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Geography of import trade of Russia through Astrakhan in the 18th century



VOPROSA ISTORIYA

© 2003, Ryabtsev Ave

GEOGRAPHY of IMPORT TRADE of RUSSIA THROUGH ASTRAKHAN In the 18th CENTURY

In the history of Russia 18th century the important place is taken by its foreign trade activity. Its level, structure of goods are important characteristic of social and economic development of the country, extent of integration of Russia into the system of world trade. The quantum leap which Russia made in the first quarter of the 18th century fell on the period of intensive development of trade in the countries of Europe and Asia. An exit to Baltic, to the sea, strengthening of positions on the Caspian Sea created favorable conditions for increase in the foreign trade activity. Besides Russia could rely on the century traditions which were available here. In these conditions foreign trade with inflow of foreign goods on domestic market of Russia began to make strong impact on economic development of the country in general. But the quantitative jump caused significant changes and in the social and economic relations which were accurately designated in the next decades. Trade with the East, taking in the 18th century rather small place in foreign trade turnovers of the country, played an important role for economy of Russia. Not accidentally in government and commerce and industry circles it was a subject of special attention. Interest in commercial relations of Russia with the countries of the East through Astrakhan in the 18th century gets besides and modern sounding: in the 90th of the 20th century Astrakhan becomes the southern outpost of Russia and its main port on the Caspian Sea again. It promotes the increasing interest of researchers in the history of the foreign trade activity of Russia in the east and defines its importance.

In the first half of XVTII of century silk and textile products were the main articles of import: in 1733 they made 159 thousand rubles, or 85% [1], in 1744 - 860.2 thousand rubles, or 93.5% of all import [2]. The share of other goods was rather small. It should be noted regular import of gold and silver in ingots and coins (Iranian and Indian), gemstones and pearls. Merchants handed over at the specified prices gold and silver in the Astrakhan provincial office or Monetary office in Moscow, these metals then went to monetary repartition. The raw materials problem for monetary stamping, especially silver, was current as mining of gold and silver in the 18th century was insignificant for Russia. As well as in

XVII century, the treasury was interested in receipt from the East of precious metals and did not impose on them tax [3].

But if in the 17th century through Astrakhan a significant amount of gold, then in the 18th century a supply arrived

gold and silver significantly decreases. Customs sheets only in 50 - show the 60th a supply of gold and silver [4]. Since 70th, import of precious metals is not traced. It is characteristic not only of the Astrakhan customs, but also of import in Orenburg and Troitsk fortress.

On materials of the first half of the 18th century it is possible to note also a considerable supply of metal. In 30 - 40 several thousands of poods of scrap of copper annually came to Astrakhan: in 1733 - about 2.5 thousand pood. [1], in 1744 3.1 one thousand pood. [2]. Copper was valuable raw materials for domestic manufactories and handicraftsmen. Made at this time at the Ural plants it only in a small amount came to domestic market, and the most part was used on stamping of a copper coin [5]. Besides import copper on the quality was more suitable for production of ware and other products. In the second half of the 18th century import of copper, just as gold and silver, is significantly reduced.

Import in the second half of the 18th century on the structure had no cardinal difference, but the specific weight and conditions of receipt of east goods to Russia changed. The overall balance of import in the second half of the 18th century was below export (import

>- 303,544 rubles, export - 383,746 rubles on average in a year). It consisted of the following goods and groups located in preference order: raw silk and colored (boiled) in the flowers, cotton-raw and yarn, fabrics and products from them, bellows (sheepskin, fur and a skin) and other goods. Import, generally from Transcaucasia and Iran, played an essential role in ensuring the silk-weaving and cotton industry with raw materials. The last began to develop quickly from 60th of the 18th century. Import was important also for other branches of the national economy. It met the needs of the nobility, merchants and more general population in consumer goods. Had benefits and treasury.

In 20 - the 40th, 18th century in connection with development of the silk-weaving industry in Russia the raw materials supply considerably grew. Import completely satisfied at this time requirements of the Russian manufactories using only the Azerbaijani and Iranian raw silk costing according to testimonies of the expert of manufactories boards Odar, is twice cheaper European [5]. A significant amount of raw silk went in transit through Russia to Europe. In 1733

>- 1734 the supply of silk made about 1600 pood., in 1744 - 1745 - more 9000th pood. Meanwhile in the 40th of the 18th century the silk consumption in Russia did not exceed 2000

pood. in a year [6]. Since 1778 it was practically not imported (it was brought 1 - 3 pood a year).

