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The Konigsberg port and its value in regional trade in the 16-18th centuries



a sluchaa of military threat to take cover behind thickness of castle walls [7, S. 51]. The ego concerned and the "turned" pruss which were looking for protection against the tribespeople in the lock who remained faithful to former belief. Possibly, because of a lack of space or because of mistrust the Award lodged such pruss out of fortress in wooden constructions which were called "houses shelters" and served fortress as some kind of fort.

Stone fortresses and locks of East Prussia on the coast of the gulf Frishes-Gaff or in close proximity to it concern the most senior on age in Prussian lands. The Balga (1240 — 1250), Konigsberg (1257), Lokhpggedt (1270), Brandenburg (1266) — these East Prussian locks is 20 — 30 years more senior than the locks which were located to the south of the coast. Time of their basis is carried to the beginning or the middle of process of gaining this territory. At the same time locks of the western Prussia are based or in the years of final conquest of pruss, or after full suppression of resistance of aboriginals, that is after 1283 [8, S. 15].

List of references

1. Locks and strengthenings of the German award in a northern part of East Prussia: a reference book / bus - sost. A.P. Bakhtin; under red V.Yu. Kurpakova. Kaliningrad, 2005.
2. V. Urban Teutonic Order. M, 2007.
3. A.R. Hodynjsky. The lock in Malborka. Warsaw, 1997.
4. Bonk H. Die in Verbindung mit der Gelandegestaltung gegriindete Stadte und Schlosser des Altpreufiens. Konigsberg, 1895.
5. Krollmann K. Ostpreufiische Schlosser. Berlin, 1905.
6. Lullies Ch. Ostpreufien. Sammelwerk. Konigsberg, 1906.
7. Mierzwinski M. Die Marienburg. Warszawa, 1993.
8. Talmann V. Tilsits Bau-und Kulturgeschichte. Tilsit, 1923.
9. Winnig A. Der Deutsche Ritterorden und seine Burgen. Tausend, 1956.

About the author

M.L. Tergovich is the deputy chief of educational and methodical department, the Kaliningrad boundary institute FSB of Russia.

UDC 94 (430) & #34;15/17"

And. Grotto

The KONIGSBERG PORT AND ITS VALUE IN REGIONAL TRADE In the 16-18th CENTURIES

Development of Konigsberg as port was promoted by its geographical location. Here two ways were crossed: from Sambiya to Natangiya and from the sea to Lithuania along the Pregolya River. Already at the time of the Award of crusaders the port played an important role in regional trade. From the middle of the 16th century the control over sea trade of Konigsberg was established by Dutches. The period of the highest of times -

The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2008. Issue 12. Humanities. Page 79 — 85.

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twisting of the Konigsberg trade fell on the first quarter of the 17th century. Numerous wars of the 17th century in the territory of Poland and Lithuania promoted decline of trade in port. New growth occurred only after the end of Northern war since 1721

Development of Koenigsberg as of a seaport city was promoted by its geographical position. This is the place where two ways crossed: from Sambia to Natangia and from the sea to Lithuania along the river Pre-gol. The port played a significant role in the regional trade under authority of the Order of crusaders. Koenigsberg sea trade was had been controlled by the Dutch since the middle of XVI century. Koenigsberg trade&s palmy days were in the first quarter of XVII century. Numerous wars which took place in the territory of Poland and Lithuania in

XVII century promoted the decline of the port commerce. New increase in trade started only after the end of the Northern War since 1721.

Development of Konigsberg substantially depended on its very advantageous geographical location. Here two important transport ways were crossed: one — connecting Sambiya (Zemlandsky peninsula) with Natangiya, another — passing along the Pregolya River to Lithuania. Especially it is necessary to emphasize small remoteness of the city from the sea (about 40 km) and quite simple access to the Baltic Sea across Pregolya and Vistula Lagoon. In good condition were also overland it is expensive, conducting to the city. Across Pregolya which was navigable up to Insterburg it was possible to reach Lithuania that at a state of that time overland expensively had huge value. The advantage of the city was crucial for development of Konigsberg as center of trade — it began to play such role from the moment of the basis [1].

