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Category: History

The Kazan state medical university is 190 years old


2004
2

VOLUME

EDITION of the MINISTRY OF HEALTH of TATARSTAN AND KAZAN STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

UDC 061. 75

To the KAZAN STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY — 190 YEARS

On May 14, 2004 190 years from the opening day of medical faculty of the Kazan imperial university, one of the higher educational institutions and the first university, oldest in Russia, in the Russian province are executed. During its creation the following aim was pursued - "establishment of the university has to tend most to education of the young men of nobility holding the major positions in the state". He was called to train statesmen for the extensive territory of the educational district which entered the Volga region, the Penza and Tambov provinces, Prikamye and Cisural area (Vyatka, Perm, Orenburg provinces), Siberia and the Caucasus. Kazan for this purpose was chosen by no means not accidentally: first, by the beginning of the 19th century it was the large provincial center with the population in 30 thousand inhabitants; secondly, there were a gymnasium, spiritual academy, Muslim educational institutions, the main national school, boards.

First memorial for the Kazan university there was a day of signing of the university by Alexander I Ustava - November 5/14, 1804. In it it was noted that & #34; sciences in all space as the general will be taught, to each person necessary, and special, serving to education of the citizen for different childbirth of public service". Were

4 faculties - moral and political sciences, physical and mathematical sciences, medical or medical sciences, verbal sciences with department of east languages are created.

The first years the university existed almost only on paper - teachers of a gymnasium on the basis of which it was open became his first professors and adjoints. For teaching local celebrities were invited. So, the headquarters doctor I.V. Protasov who died in way was invited to a position of professor of pathology, therapy and clinic from the Perm medical justice, without having reached Kazan. Since 1805 professors who are specially invited from the German universities or the Russian capital educational institutions among which there were physicians Ivan Petrovich Kamensky, Fedor Hristoforovich (Iogann-Fridrich) Erdman, Karl Fedorovich Fuchs began to arrive in Kazan.

In January, 1811 at the university the first elections of the rector and deans were held. Professor of anatomy, physiology and judicial medical science Ivan Osipovich Brown was elected as the rector, and the dean of office of medical sciences - professor of pathology, therapy and Fedor Hristoforovich Erdman clinic. The minister did not approve the elected members, elections repeated in the spring of 1913 when officials were utverzh-

© 6. & #34; Kazan medical & #34; No. 2.

dena. A birthday of medical faculty, and nowadays Kazan medical university is considered on May 2/14, 1914. This day the first meeting of council of medical faculty of the Kazan university took place. 18271846 years when N.I. Lobachevsky was elected the rector became the fertile period for faculty. At it the Kazan university became one of the best in the country. Poe-lumordvinov to his initiative for preparation of scientific shots the perspective young people went to the leading higher education institutions. In the Derptsky university future head of the department of therapeutic clinic, sincere diseases and semiotics N.A. Skan-dovsky (1828), was sent to the St. Petersburg medico-surgical academy - medical a veshchestvosloviya D.I. Protopopov (1829). At it the dissecting room, clinic, university pharmacy were open, the issue of training at the university of talented merchant and petty-bourgeois children was resolved. So, one of future prominent physicians of that time N.I. Rozov on foot came from Siberia to Kazan for training, without having any means, and at first even lived on N.I. Lobachevsky's apartment.

Within the 19th century the university endured several charters. So, the first charter of 1804 provided annual elections of the rector and deans and was rather loyal to the list of pupils. To the charter of 1835 for study only persons of free states were accepted by Poe-lumordvinov, among measures of punishment appeared such as return in soldiers. Since 1848, requirements at reception of medical faculty on Latin raised - each arriving had to know it. In 1849 by 3 times the payment for the right of hearing of lectures was increased to limit access for the lowest estates to the university, but because of the shortage of doctors the provision on strict restriction of reception for medical faculty did not extend, and up to 40% of his students had not noble origin. Moreover, the deficiency of teacher's, medical and official shots in Siberia forced the government to establish for Siberians personal grants for training and to enter for them obligatory ten-year service in Siberia after its termination. The third charter of 1863 had "ustupochny" character, providing some autonomy

professorate, increased the power of council and the rector, students were deprived of all rights, any student's organizations were strictly forbidden them. The fourth charter of 1884 strengthened a role of the trustee, worsened situation of the students who got under full supervision of the inspector who had the right to put them in a punishment cell. At this time the tuition fee increased by 5 times. Sharp reduction of persons interested to study in the university during the entire period of imperialistic war led to permission in 1914 to allow women to training at physical and mathematical and medical faculties. According to the project of 1915 the selectivity of heads, autonomy was approved, terms of training of students were reduced, but it was not accepted in connection with revolutionary events.

University charters ordered to professors to carry out scientific researches and to involve in them students. It was supposed that the science develops thinking and sends thoughts of young people to the kind course. Physicians K.F. Fuchs and F.H. Erdman concentrated the attention on problems of social hygiene. On pages of the local press ("About the state of health of residents of Kazan") and in public lectures K.F. Fuchs described the observations of sick citizens of Kazan. F.H. Erdman made it in the three-volume edition published in Germany "To knowledge of internal Russia" - one of the first medico-topographical materials about the Volga region and Western Siberia. K.F. Fuchs's work "The Kazan Tatars in the statistical and ethnographic relations" thanks to which he is considered the founder of medical ethnography is very interesting.

