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LIFE AND SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY of V.M. BEKHTEREVA V of KAZAN (To the 150 anniversary since birth)



ISTORIYA MEDITSINA

UDC 61 (091) Bekhterev

LIFE AND SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY of V.M. BEKHTEREVA V of KAZAN (To the 150 anniversary since birth)

N.H. Amirov, A.S. Sozinov, M.F. Ismagilov, D.M. Mendelevich

Department of hygiene and medicine of work (manager. - the academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Science N.H. Amirov), department of biomedical ethics with a medicine history course (the manager. - prof. A.S. Sozinov), department of neurology (manager. - prof. M.F. Ismagilov), department of psychiatry (manager. - prof. K.K. Yakhin) Kazan state medical university

>. V.M. Bekhterev did not want to go to Kazan. He sincerely considered that only in St. Petersburg, in a circle of peers scientists and under the leadership of the teachers in psychiatric clinic of Army medical college he will fully be able to show the abilities and to achieve achievements in science. Its position was promoted in no small measure by laudatory responses on its already complete first scientific articles and researches.

The rural boy who was born in the remote village of Sar-whether of the Yelabuga County of the Vyatka province, studying in the Vyatka gymnasium, brought up in family by only one mother in connection with early death of the father at modest material prosperity early matured and understood that in life he has to try to obtain everything. In 16 years without any patronage the young man came to medico-surgical academy. The way to tops of science seemed to him direct and smooth, and the recommendation to send it in & #34; provincial университет" in Kazan was obviously not in its plans.

It is known that V.M. Bekhterev tried to avoid this moving, having put forward before the minister of national education as it seemed to it, & #34; unacceptable условия" for the work in Kazan. However, being in a foreign business trip, he learned that the minister promised to fulfill all his requirements. Nothing needed to be done how to obey. There is an impression that before a trip to Kazan V.M. Bekhterev, probably, was insufficiently informed on a condition of science at medical faculty of the Kazan university. Actually, even before his arrival to Kazan and at it there were already visible schools of anatomists (E.F. Aristov, D.S. Ermakov, A.M. Fortunatov), physiologists (N.O. Kowalewski, N.A. Mislavsky), histologists (K.A. Arstein), pharmacologists (I.M. Dogel), pathologists (A.V. Petrov, N.M. Lyubimov), hygienists (A.I. Yakoby, I.P. Skvortsov), therapists (N.A.

Vinogradov, S.V. Levashov, M.A. Homyakov, N.A. Zasetsky). In Kazan also other famous scientists worked.

Thus, V.M. Bekhterev in Kazan organically fitted into scientific personnel of the university, actively participated in the general researches and carried away the innovative ideas representatives of various medical disciplines. Soon, despite the youth, it became the center of generation of the ideas in the field of neuromorphology and their active performer. The surprising working capacity, ability to see the general regularities even in the concrete facts, sometimes in isolated cases, rallied both talented youth, and venerable scientists around V.M. Bekhterev. V.M. Bekhterev's school was so created. Many pupils of Vladimir Mikhaylovich became further professors, outstanding scientists, heads of medical institutions.

In Kazan V.M. Bekhterev achieved great success in different areas of medical activity. Here he investigated a role of a motive cerebral cortex in mental functions of the person. On the basis of clinical and experimental observations the scientist came to a conclusion about dynamic functional localization of motive area of bark of a brain and showed that anatomic violations of a brain lead to its functional reorganization and development of compensatory mechanisms.

V.M. Bekhterev formulated the principle of structurally functional approach assuming studying the structure of a brain in unity with its functions. It drew a conclusion on existence of uniform psychological process which main unit of the analysis is the reflex as the elementary act of behavior. Thereby the important step to development of system strategy of scientific research of the person was taken.

For years of work at the Kazan Bekhterev university conducted numerous neuromorphological researches of the structure of the conducting ways of a brain. A number of nervous formations was open for them; vposledstviiya his name was appropriated to some of them. So, Bekhterev for the first time revealed and described the congestion of cages more dorsally than Deyters's kernel concerning a back (vestibular) of an acoustical nerve (Bekhterev's kernel). He studied and characterized distribution in gray and white substance central nervous system of back backs of a spinal cord. By it it was revealed that back backs consist of non-uniform fibers, miyeliniziruyemy at different times, having various caliber and entering a ratio with various structures of a spinal cord. Bekhterev for the first time described an outer associative layer of bark of a brain (bekhterevsky strip), three earlier unknown bunches in a spinal cord, in detail studied a reticular formation, described a number of nervous bunches and kernels in a brain trunk. For the first time the scientist established origin of a front back of an acoustical nerve from a predoor part (r. vestibularis), and a back back - from an ulitkovy part (r. cochlearis) of an acoustical nerve. Proceeding from results of the researches, Bekhterev prepared the first edition & #34; The Carrying-out ways мозга" and in 1892 published this work in & #34; Scientific notes Kazan университета". The second edition left in 1893, edited and added & #34; The Carrying-out ways back and head мозга" it was conferred Baer's award to the Russian Academy of Sciences. In this work Bekhterev for the first time gave the full and systematized description of the communications existing in various departments of a spinal cord, and the course of nervous ways in different departments of central nervous system presented the system of the structure of a head and spinal cord. This book was translated into foreign languages and created to her author the world popularity.

Based on own researches and data of literature, Bekhterev wrote two chapters - & #34; Brain полушария" and & #34; About nervous ways back and head мозга" for the Russia's first fundamental guide to histology & #34; The Basis to studying microscopic human anatomy and животных" published in 1887. In Kazan he created the Russia's first psychophysiological laboratory.