Approximately in the same time in Astrakhan the painting of raw silk for sale in domestic market was organized. In 1766 in Shemakha it was purchased for sending to Russia 140 melt raw silk, in a year in Shemakha and Shek - already 400 melt (2400 pood.) [7]. In 1775 7 thousand pood were brought to Astrakhan. gi-lyansky and shemakhinsky silk [8].

In 1783 it was brought only from Gilyan (Enzi-ley) of 3 thousand pood., and by the end of the 80th this figure grew twice [8]. In 1790 to Astrakhan it was brought 3431 poods of silk, and in 1791 - the 4645th pood. 30 pounds.

According to P.Ya. Bukshpan, in 1800 - 1803 14,742 poods of silk, or 3685.5 poods on average in a year were brought to Russia [9]. Though this quantity included the Greek and Italian silk, the provided data do not break the general dynamics of a supply of the Iranian silk to Russia (the Greek and Italian silks made no more than 20% of cost of all silk) [9].

Thus, it is possible to make rather full picture of import of raw silk to Russia. On average in a year in the 18th century 3.5 thousand pood were imported. silks. The raw silk pood price changed in the second half of the 18th century a little. If in the first і to a half of the 18th century the grade of a leza was estimated in Astrakhan at 50 - 64 rubles, [10, l. 54], in the second half of the 18th century the price stabilized up to 60 rubles for pood. The price on ardash rose from 35 to 55 rubles for pood. [10, l. 54], and the price of boiled silk fell from 75 to 50 rubles [5].

In the first half of the 18th century silk arrived from Derbent, Baku, Shemakha and Gilyan (Enzilya). And if in the 30th the main stream of silk went from Baku, then in the 40th of the 18th century the leading role passed to Iran. The greatest number of consignments of silk arrived from Gilyan.

In the second half of the 18th century the geography of import of silk does not change. The most considerable ports of sending silk to Russia are shown in tab. 1. Other ports of Astrabad, Mizondaran, Absheron are shown in the column "Other Ports" (those years when the specific weight of these ports reached only the 100-th shares of percent * they are shown by the sign of 0.0%).

90% of all raw silk arrived from Enzilin-sky and Baku ports which were rather near the main centers of silkworm breeding of provinces by Gilyansky and Shirvan (Shemakhinskaya). Directly Azerbaijan was one of the largest centers of cultivation and export of silk in the Middle East. Production it only in Shirvan in the 17th century reached 100 - 125 thousand pood. in a year, and in general much more than [11] gathered in Azerbaijan and Iran of raw silk. Business in silk was done also in Ardebila, Shek, Tabriz, Nakhchivan and other cities of Iran and Azerbaijan.

The priority to Buck or Enzilya was explained by a difficult internal political situation in Iran and Azerbaijan to a large extent. Campaigns Nadir shah against

Dagestan in the second half of the 30th, being followed by ruin and devastation of Transcaucasia, moved by 50th the center of trade in silk to Iran, to Enzilyam. In the 80th the priority returned to Azerbaijan and its main port - Baku. The instability of a political situation in the late eighties - the beginning of the 90th of the 18th century allowed to increase turnover of Enzilinsky port again.

Table 1

Geography of import of raw silk to Russia through Astrakhan in the second half of the 18th century, % [12]

Year Port

Enzeli To a tank Derbent Sal-Yana Ost. ports All

1777 80.0 18.2 1.8 - 0.0 100
1778 55.4 39.0 4.9 0.7 0.0 100
1779 55.9 34.7 0.7 - 8.7 100
1780 23.8 74.0 - 2.2 - 100
1781 9.3 81.9 0.5 5.7 2.6 100
1787 16.7 82.0 0.5 0.8 - 100
1788 18.6 71.0 5.9 4.4 - 100
1789 63.2 30.7 0.2 5.6 0.3 100
1790 8.7 88.8 1.7 0.8 - 100
1791 63.0 36.2 0.1 0.6 0.1 100

Speaking about import of silk to Russia, it is necessary to stop also on its transit to Europe. Raw silk came to Europe through Astrakhan - Moscow - St. Petersburg. According to the estimates of A.I. Yukht, transit in the 30th was 1600 pood. on average in a year (116.7 rubles), and in the 40th

>- The 3926th pood. (284.7 rubles) [5]. It is difficult to define export of silk to Europe in the second half of the 18th century. At our disposal there is only a reference of the St. Petersburg customs for 1753 where it is specified about preparation for a holiday for the sea the 684th pood. import of 1752 and remains of 1751 [3]. The cost of this consignment of silk can be determined at 30 - 35 thousand rubles

By our calculations, to Europe in the first half of the 18th century on average in a year it was taken out no more than 1500 - 1600 pood. In the second half - is 2 - 3 times less that speaks about its more intensive use in domestic market of Russia.

