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The province as a structural component of a system of the Russian Empire during an era of the Napoleonic wars (on the example of the Vyatka province)



e. A. Tsegleev

The PROVINCE AS the STRUCTURAL COMPONENT of the SYSTEM of the RUSSIAN EMPIRE DURING the ERA of the NAPOLEONIC WARS

(on the example of the Vyatka province)

Work is presented by department of general history of the Vyatka state university. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor I.Yu. Trushkova

In article on the example of the Vyatka province the province role in life of the Russian Empire the beginning of the 19th century is considered. Forms of its participation in the Napoleonic wars are characterized.

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Mechanisms of interaction of the center and provinces in extreme conditions of wartime are investigated.

The role of a province in the life of the Russian empire at the beginning of the 19th century is considered in the article by the example of the Vyatka province. Forms of its participation in Napoleonic wars are characterized. Mechanisms of interaction of the center and provinces in extreme conditions of wartime are investigated.

One of the directions of judgment of history of Russia is the addressing the analysis of a role and the place of the province in the course of its sociocultural development and reconstruction of communications of the province with the center. And were odnonaprav-lenno shown by one of the periods of historical development when were organically integrated provincial and all-Russian, there was an era of the Napoleonic wars. Therefore the research of regularities of interaction of the center and the province during this period in its various aspects can be used for the analysis of the modern relations of the center and the province. The research of the events, the phenomena and processes happening at the beginning of the 19th century in the Russian remote place in their comparison to the all-Russian and world historical processes will help to understand essence and a role of the province as subject historical razvitiya1. As an object of a similar research it is possible to take such deep province of the Russian Empire as the Vyatka province.

It is necessary to tell that this problem is almost not reflected in a regional historiography. Meanwhile funds of the state archive of the Kirov region (SAKR), the Russian State Military and Historical Archive (RSMHA), the state archive of the Russian Federation (SARF) contain an extensive complex of documents which analysis at the modern level allows to consider systemically the available historical material in a foreshortening of a ratio of the province and the center, regional, all-Russian and world.

The system research of the Russian province during an era of the Napoleonic wars is represented fruitful because during this period she brightly showed not only the bases, but also the hidden resources. At the same time in the context of studying a system of the Russian Empire and a research of its such component as the Vyatka province, during an era of the Napoleonic wars in parallel with system approach it is expedient to use one of the directions of anthropological approach - military and historical antropologiyu2. An object of a research of military and historical anthropology are the person and society in extreme conditions of armed conflicts and also those aspects of life of society which characterize its preparation for war, "entry" into it, the course of military operations and "withdrawal from a war".

An object of this research is the Russian province (in particular, the Vyatka province) during an era of the Napoleonic wars. Its subject framework includes: 1) characteristic of the Vyatka province as specific component of a system of the Russian Empire beginnings of the 19th century and process of its "entry" into an era of the Napoleonic wars; 2) the analysis of a role of the Vyatka province in Patriotic war of 1812 and Liberation war of 1813-1814; 3) research of process of "exit" of the Vyatka province of war. A research objective is studying regularities, the bases and resources of interaction of the center and the province (on the example of the Vyatka province) in extreme conditions of an era of the Napoleonic wars.

The Vyatka province at the beginning of the 19th century occupied space in 13,815,793 tithes of the earth from which more than 10 million tithes were occupied with the wood. The basis of the economy of the Vyatka province in the 19th century was formed by agriculture. Vigorously the industry developed. In the territory of the Vyatka province there was the Izhevsk plant which along with the Tula and Sestroretsk plants was one of three main centers of production in Russia of small arms. In 1810 it released 2500 guns, in 1811 - 10,000 guns, in 1812-13,565 guns.

The population of the Vyatka province at the beginning of the 19th century increased on average by 1.24% a year. In 1795 in the province was 365,651 male souls, in 1808 - 467,551, in 1811 - 504,698, in 1834 - 660,125. In the province the country people absolutely prevailed. City dwellers there were about 2%. And from the lump of peasants of 89% there were state, about 9% - specific and 2% - pomeshchichyimi3.

In provinces, remote from the center, the control system developed under the influence of regional and local specifics. Difficulties of management of the Vyatka province were connected with extensiveness of its territory, remoteness from the center, small number of the nobility and officials. In 1808, according to a population census, in the Vyatka province there were 311 serving officials. Thus, rather small bureaucracy of the Vyatka province during an era of the Napoleonic wars was faced by a problem of holding large organizational actions according to installations from the center and taking into account local features in specific conditions of the remote province.

And its "entry" into an era of the Napoleonic wars happened the largest organizational action and an event of public life of the Vyatka province of the beginning of the 19th century in which through a prism of regional, all-Russian and world historical processes the ratio of the center and the province was reflected, there was a formation during the Russian-Prussian-French war of 1806-1807. Vyatka territorial army. According to Alexander I's manifesto of November 30, 1806 in which it was told about creation for the aid to regular army of territorial army in number of 612,000 people the Vyatka province had to expose 18,000 ratnik. The impulse which arrived from the center through mediation of bureaucracy and self-government institutions mobilized resources of the province. In January, 1807 in the Vyatka province the creation of territorial army began, the voluntary movement was developed, the battalion of the Vyatka shooters numbering 600 chelovek4 was created and sent to field army. On September 27, 1807 in connection with the end of war the militia which main forces did not manage to be involved in war was dismissed. However in the light of the future Patriotic war of 1812 the experience of formation of territorial army was not for Russia in vain. The province showed one of resources of a system of the Russian Empire demanded in extreme conditions of an era of the Napoleonic wars.

