphasizes that during bitter political and scientific struggle, i.e. in the 30th years of the XX century when thousands of representatives of the intellectuals were repressed, thousands of others left the homeland, B. Gafurov together with S. Ayni with pride fulfilled the duty of protection of reputation of the Tajik nation, protection of its rich history against distortion. The head of state equally highly appreciates B. Gafurov as the statesman and as scientist. It is noted that B. Gafurov, being the head of the Communist Party of Tajikistan, not only aimed the creative activity at the development of Tajikistan, but also, having published "Short history of the Tajik people" and "Tajiks", laid the foundation of modern historical school of sciences and tradition. Having given hundreds of proofs and on the basis of one thousand true sources he proved that Tajiks as creators of culture and a civilization do not need artificial glorification and distortion of history. 1

The most important creation of the academician B. Gafurov is the basic research "Tajiks. The ancient, ancient and medieval history" (Moscow, 1972). This book - the generalizing research on history of Tajiks since the most ancient times till the new period. Creation of this invaluable book has the prerequisites. During almost half a century in historical science of Tajikistan the set of researches which were devoted to separate problems of history of Tajiks collected. Besides, among scientists-historians there were various opinions on many key questions. For this reason there was an objective need to generalize all these

1 B. Gafurov. Tajiks. - Dushanbe, 1987. - page 7.

researches to develop general provisions of the concept on important questions of history of the Tajik people. This noble and great mission was executed by the academician B. Gafurov. The book "Tajiks" is a logical conclusion of other work of B. Gafurov, "History of the Tajik people in a summary" which was published in 1947 and was the first generalizing work on stories of the Tajik people. This work was transferred to Russian and sustained three editions (1949, 1952, 1955) in Moscow. The book was highly appreciated by prominent scientists: A.A. Yakubovsky, S.P. Tolstov, M.M. Dyakunov, N.N. Kmelyakov, D A. Romadina, etc. on February 25, 1952 the academic council of Institute of history of material culture of Academy of Sciences of the USSR appropriated to the author of this work an academic degree of the doctor of historical sciences, and a year before, in 1951, he was elected the academician of AN of Tajikistan.1 In 1963-1965 under its management is published

"History of the Tajik people" in three volumes. The final stage of its long-term work is the edition of the book "Tajiks". At the subsequent stages of the scientific creativity the academician B. Gafurov, along with addition and improvement of the work, develops single questions of history of Tajiks and other people of Central Asia also more deeply. The monograph "Alexander of Macedon and East" published in 1980 in Moscow, together with the Greek erudite D.I. Tsibukiris demonstrates to it.

"Tajiks" are the first capital research where history of Tajiks is considered as an important component of general history, but at the same time the contribution of our ancestors to a treasury of a world civilization is deeply analyzed. This feature is emphasized by the academician M.A. Korostovtsev and the doctor of historical sciences S.L. Utchenko. The author draws a wide picture of historical and cultural ties of Tajiks with other people, shows ancient history of Tajiks as an important component of history of the East and to a certain extent all mankind (we will remember the empire of Akhemenidov).2 In the capital work B. Gafurov agrumentirovanno resolves difficult scientific questions, such as Aryan problem, ethnic and linguistic interactions of tribes and the people of Central Asia, India, Afghanistan, Iran and the Eurasian steppes during the ancient period, origin of class society in Central Asia, emergence and evolution of Zoroastrianism, synthesis of cultures of ancient Tajiks with other people,

1 From a speech of the President of the Republic of Tatarstan Emomali Rahmon at the solemn meeting devoted 100 - to the anniversary of the academician B. Gafurov on December 24, 2008//Lumauriyat. - 2008. December-25.
2 A. Kodirov, Sh. Sharipov, Sh. Akramov, A. Azimov. The scientist with a world name. / the Star shining knowledge and good. - Khujand, 1999. - page 20.