Function of the organization of exchange between neighboring territories and citizens was undertaken by port. In Konigsberg each of the cities which are its part had the port (the place of loading and unloading of the ships was called a lastadiya in sources). Lastadiya Altshtadt originally was on the island Kneiphof. After foundation of the city of Kneiphof the port of Altshtadta was postponed for the right bank of a sleeve of Pregolya, the called Hundegat. According to F. Guaza this port already at the time of crusaders had the wooden embankment, three couples of scales, the crane serving not only for loading and unloading of vessels, but also for installation ship a match and also a number of multy-storey warehouses and granaries. The second platform in Altshgadta for warehousing of the goods brought generally from nearby areas was built up later around the Lime market [2, S. 48]. The port of the city of Kneiphof was on the left coast of Old Pregolya, on both sides of Green Bridge. It also had the wooden embankment, was equipped with motive mechanisms and scales, had a complex of granaries and warehouses: for storage of ashes, tar,

lime and construction wood [2, B. 49]. The third city — Lyobenikht — had no own seaport.

From the West (from Vistula Lagoon) the Konigsberg port covered on Pregolya the big lock called Dutch, and from the East — the small lock called Lithuanian. On the Lithuanian lock, constantly established in 1642, the building where the customs duty called "шгромгельд" 1, and in 1645 — 1646 pt was collected was built. customs point (YgepYtsh) for collecting posadsky duty (Р£аЫ£е1с1) was placed, and after the fire which happened in 1655 the building was converted in a warehouse [2, B. 408]. Both the Dutch, and Lithuanian locks represented the scaffolds erected on piles on both banks of the river of Pregolya directed to its center but which are not closed with each other and creating the pass which is becoming isolated a pole barrier which fastened on one party and the second end reached a scaffold on other coast.

The Konigsberg port connected to the high sea on the lower Pregolya Current and Vistula Lagoon. The distance from Altshtadt to Vistula Lagoon made about 9 km, and from there to the Pillausky passage which since the beginning of the 17th century was the only entry from the gulf in the Baltic Sea, 32 more sq.km. Maintenance of sufficient depth of the course going from the sea to port as the draft of vessels quickly increased was continuous care of the Konigsberg merchants: from 2 m the caravels, have 3 m at Hanseatic sailing vessels (Kogge), 3.5 m at galleons up to 4.5 m at flyuit [7].

Technical infrastructure of the Konigsberg port, i.e. its depth, length and the equipment of the embankment, demonstrates that by the time of emergence in the Baltic navigation of steamships it well performed the main function — implementation of barter between nearby territories and the remote countries.

The port first of all met the needs of the population living in the basin of the Pregolya Rivers and Neman. After the conclusion in 1398 for Solinsko-go of the contract between the Award and the grand duke Lithuanian Vitovt and also settlements of trade relations between both partners and deepenings since 1395 of Deyma channel it was possible the waterway (Pregolya — Deyma — Curonian Bay channel — a hand and Neman Gilga — Neman) to reach from Konigsberg the markets of Lithuania. However only further development of waterways (clearing of the southern sleeve of Gilgi and construction of the channel connecting Gilge to Deyma channel) and also creation of a convenient exit from port in the sea led to revival of trade contacts of Konigsberg with Lithuania [8; 9; 1, aa. 25 and settlement]. Exactly from there from the middle of the 16th century to Konigsberg and also to Riga, were delivered konop-

