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Category: History

Russian emigration of the XX century


UDC 930


Sergey Aleksandrovich Sotnikov, the candidate of historical sciences, the associate professor, FGOUVPO "Russian gosudarstvennshuniversitt tourism and service", Moscow

The history of Russian emigration explains the Russian history of the twentieth century, which was according to N.V. Ustryalova "under the sign of revolution". The author shows the history of development and the political activity of the Russian emigration after the revolution in the global and Russian historical context. The article identifies the status of the emigration and its role in the life of Russia and the international community.

Knowledge of history of the Russian emigration helps understanding of the Russian history of the 20th century, passed, speaking to N.B. Ustryalov's words, "under the sign of revolution". The purpose of work is the analysis of history of formation, political activity of the Russian emigration of a postrevolutionary time in the context of world and Russian history, determination of its features, places and roles in life of Russia and the international society.

Before revolution of 1917 Russia officially was called "the All-Russian Empire", also the name "Russian State" was used. It was the imperial multinational state which had the flexible constitutional forms allowing the various confederative relations with many religions.

The multinational character was reflected also in imperial passports which not only stated imperial nationality, the general for all residents of Russia, but also nationality and religion of each citizen in consent with his will. However citizens of non-russian and even non Slavic nationalities which in passports appeared Russians at their own desire were citizens of the Russian Empire also. The Russian culture and the Russian state did not recognize national and racial discrimination because on a svoyemudukha were imperial.

The Russian emigration which resulted from five years' civil war (1917 — 1922) in number reaching 3 million people always used such criterion. Besides, this emigration consisted not only of members of the above-marked-out three groups vostoch-

ny Slavs, but also from the persons belonging to various minorities of the Russian Empire that was not an obstacle for their own self-determination as "the Russian emigrants".

Revolution of 1917. "First wave" of emigration

Emigration from Russia first of all was directed to countries of Western Europe. Paris, Berlin, Prague, Belgrade, Sofia became the main centers of the Russian emigration of the first wave. A considerable part of emigrants settled also in Harbin, and at first in Constantinople. The first Russian labor and religious emigrants in Australia appeared in the 19th century, but it was not the mass phenomenon. After 1905 in Australia also the first political refugees began to appear. After 1917 — 1921 in Australia there were new emigrants fleeing the Soviet Russia, but them was a little. Brisbane, Melbourne, Sydney were the main centers of new emigration.

Emigrants of "the first wave" considered the exile the forced and short-term episode, hoping for fast return


Russian emigration of the 20th century

to Russia, after fast as it seemed to them, the crashes of the Soviet state. In many respects these reasons caused their aspiration to stand apart from active participation in life of countries of residence, counteraction of assimilation and unwillingness to adapt to new life. They sought to limit the life to a framework of emigrant colony.

Emigration of "the first wave" consisted of the most cultural layers of the Russian pre-revolutionary society, with disproportionately big share of military. According to the League of Nations, all Russia after the revolution was abandoned by 1 million 160 thousand refugees. About a quarter from them belonged to the White armies which went to emigration at different times from different fronts.

On the eve of the revolution of 1917 the number of the Russian colony in Manchuria was not less than 200 — 220 thousand people, and by November, 1920 — already not less than 288 thousand people. Due to the cancellation on September 23, 1920 the status of exterritoriality for the Russian citizens in China all Russian population in it including refugees, passed to an unenviable position of bespoddanny emigrants in foreign state, that is on position of the actual diaspora.

For the first time the serious flow of the Russian refugees in the Far East is dated the beginning of 1920. The second — October-November, 1920 when the army of so-called "Russian East outskirts" under command of the ataman G.M. Semyonov was crushed. The third — December, 1922 when in the region the Soviet power was finalized. By sea some thousands of people left, the main flow of refugees went from Primorye to Manchuria and Korea.

Into China, behind some exceptions, did not allow, even sent some to the Soviet Russia. However in China, namely in Xinjiang, in the northwest of the country, there was one more considerable (more than 5.5 thousand people) the Russian colony consisting of the Cossacks of the general Bakich and the former ranks of white army which receded here after defeats in the Urals and in Semirechye. They lodged in rural areas and were engaged in agricultural work.

Quantitatively Russian colonies in Manchuria and China in 1923 when war already ended, were estimated approximately at 400

one thousand people. From this quantity not less than 100 thousand received the Soviet passports in 1922 — 1923, many of them — not less than 100 thousand people — were repatriated in RSFSR (a role was played here also by amnesty announced on November 3, 1921 to ordinary participants of White Guard connections). (Sometimes to ten thousand of people a year) also reemigration of Russians to other countries, especially the youth aspiring in the universities were considerable during the twenties (in particular, to the USA, Australia and South America and also Europe).

