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V.I. Taneev: life, activity, destiny



Article is devoted to the fate of the lawyer famous at the time, the philosopher and the public figure V.I. Taneev. Taneev made for development of the socialist ideas in Russia much, however for the unknown reasons was never subjected to oppressions from the authorities.

The article is devoted to the lawyer, philosopher and public figure V.I. Taneev, well-known at that time. On the length of his life he has done a lot for the development of socialist ideas in Russia. However, on unknown reasons he never was the subject of power oppressions for that activity.

Taneev, legal profession, socialism, the forbidden books, the barrister, political process, the academic lunches; Taneev, Bar, socialism, forbidden books, barrister, political process, academic dinners.

The circle of sources about life and V.I. Taneev's activity is very wide: memoirs of Taneeva1, his son, the main works Vladimir Ivanovich about future structure of communistic society, memoirs of the poet A. Bely, musical critic L.L. Sabaneev, P.I. diaries Chaykovskogo2 (the brother of Vladimir Sergey Ivanovich Taneev was an outstanding composer), archive materials. It is a little researches of life and V.I. Taneev's creativity, and almost all of them concern his philosophical and political views. The first it B. made Item Kozmin3. Soon there was a number of articles and small monographs by S.V. Obolenskoy4 (about historical researches of Taneev) and P.S. Shkurinova5 (about his philosophical views). After them only N.A. Troitsky in works on stories of the Russian advokatury6 was engaged in a research of separate pages of life and Taneev's activity.

V.I. Taneev's parents were educated people. Mother Varvara Pavlovna Protopopova belonged to the clergy. The father Ivan Ilyich Taneev defended the master dissertation on office of verbal sciences of the Moscow university then he once again was trained, already on medical office, and passed examinations on the doctor's rank.

Vladimir Ivanovich was born on August 24, 1840. In four years he began to be taught fundamentals of sciences and foreign languages (French, German and Latin). Since childhood he had outstanding memory, in three years reproduced by heart chapters from Eugene Onegin which were read to it by the mother before going to bed.

In 1853 I. Taneev came to School of jurisprudence in


Mfsaylovsh — asshrait ucmopuu departments Rosssh IIIMO SGU of um. N.G. Chernyshevsky aorouovpm

1 V.I. Taneev Detstvo. Youth. Thoughts of the future. — M, 1959.
2 Andrey Bely At a turn of two centuries. — M, 1989; L.L. Sabaneev. Memories of Russia. — M, 2005; P.I. Tchaikovsky's Diary (1873 — 1891). — M, 1923.
3 B.P. Kozmin. Socio-political and philosophical views of V.I. Taneev//From the history of the socio-political ideas. — M, 1955; it. From history of a revolutionary thought. — M, 1961.
4 Obolenskaya S.V.V.I. Taneev about the history of France//the French year-book (1973). — M, 1975; it. Commune of Paris and advanced Russia. — M, 1981.
5 P.S. Shkurinov. Philosophical views of V.I. Taneev. — M, 1962; it. Critic of positivism V.I. Taneev. — M, 1965.
6 N.A. Troitsky Advokatura in Russia and political processes in 1866 — 1904 — Tula, 2002; it. Coryphaeuses of the Russian legal profession. — M, 2006, etc.

St. Petersburg also ended it in 1861. It should be noted that study did not bring it satisfaction, and on the contrary, weighed what it repeatedly remembered. Here he for the first time got acquainted with A.I. Herzen and N.G. Chernyshevsky's compositions and began to collect the collection of books, first mainly a fiction.

After the termination of school till 1866 Taneev lived lessons and was engaged in self-education, gave lectures about the Great French revolution in sea cadet school. Besides, in the commune of the socialist writer V.A. Sleptsov he taught political economy.