1 This payment (Б^опг^еЫ) the Elector Friedrich Wilhelm on goods which were brought by residents of Gdansk on internal roads to Konigsberg entered in 1642; in 1686 the Prussian authorities introduced additional duty on the goods transported across Vistula Lagoon between Konigsberg and Elblong [3].
2 The first time sea waters washed away the Vistula braid here in 1376. Then, in 1497 and 1510, strong storm waves expanded and deepened this to a channel which after destruction in 1520 by residents of Gdansk of the passage at the Bal-ga lock from the middle of the 16th century became the basic, and since the beginning of the 17th century — the only entry from Vistula Lagoon in the Baltic Sea [4 — 6].
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la, potash, leather, ashes, wood and also linen, tar, linen seed, cloth and furs. It should be noted that according to data from 1786 for 1791 Konigsberg was also main grain port of Grand Duchy of Lithuania that however does not testify to large volumes of export of grain, mainly because of insufficient development of folvaroch-ny production, so, and poor harvests grain, especially on poor soils of East Belarus. This role of Konigsberg as main grain port of Lithuania at the end of the 18th century was a consequence first of all of the end in 1784 of construction of the Oginsky canal which connected Shchara with Yaselka and made possible alloy to the Konigsberg port, having refused become to more roads after the conclusion of the trade agreement of 1775 of port in Gdansk. Show interest in this direction of trade, including, the materials relating To the VOLYNSK manors Sangushikov in which it is told about the smaller cost of alloy and a possibility of purchase in Konigsberg of some goods on lower, than in Gdansk, to the prices [10; 11, aa. 54, 67; 12, aa. 47]. In rafting on Neman the active part was taken by also some cities, including Vilno, Grodno and Minsk [13].

In Konigsberg Lithuania bought first of all salt, but also and so-called colonial goods, the English wines, the Netherlands fabrics, lime and iron.

However Konigsberg was not the only port for the Lithuanian and Belarusian lands. They also traded through port in Klaipeda which however was to a large extent dependent on the Konigsberg capital as the Klaipeda merchants on the basis of acts 1565, 1580, had 1617 and 1622 no right to take out goods by sea, and could only bring them to Konigsberg through Labiau [8, aa. 50; 14]. Played a huge role for Lithuania also Riga [15].

At the same time also Lithuanian cities and large landowner manors which supported continuous trade with the called ports sent goods to Gdansk and Elblong. For example, merchants from Grodno and owners of neighboring manors in spite of the fact that they were on Neman and most often alloyed goods to Konigsberg, willingly used river rafting Narev, transporting goods to the river by land through Avgustov. The cities of TTTklov, Vitebsk, Polotsk, Orsha hauled freights both to Konigsberg, and to Riga (across Dvina) [13; 16]. Such division in ways of transportation of goods was defined by conditions of transportation and an environment, i.e. the prices and tariffs operating in certain ports.

We know about communications with Konigsberg of its immediate environment not much — Princely Prussia (after 1701 — the Prussian kingdom) and Varmiya. Follows from the researches conducted so far that the port in Konigsberg served east part of the Top Prussia along the Paslenek line — Morong — Milakovo — Milomlin. Outside a sphere of influence of Konigsberg there were Ostruda, Oljshtynk's vicinities, Nidzhitsg and Dzyadlova. Between Nidzhitsey and the Board-but the border of a sphere of influence of the ports of Konigsberg and Elblonga in a southeast part of East Prussia lay. Shchitno already distinctly was drawn towards the Konigsberg market. It is more difficult to define the western border

this market in the territory of Varmiya as here spheres of influence of merchants from Konigsberg, Braneva, Elblonga and Gdansk were crossed. Also the fact that the prevailing orientation of roads in the northeast direction, towards Konigsberg was characteristic of all transport network of Varminsky episcopacy that was an important factor of development of Varmiya in quality regional the market with the center in Konigsberg had important value. This Varminsky site, belonging to the territory of the Konigsberg port, extended along the line: Varchevo — to Myasto's Dobra — Ornette — Penenzhno and through the town the Scurvy reached Konigsberg [17]. The southern border of a sphere of influence of the Konigsberg port, according to S. Gershevsky's conclusions, passed north of Narva, occupying the territory Podlyasya and Mazoviya [12, aa. 51]

Characterizing communications of the Konigsberg port with the surrounding territory, it is necessary to tell about a role of overland roads also. The so-called volovy path which is conducting from the internal regions of Poland to Konigsberg and passing through Onions, Lomzhu and Kolno [18] was of great importance. The trade way from Poznan to Konigsberg going through Torun, Grudzendz, Kvigin, Elblong and Braniewo [19] and also the Lithuanian path, soyedinyayushtsy including Grodno and August with Konigsberg is known. Used these roads as well in the winter when, according to T. Korzon's data, in Konigsberg within one day quite often there arrived about 600 sleigh with goods [11, aa. 55].

