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HISTORY of DEVELOPMENT of RESORTS of the BAIKAL REGION (END of the 18th century-1980-e years)



n. V. KAYGORODOVA

collective farm that, in turn, caused countermeasures, pressure upon them, coercion to work from the collective-farm administration. Work in personal subsidiary farms in the absence of support from above became way of preservation of hard manual work, and mainly in those forms what traditionally developed in country farms.

The post-war Siberian collective-farm village, according to V.G. Rasputin, "went turning imposed in natural, & #34; коллектив" in & #34; мир" a mandative order in indecisive, but after all democracy" 13.

1 V.G. Rasputin. My manifesto//our contemporary. 1997. No. 5. Page 4.
2 GAIO. F. r-2816, op. 1, 1, l. 3.
3 In the same place. L. 4-9.
4 RGASPI. T. 17, op. 138, 40, l. 62-63.
5 In the same place. L. 82.
6 In the same place. L. 63-64.
7 In the same place. L. 66.
8 In the same place. L. 82.
9 In the same place. L. 85.
10 GANIIO. T. 127, op. 14, 659, l. 63.
11 In the same place. 667, l. 44.
12 Benediktov I.A.O Stalin and Khrushchev//Young Guard. 1989. No. 4. Page 56.
13 V.G. Rasputin. Decree. soch. Page 4.

N.V. KAYGORODOVA

graduate student

The HISTORY of DEVELOPMENT of RESORTS of the Baikal region (the END of HUS VEKA — the 1980th YEARS)

Data on emergence of the first Baikal resorts belong to the 18th century when Eastern Siberia was not densely inhabited area. Difficult climatic conditions, bad transport connection, remoteness from the main industrial and agrarian centers were the cause that long time even the self-streaming mineral sources were uncertain and were not operated. The first medical institutions using mineral waters arose in the last quarter of the 18th century on the basis of already known mineral sources and mud lakes. Construction of the Trans-Siberian railroad at the end of the 19th century was an incitement to a new round of development of the existing resorts and to formation of new resorts, first of all in the Chita region. Many old resorts got financial support from the state or tenants. Resorts became the place not only treatments, but also entertainments that brought them additional income.

During the pre-revolutionary period the resorts were owned by treasury. However often they were leased to local businessmen who were practically not engaged in improvement in resorts of life, medical and cultural care. As a result the majority of resorts of the Baikal region remained at an initial stage of development. The legislative policy of resort matter in Russia carried allowing

character. Only in April, 1914 the law "About Mountain and Sanitary Protection of Resorts" with a condition of its input in action in two years was adopted.

During the Soviet period the different approach to a resort system was developed. Decree of April 4, 1919. "About medical areas of nation-wide value" all resorts were nationalized. To management of resorts labor unions, were involved in their development on a scientific basis — medical scientific organizations, in protection of recreational resources — local councils and the special commissions. Distribution of duties between various leading structures slowed down formation of a resort system. The progress of industry which began in the 1930th in Eastern Siberia became an additional factor of development of health resorts. However events of the Great Patriotic War interfered with implementation of plans for the organization of recreational facilities.

Implementation of comprehensive programs on development of productive forces of Siberia significantly increased population of the region. For satisfaction of the increased need of the population of Siberia for resort treatment it was necessary to develop intensively already operating resorts and to master new recreational resources of the Baikal region. For the general leadership in resort business and concentration of management of it in the system of labor unions in 1960 постанов© N.V. Kaygorodova, 2006

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

the leniy Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR "About transfer of all self-supporting sanatoria (except sanatoria for patients tubercular), holiday houses, resort clinics, policlinics, boarding houses in maintaining labor unions" councils for management of resorts of labor unions were created (Central office and territorial councils on places). Since that moment the development of resorts of the Baikal region significantly accelerated. Nevertheless many mineral sources and mud lakes were not used in the medical purposes. Even despite opening of new clinics in the Irkutsk region in the late eighties, need of the population for resort treatment was satisfied for only 43% of standard need of the adult naseleniya1. Numerous creation and abolition of the managing bodies eventually resulted in need of concentration of all completeness of the power for one center.

In two centuries in the Baikal region more than two dozen resorts were created: Goryachinsk, Darasun, Usolye, Cook, Yama-rovka, Nilov Monastery, Arshan, Angara, etc. Many of them function until now.

The resort of Turkinskiye mineral waters (modern resort of Goryachinsk) is the oldest resort of the region. It is located near the settlement of the Turk (modern settlement of Goryachinsk), in one kilometer from Lake Baikal. Its functioning began in 1775, but only in 1823 the official opening of the resort took place. Then constant administrative and medical staff was entered, necessary constructions (house, church, hospital, pharmacy) are built. Since 1903, gradual construction of a new complex of buildings began. During the Soviet period only in 1967 the project of sanatorium on 500 places in the territory of the resort of Goryachinsk was developed, and in the 1970th the plan of general reconstruction and expansion kurorta2 was made and approved. The sanatorium on 500 places was constructed in the 1990th

A source Darasun located at the village of Darasun was known to the Russian population since the end of the 18th century. The beginning of the organization of the resort belongs to 1809. During rent of the resort by the lieutenant colonel P.V. Shatilov (1875 — 1897) there were new residential buildings, the bathing building here, improvement of the territory of the resort was made that was not characteristic of the majority medical zavede-

of niya of the Baikal region. In 1923 Darasun is announced by the resort of nation-wide value. Subsequently Darasun was rented by the Far East committee of social insurance, and from this point within several years in the resort intensive construction was developed. In days of the Great Patriotic War on it took place evakogospital No. 4646. In 1974 Darasun was entitled the resort of republican value. In the 1980th in its territory the pouring plant mineral vody3 was organized.