It is brightest and concentrated the bases and resources of a system of the Russian Empire were shown at the final stage of an era of the Napoleonic wars - in 1812-1815. Opposition with Napoleonic France demanded use of resources of different character from Russia. Use of internal reserves, first of all, of resources of the province became one of the factors which ensured Russia a victory in military opposition. In 1812-1813 in Russia 4 recruitments on which in recruits from 2 to 10 people from 500 souls were accepted were carried out. In the Vyatka province for this period in army and on the fleet about 25,000 recruits were taken (from 1800 to 8500 for one set). The analysis of archival documents shows that the vyatchena was served in all types of military forces, were widely presented in all Guards shelves. Judging by official lists and official reports in which their merits are reflected, the discipline, bravery, composure were characteristic signs of soldiers-vyatchan. The originality of the Vyatka region and its inhabitants was reflected in their military service and behavior in extreme combat conditions.

According to Alexander I's manifestos of July 6 and 18, 1812 in Russia again, as well as in 1807, the national militia was formed. News of invasion of Napoleonic troops into Russia and announcement of royal manifestos got an enthusiastic response in the hearts of residents of the Vyatka province. The voluntary movement was developed. Officials with the consent of the governor came to a militia on officer vacancies. Representatives of other estates - privates and village constables. In total voluntarily about 200 entered the Vyatka national militia chelovek5. The research of archival documents allows to feel the unique atmosphere reigning then in the Vyatka province in connection with formation of a militia, patriotic upsurge in which both the all-Russian lines, and features of the Vyatka mentality were boldly shown. From 13 thousand Vyatka serfs about 630 came to a militia chelovek6. Total number of the Vyatka militia was about 830 people. The Vyatka rebels caused a stir in battle near Dresden on October 25, 1813 when as the commander Chichagov reported in the official report them, they "repeatedly overturned and banished the enemy" 7.

Having analyzed forms of direct participation vyatchan in military of a soba - tiya of 1812-1814 and keeping representation of other provincial provinces in mind, it is possible to draw a conclusion that human resource of the province allowed Russia to gain a victory in war. The combination of organizing abilities of the center to mobilization opportunities of the province became a decisive factor here.

Placement in the Russian remote place of prisoners of war of Great army became one of questions in which in a specific form the ratio of the center and the province in 1812-1814 was reflected. The Vyatka province for this period at different times was visited by not less than 5850 prisoners of war among whom there were representatives of 20 nationalities. Prisoners of war worked at the Holunitsky ironworks plants, on a row distilling zavodov8. Still the hydraulic structures of Kirsinsky ponds constructed with participation of prisoners of war remained. Many of them were arranged tutors, musicians, dancing-masters, artists, doctors. Among the prisoners who are contained in Vyatka there was a famous French general Vandamme. Despite the ban to locals to come into contact with prisoners of war, many of them "were accepted in conversations house", and about it the commander-in-chief in St. Petersburg S.K. Vyazmitinov told the Vyatka governor F.I. Von Brad-ke: "... on most that already that they consist under police observation. that also shame the one who with them enters the intercourses about what you will put to inspire in public" 9. Stay of prisoners of war of Great army in the Vyatka province in particular and in the province in general though had no significant effect on the course of historical processes, but left a noticeable mark in local history. The province acted here as the tank where according to installations from the center and taking into account local specifics about 150 thousand prisoners of war were temporarily placed.

Patriotic war of 1812 generated sharp rise charitable the figure - Nosta. Total amount of donations exceeded 9 million rubles. In the Vyatka province the collecting donations was carried out "in favor of ruined

from the enemy", through Church, through women's patriotic society and other institutions. Judging by social and national composition of donors among whom there were representatives of all estates and the people living in the Vyatka province, charity in favor of victims of war was really a matter of national importance. The analysis of archival documents allows to estimate the size of the donations made by residents of the Vyatka province in the sum not less than 100 thousand rubles. The province showed the resource to generosity, responsiveness and philanthrophy.

Thus, one may say, that the relations of the center and the province in 18121814 in general were competently constructed. In them aspirations and tasks of the center, on the one hand, and features and possibilities of the province were considered, on the other hand. Successful passing on durability of a system of the Russian Empire during an era of the Napoleonic wars is indicative.

Universal carrying out in May - June, 1814 of festive actions for an occasion of capture of Paris became the symbolical act which marked itself "exit" of Russia from war. In a big way they took place in the province. The official celebrations which were taking place in the province had the specifics. They collected the brightest examples of local, including ethnic culture to the administrative centers. So, in Urzhum the festivals were followed by the Russian, Udmurt, Mari, Tatar songs, dances and entertainments and had vsesoslovny, national character. In the province "exit" of Russia from war was marked by a fancy and at the same time organic combination of official celebrations and national festivities.