In the field of clinical psychiatry he offered new original classification of mental disorders, described a number of new psychopathological symptoms, organized hospital psychiatric clinic on the basis of the District psychiatric clinic.

V.M. Bekhterev worked with neurologic patients out of clinical base of the university: in the Kazan military hospital and Provincial territorial hospital where with its participation neurologic offices were created. Results of work in these medical institutions found reflection in its many scientific works. In particular, in the newspaper & #34; Врач" in 1892 for the first time in the world literature material & #34 was published; A backbone Oderevenelost with its curvature as a special form заболевания". This frustration on justice has to carry the name of a disease of Bekhterev.

One of the first V.M. Bekhterev began to study a brain quantitatively, having designed a set of original devices: a pneymograf, refleksometr, the spring hammer for measurement of knee reflexes, the device for a research of acoustic permeability of cranial bones, the device for a research of hairpin sensitivity, etc. He created model of the carrying-out ways and the centers of a brain, opened a number of the normal and pathological reflexes called by his name. A conclusion about self-control of the systems signaling about position of a body in space and creation of idea of visual hillocks as the area defining set of the motive and vegetative reactions expressing an emotional condition of animals and the person also belongs to V.M. Bekhterev.

Method of irritation or an extirpation of certain sites of a brain it in the creative union with N.A. Mislavsky opened the cortical centers, including thermoregulations of a cardiovascular system, digestive tract, liver, kidneys, a bladder and genitals. Together with I.K. Meyer the role of a cerebral cortex in development of epileptic seizures was established. Except & #34; The Carrying-out ways head and back мозга" in Kazan V.M. Bekhterev wrote also two-volume work & #34; Nervous diseases in separate наблюдениях". Both monographs became reference books of neurologists of Russia and Europe.

Having deeply comprehended from height learned value of differentiation of neurologic knowledge and also need

associations of sciences about a brain and mentality V.M. Bekhterev enters a concept & #34; неврология" acting as the zealous supporter of association of neuropathology and psychiatry under this term. He was a forerunner of neurosciences which obtained nowadays citizenship around the world. Neurosciences unite neurophysiology, neuromorphology, clinical neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, psychology and other medical specialties. The great scientist expected the future integration of neurosciences.

In the field of psychopharmacology V.M. Bekhterev created mixture with sedative and An-tikonvulsivnym action for treatment of epilepsy and other nervous breakdowns. He developed and widely introduced a technique of collective psychotherapy of alcoholism in practice, created an original psychotherapeutic technique for treatment of borderlines.

In 1982 he organized the Russia's third society of neuropathologists and psychiatrists uniting doctors not only narrow specialties, but also psychologists, teachers, lawyers and also in 1893 began to issue the magazine & #34; Neurologic вестник". His idea about association of neuropathology and surgery led further to creation of neurosurgery.

Vladimir Mikhaylovich repeatedly brought up a question of construction of separate psychiatric clinic of the Kazan university, as further was carried out.

It is known that in 1893 M. Bekhterev occupied department of psychiatry and Army medical college, having replaced the teacher I.P. Merzheevsky who retired. And if V.M. Bekhterev originally tried to avoid moving to Kazan, then, having worked several years here, he did not want to leave this city any more. In & #34; Автобиографии" subsequently (1927) he will write that & #34; it was so satisfied with scientific work., so got used to the best scientific representatives nice for the traditions medical факультета" that & #34; internally protested. and in general found out much колебаний".

The news received from Army medical college that business is already put so that in the Ministry of national education by this time even the issue of the new head of the department of psychiatry in Kazan was agreed was a decisive reason for departure. Thus, V.M. Bekhterev left Kazan the world famous scientist and the organizer. All the subsequent life he did not interrupt communication with the Kazan scientists and repeatedly pointed to that important role which was played by the Kazan period of activity in its formation as the scientist and the organizer of science and practice.

Residents of Tatarstan deeply revere memory of the great fellow countryman. The village of Sa-rali in which V.M. Bekhterev was born is renamed into Bekhterevo. The school in the village bears a name of Bekhterev. In the regional center to it the monument is delivered to Yelabuga. One of streets of Kazan on which it lived several years is also called by his name. Opposite to psychiatric hospital which bears his name too the monument devoted to it is established. On the building of the Kaazan-sky state university and republican psychiatric hospital (former & #34; district лечебница") memorial plates in honor of V.M. Bekhterev are open. In the museums of the Kazan state university, the Kazan state medical university, Republican clinical psychiatric hospital and in the Yelabuga museum the permanent expositions devoted to Bekhterev are open. His name is appropriated to the scientific medical magazine & #34; Neurologic вестник" which was based by it in 1893 and also to the nauchnomeditsinsky society of neurologists and psychiatrists of the Republic of Tatarstan organized by it in 1892

The genius advances time and, V.M. Bekhterev outstripped time for the whole century. The creative heritage of the great scientist excites a scientific thought, reminds of difficult and still unresolved problems of psychiatry and neurology, urges to develop psychoneurology in line with the most important traditions of science about a brain.

Within the anniversary actions devoted to the 150 anniversary since the birth of the outstanding representative of domestic and world neurology, the founder of the Kazan psychoneurological school Vladimir Mikhaylovich Bekhterev from June 27 to June 30, 2007 in Kazan the All-Russian scientific congress & #34 was carried out; V.M. Bekhterev - the founder of neurosciences: creative heritage, history and современность" with participation of the leading neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists, neurophysiologists, neuromorphologists and representatives of other branches of medicine of the Russian Federation and foreign countries under the auspices of Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO and protectorate of the president of the Republic of Tatarstan.

Raymond Ward
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