origin, chronology and culture of hianit, eftalit, kushan, issues of ethnogenesis of Tajiks and other people of Central Asia, etc. At the solution of many difficult questions B. Gafurov successfully uses various sources, offers and develops a new technique of scientific research. For example, when developing the religious system of Zoroastrianism he considers relics of Zoroastrian religion in modern life: "These ethnographies are important for studying ancient history of ancestors of the Tajik people. In pre-revolutionary life of Tajiks, especially mountain, many remnants of the primitive-communal relations remained. Big general houses in the settlements of Darwaz and Karategina".1 are that, for example,

For the first time attracting data of written, archaeological, epigraphic, ethnographic and other sources, B. Gafurov investigates structure of ancient Central Asian society more fully, in detail considers institutes of medieval feudal land tenure, category of feudal grants.2

Through all book the thought that the people are a maker of history stands out, thanks to his heroism and firmness it could keep the culture, a civilization and originality. This feature is confirmed by the following remarks of outstanding scientists: "Though the author rather in details narrates also about political events of many centuries, and about internal wars, and about changes of dynasties, he pays the main attention to history of a people at large, activity of direct producers - in the field of metallurgy of iron, development of agriculture and an irrigation, craft, creation of the cities, construction art and architecture, etc., also the history of people's movements, liberating fight of a people at large." 3 V to the book by B. Gafurov comprehensively are considered social and economic processes, problems of ethnic history, cultural history and cultural synthesis.4 the Academician B. Gafurov in the fundamental work offers the new concept of history of the Tajik people. The basis of this concept is formed by creative activity of Tajiks in a world civilization. The author in a new way estimates some fatal periods of history of Tajiks, objectively estimates them from a position of historical realism. B. Gafurov as follows characterizes the research: "The author, certainly, does not aspire to

1 B. Gafurov. Tajiks. - M.: Science, 1972. - page 64.
2 A. Kodirov, Sh. Sharipov, Sh. Akramov, A. Azimov. The scientist with a world name. / the Star shining knowledge and good. - Khujand, 1999. - page 37.
3 V.A. Korostovtsev, S.L. Utchenko. Researches on ancient history//Development of the Soviet historical science. - M.: Science, 1970 - 1974. - page 144.
4 I.I. Mintz, M.A. Korostovtsev. Of the past to the present and the future.//Academy of Sciences of the USSR bulletin.-№3. 1976. - page 103.

to encyclopedic illumination of one and all... stories of the Tajik people. The plan consisted in connecting a historical outline to a research of the major, most difficult and quite often debatable problems". 1

The edition of the book was an important milestone in development of historical science. B.A. Litvinsky calls the book by B. Gafurov capital work and highlights:

"In this work the synthesis of all results of researches achieved in the Soviet and progressive foreign science by the beginning of the 70th years was carried out. B.G. Gafurov not only with exclusive skill drew a wide historical cloth, but also worked each its site with amazing detail. History contours, and literally its live flesh with all its difficulties and contradictions appear at us not just". 2

Independence gave to "Tajiks" new, bright life. At the initiative of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, dear Emomali Rahmon, a name and affairs of the academician B. Gafurov became a symbol of national pride and revival. The celebration of the 90 anniversary, and subsequently the 100 anniversaries of the academician B. Gafurov turned into a celebration of historical traditions, revival of cultural values and friendship of the people of Central Asia. At the request of the head of state the new edition of "Tajiks" in the Tajik and English languages in number of 50 thousand copies is prepared today. Besides, the Academy of Sciences was given an assignment to prepare the chosen works of B. Gafurov for the edition. In studying activity of the academician B. Gafurov the big contribution was brought by scientists A. Mukhtorov, the X Holdzhurayev, U. Gafforov, Sh. Sharipov and others. One of the main directions of our scientific research also makes studying rich creative heritage of the academician B. Gafurov.