Import of cotton in the first half of the 18th century in comparison with import of silk was insignificant, but had a steady tendency to increase. In 1733 - 1734 to Astrakhan it was delivered on average in the 600th pood., and in 1744 - 1745 - on 1000 pood. in a year [5].

In the second half of the 18th century the volume of its import considerably increased. Cotton adobe and in yarn was brought to Astrakhan (paper cotton and pryadeny according to sheets). Specific weight of cost of cotton by the end of HU_P of century reached on average 13%. In a quantitative sense cotton import since 1778 begins to overtake silk import - cotton was brought to Astrakhan 52 846 pood., and silks for the same time - only 32,160 pood.

The price of cotton was much less silk: the cotton-raw pood in the first half of the 18th century was estimated at 6 - 7 rubles, and cotton yarn - at 12 rubles for pood. In the second half of the 18th century the cotton-raw pood in Astrakhan was estimated at 7 rubles 50 to., yarn pood - 10 rubles. These prices were stable throughout all second half of the 18th century. Cotton to Astrakhan from Central Asia, Iran and Transcaucasia arrived. From Central Asia, cotton was taken out by the sea through Mangyshlak and sukhoputno through Guryev. From Iran and Transcaucasia - the sea from the Iranian and Azerbaijani ports.

The main stream of commodity cotton went from Central Asia through Mangyshlak from where from 1777 to 1791 56% of cotton a year arrived on average. But in separate years, cotton was imported in large numbers from Azerbaijan. So, in 1780 76% of cotton were brought from Bakun 1787 of 76.5% - from Derbent that speaks about activization of occupation cotton breeding in Iran and Transcaucasia.

In the second half of the 18th century the specific weight of fabrics and products continued to decrease, especially at the beginning of the 80th on average by 13.6% a year. The structure of this group of goods was quite various. Here about 30 names of east fabrics and two dozen products from them entered. Fabrics were divided into silk, semi-silk, paper (from cotton) and woolen. The same can be told also about products.

The large on structure and cost group was represented by cotton matters. Specific weight of their cost to the end of the century considerably increased: if in 50 - the 60th it made 5-15%, then in 70 - the 90th reached 85% and did not fall lower than 42% of cost of all east fabrics and products brought to Astrakhan in a year. Goods of this group, in our opinion, were designed for the average resident of Russia (except for separate silk products) and were not luxury goods. The geography of import of goods of all group was traditional. Goods from Transcaucasia, Iran and Central Asia were brought. The priority belonged to Transcaucasia and Iran from where 66.5 - 82% of cost of goods of group arrived, except for 1781 when the supply made 61% at the expense of a big consignment of paper fabrics of Central Asia. From Transcaucasia and Iran, silk, semi-silk fabrics and products, bulk of paper fabrics and products were brought. From Central Asia, fabrics, products from cotton and with rare exception from other material arrived.

The structure of other goods was various and changed for all the 18th century. In the 50th the cost of other goods was determined by the imported gold and silver. So, in 1756 34.5 pounds, worth 47,675 rubles 89 were brought to Astrakhan gold in scrap and chervonets on 1004 rubles 50 to., and silver of 65 poods to. that in general made 92% of cost of all group of goods. In 1757 the specific weight of cost of gold and silver also was high - 90% [4]. In the 60th the supply of gold and silver sharply decreases. So, in 1762 it was brought gold in ingots on 106 rubles, and silver of 5 poods 21 pounds of 17 valve cores — on 4,099 rubles 48 to. [14]. In

1763 it was brought gold chervonets on 406 rubles 15 to. and 35 valve cores in ingots on 52 rubles 50 to. and 4 poods of 30 pounds of silver, worth 3,156 rubles 15 to. [15]. Further the supply of gold and silver in sheets is not traced. In 70 - 90, gold and silver was brought mainly to St. Petersburg, Riga and Arkhangelsk. So, in 1769 the amount of import gold and silver shown in the sheet cost
1 335,287 rubles arrived: to St. Petersburg - 70%, to Riga - 28 and to Arkhangelsk-2%. The supply in other customs is not shown. The same treats also the 70th [16]. In the 90th of the 18th century own serebrodo-bycha allowed Russia pokrgg requirements of treasury for silver for 98% [3] that influenced reduction, and then and the termination of a supply of precious metals to Russia through Astrakhan.