The role of the country town as link between the center and the province deserves special consideration. It forms "network, a funnel, a trap of sociocultural communications, the peculiar cyclone involving in itself regional resources, updating reserves to a condition of resources, initiating new resources both natural, and artificial" 10. A role of the country town as center in which streams and impulses of various directions accumulate contradictions between them smooth out or the mutually exclusive phenomena face, it was boldly shown in the Vyatka province during an era of the Napoleonic wars.

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in the course of "exit" from the war in Russia made an attempt of the solution of such problem as rendering financial support to the soldiers who sustained heavy injuries. On August 18, 1814 the Committee of donations under the chairmanship of the collegiate adviser of Pezarovius was created. However the size of the funds allocated by Committee to the Vyatka disabled people was not only is insignificant is small, but also repeatedly smaller in comparison with quantity of the funds raised in the Vyatka province. In 1816 not less than 4940 rubles were sent to Committee of donations from the Vyatka province. At the same time the Committee allocated to the Vyatka disabled people only 260 rubley11. The most part of the funds raised by vyatchana went for keeping of the Russian disabled people living in other regions of the Russian Empire. At the same time owing to limitation of the funds raised by Committee, the most part of disabled people did not receive money at all. The problem of their material security was unresolved. The lack of accurate state policy of social protection of the needing veterans became the main reason of it.

Thus, it is necessary to notice that the province was considered in St. Petersburg first of all as almost perennial spring of reserves. However their operation did not go beyond need. Their reasonable use allowed to end victoriously a series of the most difficult wars, without having exhausted human and material resources.

The analysis of a wide range of the events, the phenomena and processes happening during an era of the Napoleonic wars in the Russian province and in particular in such deep province as the Vyatka province, allows to consider the problem of a ratio of the province and the center not in a perspective of their opposition, and taking into account those functions which they perform within a uniform system. The idea introduced about it by M. Kagan considering a ratio provincial and capital as "two opposite directed "mechanisms" - mobilizing and stabilizing, i.e. providing, on the one hand, development of a system according to changes of the environment and growth of her own requirements of updating, and with another - development, preservation and consolidation found" 12 is represented relevant.

Operation of "the mobiliziruyushche-stabilizing mechanism" in Russia accurately is looked through during an era of the Napoleonic wars and in the next decades. So, in general the reformatory government of Alexander I since 1812 had the expressed conservative coloring. Mobilization of deep resources of a system could not but recover those layers traditional which were mentioned. The original combination during an era of 1812 of liberalism and conservatism, an innovation and traditionalism, provincial and capital, regional, all-Russian, European and world generated so diverse phenomena - decembrism and guarding conservatism, Slavophilism and Westernism, blossoming of the Russian culture.

Thus, on the basis of the analyzed material it is possible to draw the following conclusions.

1. The province (in particular the Vyatka province) in the system of the Russian Empire of the beginning of the 19th century was its major component. In it the bases and resources which were demanded in extreme conditions of an era of the Napoleonic wars were put. "Entry" of the province into this era happened during formation of territorial army of 1807 which affected all spheres of life of those provinces in which it was created.
2. Province (including. The Vyatka province) at a competent organizing role of the center played a crucial role in victorious end of Patriotic war of 1812 and Liberation war of 18131814, having provided necessary human and material resources
3. At "exit" from war the province (in particular, the Vyatka province) showed possibilities of overcoming its negative social and economic consequences and bright examples of local culture. Relationship of the center and the province during this period had difficult system character. In them the reformatory, conservative and mobilizing impulses from the center, traditionalism and also the stabilizing and mobilization opportunities of the province, world modernization processes were shown.
1 A.A. Sevastyanova. Consciousness rhythms in the history of the Russian province//Methodology of regional historical researches. SPb.: Nota bene, 2000. Page 26-27.
2 E.S. Senyavskaya. Military and historical anthropology - new branch of historical science//National history. 2002. No. 4. Page 139.
3 A.V. Emmaussky. The history of the Vyatka region in XII - the middle of the 19th century. Kirov: Kirov regional printing house, 1996. Page 150-151.
4 GAKO. T. 582. Op. 47. 4. L. 310-118.
5 GAKO. T. 582. Op. 7. 101. L. 324.
6 The Memorable book of the Vyatka province and the calendar for 1912. Vyatka, 1911. Page 28-33. 7RGVIA. T. VUA (846). Op. 16. T. 1. 3894. L. 6.
8 Works of the Vyatka scientific archival commission. Vyatka, 1912. Issue 3, department 2. Page 34.

PUBLIC AND HUMANITIES

9 GARF. T. 1161. Op. 1. 176. L. 2-3.
10gomayunov S.A. Problems of methodology of local history. Kirov: VGPU, 1996. Page 39. 11GAKO. T. 582. Op. 46. 128. L. 33-35.
12 Kagan M. Moskva - St. Petersburg - the Province: Two-capital character of Russia - its historical destiny and unique chance//the Russian province. 1993. No. 1. Page 16.
Mathias Georg
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