In 1863 the first trip of Taneev to Europe after which he began to bring and order scientific books, often banned in the Russian Federation from abroad took place. The same year Vladimir Ivanovich tried as the historian, having written the work "Capture of the Bastille" in which he brightly and emotionally described the events which were taking place in France on July 14, 1789

V.I. Taneev's career as lawyer began in 1866 when he entered estate of barristers. He specialized, generally in civil cases, considering questions nasledovaniya1. Broader popularity to him was brought by participation in the known political process of the Polish revolt of 1863 which was taking place in 1869 — 1870. After the end of this process one more composition — "The theory of robbery" in which the author argued on the principles of political and economic development of the state is written to them.

In 1867 Taneev married the daughter of the Scottish engineer Archibald Makneb-Scott who arrived to Russia to construct the Nikolaev railroad. After moving from Scotland the girl received a name Elena Sergeyevna. Next year the spouses had the first child — Vladimir who got the nickname "athlete" for the good health.

The second trip of Taneev abroad took place in 1870. First he went to London, and then to Brussels where got acquainted with the conservative historian N.D. Fyustel de Coulangem and

1 Institute of the Russian literature (IRLI) of RAS, t. 653, op. 1, 279.

a bit later — with the socialist reformer Zh.B. Goden. In the same place Taneev's acquaintance to the ideologist of revolutionary populism P.L. Lavrov who was in emigration since 1870 who had a great influence on formation of his views took place. Vladimir Ivanovich saw an ideal of political system of society in socialism of country sense. Much later in a number of the works he will in detail state structure of this future "perfect" society.

Perhaps, under an impression of this trip one more composition — "The international society of workers" where he describes formation and activity of the I International issues from Taneev's pen. In 1871 K. Marx sent it the photo with the personal signature, having described the lawyer as "the devoted friend of release of the people" in the letter to M.M. of Kovalevskomu2.

His participation in the political process of nechayevets which was taking place from July 1 to September 11, 1871 became the loudest event in Taneev's career. In the courtroom, protecting one of the wards, the lawyer tried to explain to all with the attendee that A.I. Herzen's reading is not crime at all (his compositions were most strictly forbidden), and on the contrary, each educated person is obliged them izuchat3.

Same year V.I. Taneev's status changed as lawyer — he became the member of council of barristers of St. Petersburg. In 1872 Vladimir Ivanovich moved to Moscow where he ascended even above on a career ladder, having held a post of the chairman of the board of barristers. He headed it four years (1877 — 1880), for the first time in Russia having organized group of assistants to barristers — institute of vocational training of lawyers.

Besides, it continued replenishment and systematic studying the scientific library growing every year. In a year there was the first part of its memoirs — "The history of my stay in School of jurisprudence".

in a year Taneev went again

2 K. Marx, Engels F. Soch., the 2nd prod., t. 34, page 185.
3 Official gazette, 1871, 3 (15) August, page 4.

in a foreign travel. This time — to Italy. About this trip it left interesting traveling notes in which shared impressions about differences between the European and Russian cities: "... maybe they (cities) so were pleasant to me because I got from the dirty heap of boxes for housing called Moscow" 1 here.

Creation of two more of his compositions — Eytikhiologiya (about general laws of development of human society as it understood them) and also "The communistic states of the future" (thinker's view of future structure of socialist society) belongs to the same time.

Throughout all the life V.I. Taneev never stopped being engaged in self-education, studying history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, biology, etc., constantly filling up the encyclopedic knowledge. A number of compositions, generally on social sciences became result of such self-training. Taneev was published in the magazines "Sovremennik", "Otechestvennye zapiski", "Russkiye vedomosti", etc.

Since 1868 Vladimir Ivanovich will organize at himself "circle" with Saturday evenings. First only M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin (his close friend) with the spouse and some more people came to them. After moving to Moscow this "circle" became more popular and since 1875 developed into "the academic lunches". The scientist K.A. Timiryazev, the chemist V.V. Markovnikov, the fiziko-chemist V.F. Luginin were permanent participants of these lunches at different times. Later chemists I.A. Kablukov and V.F. Luchinin began to visit these lunches; lawyer and writer, expert on the Gospel A.S. Buturlin; historians and lawyers S.A. Muromtsev, M.M. Kowalewski, D.M. Petrushevsky,

A.I. Chuprov; physicists A.G. Stoletov and P.N. Lebedev; physicians S.S. Korsakov, Serbian, I.M. Sechenov; artists S.I. Taneev, P.I. Tchaikovsky, A.I. Sumbatov-Yuzhin, B.B. Korsov, M.N. Yermolova; writers I.S. Turgenev, M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, P.D. Boborykin.