One of the first flows of refugees in the south of Russia took place also at the beginning of 1920. In May, 1920 by the general Wrangel it was founded the so-called Emigratory Council a year later renamed into Council for resettlement of the Russian refugees. Erazhdansky and military refugees were settled in camps near Constantinople, on the Princes Islands and in Bulgaria; military of the camp and on Lemnos (Kuban camp) were in Eallipoli, Cha-taldzhe under the English or French administration.

The last operations on evacuation of army of Wrangel took place from November 11 to November 14, 1920. On the ships 15 thousand Cossacks, 12 thousand officers and 4 — 5 thousand soldiers of regular parts, 10 thousand cadets, 7 thousand wounded officers, more than 30 thousand officers and officials of the back and up to 60 thousand civilians, generally members of families of officers and officials were shipped. To the Crimean wave evacuated emigration it was given especially hard.

The card file Elavny help (or registration) bureau at the end of 1920 already contained 190 thousand names with the addresses. The number of soldiers was estimated at 50 — 60 thousand people, and civil refugees — at 130 — 150 thousand people.

Winter of 1921 in Constantinople were only the poorest and poor and also military. Spontaneous re-evacuation, especially the peasants and captured Red Army men who were not afraid of repressions began. By February, 1921 the number of such reemigrant reached 5 thousand people. In March 6.5 thousand more Cossacks were added to them. Over time it took also the organized forms.

Jeeneral Wrangel in the spring of 1921 made to the Bulgarian and Yugoslavian governments an inquiry about a possibility of resettlement of the Russian army in their territory. In August



consent was received: Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Serbians, Croats and Slovenes) accepted into the state account the Cavalry division of Barbovich, Kuban and a part of the Don Cossacks (with weapon; execution of the border service and the state works belonged to their duties), and Bulgaria is all 1st case, military colleges and a part of the Don Cossacks (without weapon). More than 20% of staff of army at the same time left army and passed to position of refugees.

More than 35 thousand Russian emigrants (mainly military) were settled by

on various, mainly Balkan, to the countries: 22 thousand got to Serbia, 5 thousand to Tunisia (Bizerte port), 4 thousand to Bulgaria, on 2 thousand to Romania and Greece.

On assistance to the Russian emigrants the League of Nations achieved great success. The famous Norwegian polar researcher F. Nansen appointed in February, 1921 the Commissioner for the Russian refugees entered for them special identity cards (so-called "nansenovsky passports") over time recognized in 31 countries of the world. By means of the Refugees Settlement Comission organization created by Nansen about 25 thousand refugees were employed (mainly, in the USA, Austria, Belgium, Germany, Hungary and Czechoslovakia).

The number of emigrants from Russia, for November 1, 1920, according to the estimates of the American Red Cross, was 1194 thousand people; later this assessment was increased up to 2092 thousand people.

Authoritative assessment of number of "white emigration", this A. and E. Kulisherami, also speaks about 1.5 — 2.0 million people. It was based including on the selective data of the League of Nations which recorded as of August, 1921 more than 1.4 million refugees from Russia. This number included 100 thousand German colonists, 65 thousand Latvians, 55 thousand Greeks and 12 thousand the Karelian. Over the countries of arrival the emigrants were distributed thus (thousand people): Poland — 650; Germany — 300; France — 250; Romania — 100; Yugoslavia — 50; Greece — 31; Bulgaria — 30; Finland — 19; Turkey — the 11th Egypt — 3.

Division of emigration and option makes very difficult, but important task. In 1918 — 1922 years the total number of emigrants and repatriates was (over a number of the countries, it is selective): in

Poland — 4.1 million people, to Latvia — 130 thousand people, to Lithuania — 215 thousand people. Many, especially in Poland, actually were transit emigrants and were not late there for a long time.

According to N.A. Struva, in 1922 the summary number of the Russian emigration was 863 thousand people, in 1930 it was reduced to 630 thousand and in 1937 — to 450 thousand people.

According to incomplete data of Service for refugees of the League of Nations, in 1926 755.3 thousand Russians and 205.7 thousand Armenian refugees were officially registered. More than a half of Russians (about 400 thousand people) were accepted by France; in China Russians there were 76 thousand; in Yugoslavia, Latvia, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria approximately on 30 — 40 thousand people (in 1926 all in Bulgaria there were about 220 thousand immigrants from Russia). Most of Armenians found a haven in Syria, Ere-tion and Bulgaria (respectively, about 124, 42 and 20 thousand people).