From the middle of the 16th century sea trade of Konigsberg was put under control of Dutches. In 1549 the number of the Netherlands ships leaving port at Pregolya made 25% of total number of the vessels leaving it and 42% of their cumulative loading capacity. In 1681 — 1682 these indicators increased respectively almost to 60 and 75% [20]. Participation of the fleet of other countries in navigation through Konigsberg was insignificant. British and Scots from their shares in 2.5 and 6.1% through the Konigsberg port in 1581 — 1601 ranked second in the general movement of the ships after Dutches.

The first quarter of the 17th century was time of blossoming of the Konigsberg trade. The number of the ships which visited this port (for example, in 1626 the number of the ships which came into Konigsberg was three times more, than in 1550, and their cumulative tonnage increased seven times) [2, B. 397] and also the increased volume of a trade turnover in port demonstrates to it. At this time through port from gtrilegayushchy areas in large numbers grain, wood ashes, tar, skin of different types, linen, hemp, fat and wax were taken out, at the same time export of grain from Konigsberg had no such value as export of similar goods from Gdansk and Elblonga as in Lithuania less bread, than in Poland was grown up. Salt, iron, a herring, lime, wine and colonial goods were imported into the port on Pregolya in large numbers [21].

The wars happening within the 17th century on the Polish and Lithuanian lands, gtrilegayushchy to Konigsberg, led to falling of trade turnovers of port, their new growth became possible only after 1721. In turn, introduction by Frederick II of the state monopoly for trade in salt and construction of the Bydgottsevsky canal caused to the Konigsberg trade significant damage.

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The second time the Konigsberg trade reached the apogee at the end

XVIII century. It was promoted first of all by Prussian protectionist policy and economic sanctions against Gdansk. On the basis of the trade agreement concluded between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Prussia on the Polish goods transported across Vistula to Gdansk there was a 12 percent customs duty in favor of Prussian treasury, and frauds of Prussian customs officers led to the fact that actually sometimes collecting reached 30 — 50% of cost of goods.

So high duty and additional taxation of goods one more duty in New Port led to the fact that foreign merchants began to avoid this port, being reoriented, including, and on Konigsberg.

Summing up the results of the remarks on value and functions of the Konigsberg port stated above, it is necessary to emphasize their preliminary character. The ego follows first of all from very modest achievements historical I iay to and in studying this subject that belongs as to an economic basis of Konigsberg, its trade (especially concerning the nature of the merchant capital), and to technical equipment of port.

List of sources and literature

1. Guidon Z., Wijaczka J. Zwieizki handlowe ziem litewskich i bialoruskich z Krolewcem w swietle rejestrow celnych komory grodzienskiej z lat 1600 — 1605//Komunikaty Mazursko-Warminskie. 1993. No. 1. S. 24.
2. Gause F. Geschichte der Stadt Konigsberg. Koln; Graz, 1965. Bd. 1.
3. Rachel H. Die Handel, Zoll — und Akzisenpolitik Brandenburg Preussens bis 1713//Acta Borussica. Berlin, 1911. Bd. 1. S. 405.
4. Archiwum Panstwowe w Gdansku. F. 492. No. 453. S. 21 — 28.
5. Fuchs S. G. Versuch einer Geschichte des Handels der Stadt Elbing//Preussi-sches Archiv. 1790. Bd. 1. S. 635-661; 1791. Bd. 2. S. 298-313, 341-363, 469-496; 1792. Bd. 3. S. 98-116.180-190, 235 - 246, 347-388, 564 - 578.
6. Keyser E. Die Tiefe in der Frischen Nehrung//Elbinger Jahrbuch. 1938. H. 15.