During these lunches lively conversations on topical issues sotsio-were conducted

1 Institute of the world literature (IMLI), t. 200, op. 1, 7, l. 3.

logiya, political economies, arts, religions and especially politicians. V.I. Taneev as the head of these meetings suggested any of attendees to make the report, thus designating the main direction of discussions, often very sharp. The academician D.M. Petrushevsky, when that was professor of the Moscow university, repeatedly caused to the chief of the district who spoke to him: "Or you continue teaching at the university or have dinner in the Taneevsky circle, and it is impossible to combine one and another" 2.

Strange is the fact that, despite tough policy of the government concerning the people sowing "sedition" in society Taneev was not made by police responsible though occasions was enough. Taneev never hesitated to state the "left" beliefs anywhere: at a table of "the academic lunches", at in a manor and even in the courtroom. Perhaps, the authorities treated it as to the strange person and perceived all this as lordly eccentricity. However, Andrey Bely said about the existing assumption that such behavior suited spies of security office because allowed to monitor reaction to speeches of the lawyer of all of "unreliable" people. And here is how L.L. Sabaneev spoke of Taneev: "It was the old freethinker, the atheist and a bogokhulitel, the hater of all "authorities", an unnatural combination of lyuteyshy aristocratism to political radicalism." 3.

In 1883 Vladimir Ivanovich on the money earned from lawyer activity got Demyanovo's manor near Klin of the Moscow province. Peasants treated it with great respect: it gave them to free use of the earth for a cattle pasture; closed the sandalny plant preventing farming as harmful production; never resorted to court at settlement of disputes; watched welfare of villagers.

After the awful fire in the summer of 1885 in Klin, when the population (about 4 thousand

2 P.V. Taneev. From memories of V.I. Taneev//V.I. Taneev. Decree. soch., page 702.
3 L.L. Sabaneev. Decree. soch., page 153.

the people) lost a shelter and bread, Vladimir Ivanovich together with the spouse organized delivery of the major products for the poorest part of the population (often gratuitously distributing food and money) within three weeks, usual supply did not return to normal yet.

Taneev paid special attention to arrangement of the numerous extracts (more than 20 thousand) of which, according to him, it would be possible to make 10 books. A big part of its activity was made by not stopping work on replenishment and streamlining of library which it collected from 18 years. The library (more than 20 thousand volumes) transported from Moscow to Demyanovo occupied 3 rooms (only one uniform catalog made 122 leaves!) it was also located on the special system created by its owner.

After the revolution the people's commissar of education A.V. Lunacharsky received data on this unique collection of literature and charged to M.N. Pokrovsky to redeem it, having offered 100 thousand rubles. Refused to sell the Taneev library, having made the decision, very difficult for itself: to transfer it

to the Soviet government without any payment. The library was transferred in February, 1919 and transported to Moscow, in Socialist academy. V.I. Lenin on the basis of the resolution of Council of People's Commissars of March 25, 1919 issued to V.I. Taneev the charter of immunity behind the personal signature.

Vladimir Ivanovich Taneev in the village of Demyanovo died on October 20, 1921.

In the long and rich life Vladimir Ivanovich proved to be the man of the word and honor. Never he was afraid to arrive on conscience even if it threatened it with troubles with the authorities. Despite the shock value, or perhaps and thanks to it, Taneev was the person honored and respected. Despite the quite radical political views, he never entered the open conflicts with the government, acting only within the law. Such vital credo is represented very relevant presently changes and innovations because today it is more than ever very important to keep balance between political convictions and government policy.

Bridges Raymond
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