A honey supply in the 18th century as well as silver, it was subject to fluctuations. In 30 - 40 of the 18th century several thousands of poods of copper scrap annually came to Astrakhan: in 1733 - about 2.5 thousand pood. [1], in 1744 3.1 one thousand pood. [2]. In the second half of the 18th century of copper was brought a little. For 1756 - 1758 193 poods 23.5 pounds worth 1273 rubles 42 were brought to. In 1763 copper in business and to scrap it was brought the 11th pood. worth 78 rubles 25 to. Further copper as well as gold with silver, vanishes from sheets. The same fate comprehended also import of gemstones. Other goods, though contained up to 30 names (furs, skins, tobacco, oil, fat, glue, soap, spices, etc.), were brought in insignificant quantities.

To the Astrakhan port east goods arrived from Iran, Transcaucasia, Central Asia and the North Caucasus. The bulk of import went from Iran and Transcaucasia from where 100% of silk, from 16 to 46% of cotton and up to 66 - 62% of cost of fabrics and products from them arrived. Arrived bellows, skins and other goods more from here.

For import on the Astrakhan direction silk, and since the end of the 70th — cotton had the defining value: in 10 years since 1777 from here to Russia it was imported cotton-raw the 7765th pood. worth 68,494 rubles (56%) and yarn 17,616 pood. worth 175503 rubles (44.2%). The stream of goods from the North Caucasus arriving from Kabarda of Mozdok and Georgia, was insignificant and did not define the main turnover of trade. Import from Central Asia was of great importance. Goods arrived by sea from Mangyshlak and sukhoputno from Khiva and Bukhara through Guryev. Specific weight of cost of this direction was small and only in 1778 was 27%.

Turnover of import on this direction was considerable at the expense of cotton and if cotton-raw was taken out more from Iran and Transcaucasia, then. — it is more yarn from Central Asia (in 10 years since 1777 it was taken out 22,246 pood. yarn worth 222,564 rubles that made 55.8%). Import of fabrics, furs and other goods considerably conceded to import from Iran and Transcaucasia (tab. 2).

Table 2

Geography of import of east goods to Russia through Astrakhan in the 18th century [5.17]

Year Iran, Transcaucasia Central Asia North Caucasus All

Appearances % Appearances % Appearances % Appearances %

1733 322 95.5 11 3.3 4 1.2 337 100
1734 243 78.6 55 17.8 11 3.6 309 100
1744 493 96.8 10 2.0 6 1.2 509 100

Year Rub % Rub % Rub % Rub %

1777 198562 87.6 27533 12.1 770 0.3 226865 100
1778 141459 72.1 53368 27.2 1364 0.7 196192 100
1780 319255 97.7 7327 2.2 173 0.1 326756 100
1781 140472 78.7 35973 20.1 2140 1.2 178686 100
1788 407183 85.4 69909 14.6 - - 477092 100
1789 516699 91.0 51072 9.0 - - 567771 100
1790 352895 83.3 70860 16.7 - - 423755 100
1791 356293 83.7 69486 16.3 - - 425779 100

The bulk of east goods was brought to Astrakhan by the sea. The main centers of sea trade on the Caspian Sea in the first half of the 18th century were to Buck and Gilyan (Enzili). Through Gilyan to Russia 22.2%, and got to 1744 - 86.8% of consignments in 1733 [5].

Baku (Transcaucasia), Enzili (Iran) and Mangyshlak (Central Asia) were the main centers of trade on the Caspian Sea in the second half of the 18th century. Their general goods turnover made 80 - 90% of all import of east goods. Took priority in Enzili's trade, and from 80th - Baku. Even without silk import, goods turnover of Baku from 80th was on average twice more, than at Enziley (in 1789 - 1791 import without silk averaged at Baku in a year 34 - 56 thousand rubles, at Enziley - 19 - 22 thousand rubles).