The Tajik state university of the right, business and policy published the book "Tajiks" by Babadzhan Gafurov in the compressed statement". The purpose of this work - briefly and popularly to state the book "Tajiks". It is the first attempt in historical science not only the analysis of a research, but also his statement and interpretation. In introduction the short biography of the scientist is considered, the methodology and the concept of the book "Tajiks" are analyzed. The main concept of B. Gafurov is defined by authors. The framework of the monograph is made by the author's concept and vision of the most difficult processes and peripetias of history of formation and development of natives and avtokhonny (primordially radical)

1 B. Gafurov. Tajiks. - M.: Science, 1972. - page 6.
2 Kim G., Litvinsky B. Naslediye of the academician B. Gafurov.//the Communist of Tajikistan, of July 12, 1978.

Tajiks of Central Asia, their contribution to a world civilization. Also an integrated approach of B. Gafurov to studying history of Tajiks which is expressed in a research of history, economy, social science, policy, ideology is highlighted. Besides, authors are imposed by that situation that B. Gafurov states history and the culture of the Tajik people against the background of history and the culture of all of the people inhabiting Central Asia as an integrated part of the general history of the Central Asian people.

At statement of the main book contents "Tajiks" the style of the author was most kept, at the same time it is presented to the reader by simple, clear, popular language. For example, B. Gafurov's research about a bronze age is so summed up: "Comprehensively investigating materials of archeological finds, B. Gafurov comes to a conclusion that throughout a bronze age the most advanced and highly cultured area of Central Asia was the Southern Turkmenistan. It entered the extensive field of the early agricultural communities adjoining city civilizations of the Ancient East".

In a final part the book "Tajiks" is analyzed, its place in world historical science is considered. Fragments from works of the famous scientists-orientalists published for confirmation of the provisions stated by the author are of great interest. Some of these statements are for the first time published in scientific works.

Promotion, promoting of this fundamental work is especially important for modern generation, his education in the spirit of patriotism, high culture, friendship and national pride. Presenting to the reader this book, we make an attempt more deeply to study creative heritage of the academician B. Gafurov and also to contribute to business of statement and promoting of fundamental scientific works.

O.K. Karimov

Outstanding researcher and organizer of the Tajik historical science

In the 30th years of the XX century there is a formation of history of the Tajik people as independent branch of science. Many Russians and the Tajik scientists made an invaluable contribution to development of the Tajik historical science. Since 1956 when B. Gafurov headed Institute of oriental studies of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the oriental studies becomes one of the main directions of scientific research, at the same time

this establishment acts as the main conductor of diplomacy of the USSR in east countries. This feature of activity of the great scientist is shown in the organization of numerous international scientific conferences. The book "Tajiks" is a wreath of historical science of Tajikistan. On the value this research costs in the same row with D.D. Bartold, A.A. Semyonov, B.A. Litvinsky, S. Ayni's classical works, etc. Scientists of the Tajik state university of the right, business and policy published the book "Tajiks" by Babadzhan Gafurov in the compressed statement". The purpose of this work is to study more deeply creative heritage of the academician B. Gafurov and also to contribute to business of statement and promoting of fundamental scientific works.

Karimov O.K.

Prominent researcher and organizer of the Tajik history science

Tajik nation's history began its formation as an independent branch of science in the 30th of XX century. Many Russian and Tajik scientists made valuable contribution in the development of Tajik history. Since 1956, when B. Gafurov headed Oriental Study Institute of Science Academy of the USSR, oriental studies has become one of the principle scientific research directions and at the same time this establishment has become one of the main guides of the Soviet Union’s diplomacy in the eastern countries. Such creative peculiarities of the great scientist is noticed in organization number of international scientific conferences.

His book "Tajiks" is a crown work in the history of Tajik science. By its worth this research work is in the same row with the classical works of D.D. Bartold, A. A. Semyonov, B. A. Litvinskiy, S Aini and others. The scientists of Tajik state university of Law, Business and Politics published B. Gafurov’s book in concise composition. The aim of this work is a deep study of academician B. Gafurov’s literary inheritance and to put contribution in popularization of fundamental scientific work.

Julie Williams
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