The Elavny transshipment terminal of emigration Constantinople lost the value over time. Berlin and Harbin (before its occupation by Japanese in 1936) and also Belgrade and Sofia became all recognized centers of "the first emigration" (it is named still Béla), at its next stage. The Russian population of Berlin totaled about 200 thousand people in 1921, it especially suffered in days of an economic crisis, and by their 1925 there were only 30 thousand people. On the first places in emigration the Prague and, in particular, Paris moved forward. On the eve of World War II, and in particular during fighting and also soon after war the trend of moving of part one of emigration to the USA was designated.

To rather few, mainly, representatives of the intellectuals, it was possible to keep a profession and to use art and scientific talents according to purpose.

Great Patriotic War. Emigration of "second wave"

Never before such huge number of the Soviet citizens was at the same time the abroad, kakv years of the Great Patriotic War. However there was it in most cases not only contrary to will of the state, but also contrary to their own will.


Russian emigration of the 20th century

The separate contingents of citizens of the USSR which appeared in the years of the war in Germany and in the territory of allied by it or the countries occupied by it are of interest. First, it is the Soviet prisoners of war. Secondly, the civilians who are violently taken away in the Reich: these are ostovets, or ostarbeiters, in the German understanding of this term what there corresponds the Soviet term ostarbeiters - "vostochnik" to (that is the workers who are taken out from old council-kikh of areas), and ostarbeiters - the "Westerners" living in the areas annexed by the USSR according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Thirdly, it to a folksdoycha and folksfinna which People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs did not manage to deport. Fourthly, it is so-called "refugees and evacuated", that is the Soviet civilians who are taken out or independently directed to Germany following (to be exact, before) the receding Wehrmacht. Nevertheless, in that avaricious statistics which we about them have both categories, as a rule, are integrated. The fifth and if to consider in the chronological plan, then the first category was made civil interned, that is by diplomats, the staff of trade and other missions and delegations of the USSR, sailors, railroad workers it. the items overtaken by the beginning of war in Germany and interned (as a rule, directly on June 22, 1941) in its territory. Quantitatively this category is very small.

The most part of these people did not live up to a victory, especially there is a lot of such among prisoners of war. Most of them were repatriated home, but many from repatriation evaded and remained in the West, having become a kernel of the so-called "second wave" of emigration from the USSR. The maximum quantitative assessment of this wave makes about 500 — 700 thousand people, most of them — natives of the Western Ukraine and the Baltics (participation in this emigration of Jews, for obvious reasons, was extremely small size).

A part of wider mass of emigrants originally completely concentrated in Europe. Many representatives of the second wave during 1945 — 1951 quitted the Old World and moved to Australia, South America, to Canada, but in particular — to the USA. The share of those from them who eventually remained in Europe gives in only to a rough estimate, but anyway it in any way

it is no more than a third or quarters. Thus, at the second wave, in comparison with the first, the level of "Europeanness" is significantly lower.

So, it is possible to speak approximately about 5.45 million civilians anyway moved from the territory belonging before war of the USSR on the territory belonging or controlled before war by the Third Reich or its allies. Taking into account 3.25 million prisoners of war, the total number of the Soviet citizens deported outside by the USSR was about 8.7 million people. By official assessment of Management on repatriation on the basis of incomplete data, by January 1, 1952 abroad still remained 451,561 Soviet citizens.

If in 1946 more than 80% of defectors were in the western occupational zones in Eermaniya and Austria, then now only about 23% of their number were the share of them. So, in all six western zones of Germany and Austria there were 103.7 thousand people whereas in only one England — 100.0; Australia — 50.3; To Canada — 38.4; The USA — 35.3; Sweden — 27.6; France — 19.7 and Belgium — 14.7 thousand "temporarily unremitted". In this regard the ethnic structure of defectors is very expressive. Most of all among them was Ukrainians — 144,934 persons (or 32.1%), further there were three Baltic people — Latvians (109214 people, or 24.2%), Lithuanians (63401, or 14.0%) and Estonians (58924, or 13.0%). 85.5% of the registered defectors were the share of all of them, together with 9,856 Belarusians (2.2%).

Nevertheless, Stalin's fears came true, and hundreds of thousands of former Soviet citizens anyway, the truths or not truths, but avoided repatriation and yet made the so-called "second emigration".