Also increase in turns of Derbent, though unstable is observed. In 1788 without import of silk from it it was sent goods to 36 thousand rubles whereas from Baku - on 19 thousand rubles, and from Enziley - on

11 700 rubles. The Salyan value and other ports of Iran and Transcaucasia increases. The provided data do not speak about attenuation or the termination of the Russian-Iranian commercial relations, it should be noted only increase in trade directly with the Azerbaijani ports and their rivalry with the Iranian.

Mangyshlak was the center of trade with Khiva and Bukhara. After Baku and Enzilya it had the largest trade turnovers, and in 1778, 1781 and 1790 came to the second place. But unlike the Iranian and Azerbaijani ports it was far from large settlements and trade caravans, passing through lands of the Turkmen tribes, were quite often endangered. Besides Mangyshlak had a seasonal trade, the parking is impossible in the winter that reduced trade turnovers of Mangyshlaksky port. Thus, turnover of import depended on amount of the brought silk and cotton, and it defined the centers

the import coming to Russia. Not only Iran and Transcaucasia defined trade of Russia on the Caspian Sea, but also Central Asia which value gradually increased by the end of the 18th century

Import of east goods to Russia through Astrakhan in the second half of the 18th century took the modest place in relation to all import to Russia. In the 50th it made 4.6%, 60 - the 80th - on average 2.1, in the 90th - 1.1, and in 1801 - already 0.9% of cost of all import to Russia [18]. The Mozdok and Kizlyar customs outposts which were under control of the Astrakhan province and having similar import increased turnover of the Astrakhan trade a little. Together with them in 1801 the Astrakhan trade made 1.1% of import to Russia [18].

Besides, the value and turnover of other centers of trade of Russia with the countries of the East increased. Import to Orenburg in 1799 - 1800 averaged 2,077,444 rubles in a year, and import from China in 1801 reached 4 million rubles [18]. The Astrakhan trade gave not only modest turnover of import, but also insignificant duty collecting as import for 70-80% was duty-free. By the end of the 18th century the interests of treasury were promoted already to a lesser extent. Permission to collect duties at Astrakhan in a copper coin deprived of it inflow of silver and income from restamping.

Features and value of import through Astrakhan were in another. Import of east fabrics from silk had important impact on change of structure of import of the St. Petersburg port, especially in 50 - the 60th. In 70 - the same value import of cotton fabrics and products had the 90th. According to A. Semyonov, since the beginning of the 50th prior to the beginning of the 60th import of silk European goods was reduced by 1.9 times, and import paper (also linen fabrics entered here) goods - by 1.7 times. Import from the countries of the East was cheaper, than silk and paper fabrics and products from the countries of Europe, and found considerable demand at the center of the population of Russia. It should be noted that especially in 80 - the 90th still import from China with which trade turnovers considerably increased [19] begins to have a greater influence.

But to these the value of the Astrakhan bargaining was not exhausted. Import of east goods for the silk and cotton industry of Russia had much bigger value. The brought raw silk and cotton (raw and yarn) promoted growth of the textile industry of Russia. Growth of the silk and cotton industry was available: if since 1768 there were 82 silk and 9 cotton enterprises, then in 1799 - 357 silk-weaving and 249 cotton enterprises. Their production in a year was according to 3.9 million rubles and 1.9 million rubles [20].

The quantity of manufactories and institutions was 29% of all number of registered enterprises, and their industrial turns - 32.4% of all cost of Russia made by the manufactory industry. Growth of the silk-weaving and cotton industry continued also in the 19th century. On

to P.Ya. Bukshpan's data, in 1838 from 1058 enterprises of manufacturing industry of the Moscow province 432 (40.8%) were busy with production of silk, and in 1843 the cotton manufactories involved 42,504 workers, at 382 enterprises (55.3%) made products on 12,415,793 rubles (43.8% on the Moscow province) [9]. Blossoming of silk and especially cotton industry of Russia was prepared in the second half

XVIII century, in particular and efforts of trade on the Astrakhan direction.

Thus, the value of import of east goods in the 18th century was defined first of all by the interests of the textile industry of Russia. In our opinion, since the second to a half of the 18th century import of cotton played bigger value, than silks as fabrics from it were more available - to a general population of Russia at the price and the need for them was higher.