The Usolye hydropathic institution (resort of Usolye) arose at Irkutsk (subsequently Usolye) the solevarenny plant in the 19th century in the territory of the modern city of Usolye of the Irkutsk region. In 1901-1905 the thorough re-equipment of the resort of Usolye was carried out: the new building of mineral bathtubs on 30 places, offices of coniferous bathtubs, fresh flourishes, a kursaal dining room, sports grounds, a sunbed are built, the railway junction is arranged, the post office is founded. Since 1927 the resort was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Irkutsk state university. In 1929 the new direction — mud cure opened. However in four years the financial position of a health resort considerably worsened, and it turned into maintaining the Irkutsk physiotherapeutic institute as its branch for carrying out research work and development of physical therapy in the region. Then the main reorganization of the resort was carried out. In days of the Great Patriotic War the resort of Usolye was reorientated in evakogospital No. 3913. In the 1960th the budget financing of a health resort was reduced as the resort was recognized as unpromising as it had to get to a flooding zone at construction of Brotherly GES4.

Comparing pre-revolutionary development of the resorts of Russia in general and resorts of the Baikal region, it should be noted that the studied resorts developed similar to resorts of many regions of the empire, such as Staraya Russa, Sergiyevsky mineral waters, Kemeri, Belokurikha, Issyk Kul (Central Asia), Alma-Arasan (Kazakhstan), Tsqaltubo (Georgia). The exception was made by resorts of the Caucasian group (Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region) which had the status of the resort area and were used for needs imperial

IGEA news. 2006. No. 6

G.A. Ostrovsky

families therefore got special state support. The specifics of pre-revolutionary Baikal resorts consisted in their later development, large number of small resorts and a huge number of "wild", unexplored resorts, especially in Buryatia.

During the Soviet era in the history of resorts there were both recession periods, and the periods of rapid growth. The first were connected with influence of the new economic policy of the 1920th and burdens of the Great Patriotic War. The second were caused by administrative and financial support (1920 — 1921), transfer of resorts to maintaining labor unions and their consecutive scientific and economic development (1950-1980th). The fact that during the post-war period the formation of resort network slowed down was characteristic of the Baikal resorts. It is especially important to note that new resorts were built only in the 1980th. A number of large-scale deposits of mineral waters and therapeutic mud, for example Nukutskoye, Hakusskoye, formed base for the organization of small clinics.

Summing up the research result, it is necessary to tell about need of consecutive planned development of resort network. Development in recent years in the Baikal region of active tourism and construction of holiday houses create a necessary basis for further improvement of a resort and sanatorium system.

1 GANIIO. F. r-3305, op. 1, 265, l. 37.
2 M.P. Mikhaylov, V.N. Zhinkin. Resorts of Siberia and East edge, their past and the present: value of resorts, features of incidence in the region. Irkutsk, 1932. Page 24.
3 I.N. Bagashev. Mineral sources of Transbaikalia. M, 1905. Page 65.
4 V.G. Tkachuk, I.S. Lomonosov Mineralnye Vody and their use in the national economy of the Irkutsk region. Irkutsk, 1958. Page 20.

G.A. OSTROVSKIYA

applicant

PREPARATION of OFFICER SHOTS FOR the RUSSIAN ARMY IN the IRKUTSK MILITARY COLLEGE

Now there are extremely difficult processes of creation of the Russian state. In series of the coming true transformations a specific place is held by modern military reform which main goal is creation of essentially new military system. Carrying out modern military reform has to consider past experience and be based on a complex of historical researches, one of which is the offered article about the Irkutsk military college.

In the second half of the 1880th in the Russian army there was a shortage of regular officers that was especially sharply felt in the military districts which were to the east of the Urals. To improve situation, at the end of 1864 Vilensky and Moscow yunkersky schools opened, and by the beginning of 1871 16 schools (11 infantry, 2 cavalry, 2 mixed, 1 Cossack) 1 worked.

According to the order on the Defense Ministry of 1872 No. 161, in Irkutsk in 1874 it was open yunkersky uchilishche2.

Originally yunkersky schools were created for preparation for an officer rank of the cadets who came to army voluntarily, and since 1869 in them corporals of general terms of service, i.e. called in troops on recruitment were accepted.

Admission examinations were held in the second half of August by the special commissions appointed the chief of school. Arriving were examined on a wide range of disciplines what the schedule of admission examinations in the Irkutsk infantry yunkersky school confirms. In August, 1907 the following tests were coming persons interested to arrive: medical examination, written work on Russian, written work on mathematics, physics, arithmetics, algebra, geometry, history, Scripture, Russian, geografiya3.

On the eve of World War I the annual enrollment in school made 100 people at a competition 4.5 people into place.

Originally training in school continued two years, and since 1901 years.

© HECTARE. Ostrovsky, 2006

Helgesen Sigurd
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