S. 1-15.

7. Mickiewicz M. Z dziejow zeglugi. Warszawa, 1971. S. 292.
8. Forstreuter K. Die Memel als Handelsstrasse Preussens nach Osten. Konigsberg im Pr., 1931.
9. Mieleszko W. J. Handel i stosunki handlowe Bialorusi Wschodniej z miastami nadbaltyckimi//Zapiski Historyczne. 1968. T. 33. Z. 4
10. Guidon Z. Zwieizki handlowe dobr magnackich na prawobrzeznej Ukrainie z Gdanskiemw XVIII wieku. Torun, 1966. S. 129.
11. Korzon T. Wewngtrzne dzieje Polski za Stanislawa Augusta (1764 — 1794). Warszawa, 1897. T. 2.
12. Gierszewski S. Port w Krolewcu — z dziejow jego zaplecza w XVII — XVIII wieku//Krolewiec a Polska/Pod red. M. Biskupa i W. Wrzesinskiego. Olsztyn, 1993.
13. Aleksandrowicz S. Miasteczka Bialorusi i Litwy jako osrodki handlu w XVI i polowie XVII wieku//Rocznik Bialostocki. 1961. T. 1. S. 112.
14. Groth A. Zegluga i handel morski Klajpedy w latach 1664 — 1722. Gdansk, 1996. S. 19.
15. V.V. Doroshenko. Trade and Righi's merchants in the 17th century. Riga, 1985.
16. Korgul A. Rola Augustowa w wymianie handlowej Litwy i Korony na przelomie XVI i XvII wieku//Studia nad spoleczenstwem i gospodarkei Podlasia w XVI — XVIII wieku/pod red. A. Wyrobisza. Warszawa, 1981. S. 91, 98.
17. GrothA. Handel morski Elbleiga w latach 1585 — 1700. Gdansk, 1988. S. 24 — 26.
18. Baszanowski }. Z dziejow handlu polskiego w XVI — XVIII w.: Handel wolami. Gdansk, 1977. S. 42-43.
19. Kuldinska To Handel Poznania w II polowie XVIII wieku. Warszawa; Poznan, 1976.
20. Kompas H. Seeverkehr und Pfundzoll im Herzogtum Preussen. Ein Beitrag zu Geschichte des Seehandels im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert. Bonn, 1964. S. 177 — 178.
21. Groth A. Statystyka handlu morskiego portow Zalewu Wislanego w latach 1581-1712. Wroclaw, 1990. Tab. 7-9. S. 218-289.
22. Cieslak E., Biernat C. Dzieje Gdanska. Gdansk, 1969. S. 276.

About the author

A. Grot is a Dr., the prof. a hub., the Pomor academy in Slupsk (Poland), andrzej@groth.pl

The lane with poljsk. Yu. Kostyashova

UDC 947 (470.26): 312

V. N. Maslov

MATERIAL SUPPORT

EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN the KALININGRAD TECHNICAL TRAINING COLLEGES of CITY TYPE (1960-E - the MIDDLE of 1980-X YEARS)

Ways of completing and quality characteristics of the equipment necessary for the Kaliningrad technical training colleges of a city profile for ensuring educational process are investigated.

The article explores different ways of acquisition and qualitative characteristics of the equipment necessary for Kaliningrad vocational city schools to maintain the study process.

In the Soviet Union the major role in training of workers of different professions for the industrial and construction enterprises and the organizations was allocated for technical training colleges. Since the end of the 1950th the industrial and construction schools of factory training, construction and vocational schools were transformed to technical training colleges of a city profile. This segment of vocational training included newly created city professional the uchilittt (GPTu) and earlier operating technical schools (Tu). C1984 of educational institutions of a city and also rural profile reorganized into average professional u1 m inim (СШ&У).

A theoretical and practical training in technical training colleges was given in educational offices, workshops and laboratories. Certainly,

The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2008. Issue 12. Humanities. Page 85 — 87.

Gilbert Clark
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