Emigration of "third wave". Cold War

"The third wave" (1948 — 1986) is an emigration of the period of "Cold War" between late Stalin and early Gorbachev. By quantity it makes about half a million people, that is is close to results of "the second wave". On quality it consists of two very unlike composed: the first is made not by quite standard emigrants — forcibly sent ("expelled")



and deserters, the second — "normal" emigrants though "normality" for those times was a thing so specific and wearisome (with requisitions on education, with accusatory meetings of labor and even school collectives and other types of persecution) that not sovmeshchalossrealnymidemokra-tichesky norms.

It is necessary to tell several words about non-standard categories of emigrants from the USSR. The compulsory expulsion from the country practicing at Stalin was adopted at Brezhnev again.

Various deserters and defectors were special and very specific emigrants. "The search list of KGB" on 470 people, from them 201 — to Germany (including in the American zone — 120, in English — 66, in French — 5), 59 to Austria. Most of them in the USA — 107, in Germany — 88, in Canada — 42, in Sweden — 28, in England — 25, etc. was arranged. Since 1965 "the correspondence trials" of deserters replaced with "decrees on arrest".

Till 1980th years the Jews made the majority, and resolute most of emigrants of the USSR are more often. At the first substage which gave only 9% of "the third emigration" the Jewish emigration though was in the lead, but did not dominate (only twofold overweight over Armenian and absolutely insignificant — over the German emigration). At the most mass second substage (which gave 86% of the Jewish emigration for the entire period) even at big, almost triple, growth of the German and Armenian emigration, the Jewish emigration strongly dominated (from shares in 72%), and only at the third substage it for the first time conceded leadership of emigration German.

Right at the beginning practically all Jews directed to "the Promised Land" — Israel, from them about 14 thousand people not directly, and through Poland. Then the picture changed: to Israel napravlyalostolko 62.8% of the Jewish emigrants, the others preferred the USA (33.5%) or other countries (first of all Canada and the European countries). At the same time the number of those who left directly with the American visa was rather small (for 1972 — 1979 it never exceeded 1000 people). The majority left with the Israeli visa, but with the actual option between Israel and the USA during a stopover in Vienna: here the account went not on

hundreds, and on thousands of human souls. Then many Soviet Jews settled in the large European capitals, first of all in Vienna and Rome forming some kind of transshipment terminals to the Jewish emigration in 1970 — the 1980th years. Later the stream went also through Budapest, Bucharest, etc. the cities (but was also much such who, having arrived to Israel, already from there moved to the USA).

At this stage Jews — natives of Georgia and of the annexed USSR of the Baltics, the Western Ukraine and Northern Bukovina (mainly from the cities of Riga, Lviv, Chernovits, etc.) differed in very increased emigratory activity where, except for Georgia, anti-Semitism was especially widespread. As a rule, it were deeply believing Judaists, is frequent with not being interrupted family relations in the West.

Can consider the third wave the most et-nizirovanny (other mechanisms to leave, except as on the Jewish, German or Armenian lines, just was not) and at the same time the least European of all listed: Israel and the USA were her leaders alternately. In the 1980th years when the Jewish ethnic migration was overtaken by the German, also the turn of its course towards "europeanization" — a trend which in a bigger degree proved in "the fourth wave" was designated (specific also the new — German — direction of the Jewish emigration).

Emigration of "fourth wave".


This period should count the beginning since M.S. Gorbachev's era, but, however, not from his very first steps, and it is rather from "second" among which were the major withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan, liberalization of the press and rules of entry into the country and departure from it. The actual beginning (more precisely, renewal) the Jewish emigration at Gorbachev is dated April, 1987, but statistically it was reflected with some lateness. This period, in effect, proceeds and now therefore its quantitative estimates need to be updated annually.

Anyway estimates were much more modest than those apocalyptic forecasts about as if the emigration "highest wave" rolling on Europe from the former USSR powerful


Russian emigration of the 20th century

Stew, by different estimates, from 3 to 20 million people, flow which I Will sink down even purely economically could not to be stood. In practice nothing "terrible" in the West occurred. Legal emigration from the USSR was not bad protected by legislations of all western countries and still limited by representatives of only several nationalities for which only in several countries accepting them a certain legal and social infrastructure is created. It is first of all about ethnic Germans and Jews (to a lesser extent — about Greeks and Armenians, in a smaller degree and in the latest time — about Poles and Koreans). In particular, Israel created legal safeguards for immigration (repatriation) of Jews, and Germany — for immigration of the Germans and Jews living in the territory of the former USSR.