Literature

1. RGADA, t. 1361, op.1, 4.
2. GAAO. f. 681, op.1, 3073,3074,3075.
3. V.V. Dantevsky. Russian gold: The history of opening and production to the middle of the 19th century. M, 1959. Page 15

>- 59; Kennen A. Precious metals, their consumption and performance//Mountain magazine. 1880. T. 1. Prince 2. Page 261-263.

4. RGADA, t. 276, op. 1, 2833, l. 2-12; t. 397, op. 1, 660, l. 2-2 about.; 661, l. 2 - 3.
5. Yukht A.I. Trade with east countries and domestic market of Russia (20 - the 60th years of the 18th century). M, 1994. Page 46-47.
6. RGADA, t. 19, 236, l. 65.
7. AVPR, t. The intercourse of Russia with Persia, 1768, op. 77/7, 143, l. 47.
8. O.P. Markova. The Russian-Iranian trade in the last decade of the 18th century//Scientific notes of institute of oriental studies. T. 1. Baku, 1969. Page 114.
9. P.Ya. Bukshpan. The history of silkworm breeding and silk industry of Russia in the first half of the 19th century: Yew.... edging. east. sciences. M, 1962. Page 244.
10. RGADA, t. 397, op. 1, 636, l. 54.
11. Gay gifts of MX. Cities and urban craft of Azerbaijan the XIII-XVIII centuries Baku, 1967. Page 65-70.
12. RGADA, t. 19, op. 1, 297, Part 13, l. 115-155 about. (1777); Part 14, l. 338-383 about. (1778); Part 16, l. 237-250 (1780 g); Part 17, l. 144-156 (1781 g); 257: Part 16, l. 40-72 (1779); t. 1261, op. 6, 940, l. 88-136 about. (1787); 942, l. 78-111 (1788); 945, l. 240-260 (1789 g).
13. RGADA, t. 276, op. 1, 1449, l. 2 - 3 about.
14. RGADA, t. 397, op. 1, 660, l. 2 about.
15. RGADA, t. 397, op.1, 661, l. 2-3.
16. RGADA, f.1261, op. 5, 601, l. 22 - 23.
17. RGADA, t. 19, op. 1, 297: Part 13, l. 115-155 about. (1777); Part 14, l. 338-383 about. (1778); Part 16, l. 237-250 (1780 g); Part 17, l. 144-156 (1781 g); 257, Part 16, l. 40-72 (1779); t. 1261, op. 6, 940, l. 88-136 about. (1787); 942, l. 78-111 (1788); 945, l. 240-260 (1789 g); 948, l. 115-139 (1790 g); 949, l. 63-84 (1791).
18. RGADA, t. 276, op.Z, 1590, l. 1^ about.
19. A. Semyonov. Studying historical data on the Russian foreign trade and the industry from a half of the XVIII century on 1858 SPb., 1859.

Ch. 1. Page 200-201.

20. P.A. Khromov. Feudalism economy essays in Russia. M.,1957. Page 177-178.

Astrakhan state technical university

On September 12, 2002

2003 of T.A. Yeremeyev

The QUESTION OF PURCHASE AND SALE of the EARTH at the beginning of the XX CENTURY

The question of land ownership, its purchase and sale belongs in Russia to questions historical. In the world there were no so many disputes, discussions on this subject, as in our country anywhere. In the temporary scale of a discussion there are about two centuries. They gained special sharpness at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century due to the need of modernization of the agrarian sphere and the solution of the land question very relevant for those times.

The author tries to cover highlights of discussions on land ownership and its purchase and sale in the first decades of the 20th century in this article and to show government steps according to the solution of the land question in Russia.

At the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century Russia remained mainly agrarian country. On a census of 1897 in

rural areas more than 85% of all population of the country lived. From them 77% were actually the peasants who were engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding, crafts. 60% of villagers were concentrated in the European part of Russia, in particular, in great Russian provinces - in Moscow, Kaluga, Tver, Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Penza and in the south of the country. In some areas of the black earth belt of Russia the agrarian overpopulation was observed.

In 1905 the land fund of the Russian Empire contained 1 billion 965 million desyatin1 (2 billion 141 million hectares) lands. But from this number of the agricultural land (under an arable land, pastures, hozyaystvenno

& Tithe-ancient Russian land measure. 1 tithe = 1.09 hectares.

Richard Walter
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