So, according to the German Constitution and the Law on expelled (Bundes vertriebenen gesetz), Germany undertook to accept on the settlement and in nationality of all persons of the German nationality which underwent in the 40th years to exile from home grounds and living out of Germany. They came and come or in the status of Vertriebenen, or in the status of "immigrants", or so-called "late immigrants" (Aussiedler or Spataussiedler) and practically at once, according to the first statement, obtain the German citizenship.

In 1950 about 51 thousand Germans who were born in the territory till 1939 entering the USSR lived in Germany. It was important to start the German emigration from the Soviet Union as at its first stage the Soviet part made advances mainly in cases of reunion of families. Actually German emigration from the USSR to Germany began in 1951 when 1721 ethnic Germans "home" left. In 1955 the Bundestag made the decision on recognition of Germany of the citizenship which is taken out during the war that extended action "The law on expelled" on all Germans living in Eastern Europe. By May, 1956 in the German Embassy in Moscow about 80 thousand statements of the Soviet Germans on departure in Germany accumulated. In 1958 — 1959 the number of the German emigrants made 4 — 5.5 thousand people. Long time the result of 1976 (9704 immigrants) was record.

In 1987 the 10-thousand boundary (14,488 people) "fell" then practically every year the bar was raised on the new height (people): 1988 - 47,572; 1989 - 98,134; 1990 - 147,950; 1991 - 147,320; 1992 - 195,950; 1993 - 207,347 and 1994 - 213,214 people. In 1995 the level resisted (209,409 people), av 1996 moved down (172 181che-lovek). It is explained not so much by policy of reconstruction of favorable conditions for residence of Germans in Kazakhstan, Russia, etc. how many the toughening of regulations of resettlement undertaken by the government of Germany, in particular, measures for attachment of immigrants to ordered them to lands (including east where now about 20% live), but in particular the obligation to take examination for knowledge of German (Sprachtest). As a rule, "fails" examination not less than 1/3 allowed to it.


The Russian emigration already made and continues to make a huge contribution to world culture. However owing to the situation in the free world and, especially, owing to misunderstanding by this world of that aim which emigration pursues it has no opportunity in a due and necessary measure to combat enslavers of our Homeland — Russia. The talent and efforts of the Russian emigrants abroad created the outstanding branch of our domestic culture which captured many directions of human activity (literature, art, science, philosophy, education) and enriched the European and all world civilization. National and peculiar values, the ideas and opening took the worthy place in the western culture in general and also in the culture of concrete European and other countries of the world where the talent of the Russian emigrants was shown.

Says about a huge contribution of the Russian scientists-emigrants to world culture that three from them received Nobel Prizes: I.R. Prigozhinv 1977 in chemistry; S.S. Kuznets in 1971 and V.V. Leontyev in 1973 on economy.

The main attention of the Russian thinkers in initial years in emigration was drawn to judgment of a phenomenon of the Russian revolution, its influence on the historical fate of Russia. Most of them recognized historical



inevitability of revolutionary explosion of the people. But they could not overcome the sotsialnoklassovy commitment, and therefore were categorically against theoretical and moral justification of revolution as way of the solution of social problems.

Political opposition of the Soviet power was the main thing for this part of scientists and for all white emigration. For expansion of anti-Soviet activity many got financial support from foreigners. Not casually V.V. Mayakovsky after visit of Paris came to a conclusion that here "the most malicious ideological emigration".

Thus, at all scale and huge merits of emigrant culture, not it defined the subsequent development and the future of Russia, the people in difficult years of the 20th century. The objective, impartial view on this difficult, multidimensional process cannot but lead eventually to the most important conclusion: besides the "chipped-off", "broken away" emigrant culture in Russia the "main" branch, a cultural kernel which carrier was the main historical subject — the Russian people and its component — the intellectuals most of which part remained in the homeland remained.


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of UDC 930


BaranovAleksandr Vasilyevich, candidate istoricheskikhnauk, associate professor,, FGOUVPO "Russian state university of tourism and service", Moscow

The author examines the great success achieved by the homefront workers. The case study shows examples of loyalty, courage and extraordinary productivity of workers, engineers, scientists, farmers, elderly people, andyoung citizens ofthe USSR during the war.

Article is devoted to the great feat made by home front workers. In it numerous examples of firmness, courage and unusual working capacity which were shown in the years of war by workers and technical officers, scientists and collective farmers, representatives of the senior generation and absolutely young citizens of the country are reviewed.


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