I.I. Molleson (monograph "Territorial Medicine"), A.V. Petrov dealt with issues of territorial medicine,

A.Ya. Scherbakov ("Notes about territorial medicine in the Kazan province"), proving need for territorial medicine of the sanitary and hygienic direction, creation of the sanitary organization, introduction of a position of the doctor-hygienist.

The broad popularity was gained by university surgeons A.A. Kiter, F.O. Elachich, A.N. Beketov. A large specialist in internal diseases was

professor of H.A. Vinogradov who brought up the whole group of talented pupils.

In experimental medicine professor of anatomy E.F. Aristov fruitfully worked, developing questions of the structure of nervous system ("About critical analysis of achievements of the latest microscopic anatomy") and studying physical properties of blood and process of blood circulation ("Lectures on the general pathological anatomy’’). K.A. Arnsh-teyn created the Kazan school of histologists, his works and works of pupils laid the foundation for domestic neurohistology. N.O. Kowalewski founded school of physiologists, and under his management there began scientific activity a founder of domestic ophthalmology E.V. Adamyuk who became world-famous thanks to a research of intraocular pressure. Its multivolume "Practical guidance on studying diseases of an eye" became the reference book for many generations of doctors.

In 1874 V. Pashutin headed department of pathological physiology, the first in the history of medicine, and in 1885 in Kazan the prof. H.A. Mislavsky in a brain revealed localization of the respiratory center. The description of this opening was included into all guides to physiology. In 1885-1893 in Kazan V.M. Bekhterev who founded at the university the Russia's first psychophysiological laboratory for researches in the field of anatomy and physiology of a brain, experimental psychology ("Doctrine bases about functions of a brain") worked.

By the beginning of the 20th century Kazan was already one of the advanced medical centers of Russia. Here anatomists N.D. Bushmakin and V.N. Tonkov, surgeons worked

V.I. Razumovsky and A.V. Vishnevsky, physiologists N.A. Mislavsky and D.V. Poe-lumordvinov, neuropathologist L.O. Darc-shevich, psychiatrist V.P. Osipov, therapists A.N. Kazem-Beck, S.S. Zimnitsky, M.N. Cheboksarov, pharmacologist M.F. Boldyrev, obstetrician-gynecologist of B.C. Gruzdev, hygienist V.V. Miloslavsky. There were events of the world importance. In therapeutic clinic of the Kazan university in 1908 A.F. Samoylov wrote down the Russia's first electrocardiogram, in 1922 S.S. Zimnitsky offered a method of determination of filtrational ability of kidneys, in 1928 A.V. Vishnevsky developed futlyarny

anesthesia, in 1931 A. Engelgardt opened oxidizing phosphorylation, and in 1933 A.V. Kibyakov - the mechanism of transfer of a nervous impulse in mezhney-ronalny synapses.

In 1930 on the basis of medical faculty of the Kazan university the independent medical institute was created. At that time it consisted of one treatment-and-prophylactic faculty incorporating two offices - surgical and therapeutic, but in a year the sanitary and hygienic faculty with two offices - epidemiology and industrial hygiene was formed. In 1932 the faculty of protection of motherhood and an infancy renamed in 1933 into the pediatric faculty which was also consisting of two offices - pediatric and obstetric and gynecologic was open. In 1954 at medical institute there was a dental faculty, in 1975 - pharmaceutical, in 1991 - faculty of social work, in 1994 - management and the higher sisterly education.

April 24, 1994. The Kazan state medical institute received the status of the university.

Today more than 5 thousand students from 16 regions of the Russian Federation and 160 citizens of the foreign states study at 7 faculties of the Kazan medical university. At the university 63 departments function, the professorial case 557 employees, make 119 doctors of science, 300 candidates of science of them. In the rating of medical schools of Russia the university takes the sixth or seventh place. The complex inspection of activity of the university (certification, licensing, the state accreditation) which is carried out in May, 2003 confirmed high quality of training of experts in all specialties.

For the last 5 years the staff of our university participated in writing of 9 textbooks of federal level and published 71 monographs; 17 representatives of our higher education institution participate in work of federal subject and methodical councils and commissions. For the organization of educational process in higher education institutions of Russia the Center of practical abilities opened about a year ago is innovative. It is organized on the basis of experience as europey-

Students of the III rate at classes in the Center of practical abilities.

sky, and American medical schools, and at the same time has own to the Empyrean as not so much replaces work with patients as it is accepted in the West how many prepares for it.

The Kazan medical university continues to remain basic educational institution of primary specialization of doctors-interns for Tatarstan and the Republic of Mari El. For the last 5 years in an internship with obtaining certificates 2020 doctors-interns, in an internship - 259 experts had training.

The important section of study of the university is skills development and professional retraining of experts which is conducted on 23 specialties. New among them - cycles on functional diagnostics, arrhythmology, rheumatology, forensic medical examination, otorhinolaryngology, obstetrics and gynecology, cardiology, nephrology, uro-nephrology, orthopedic, therapeutic, surgical and children's stomatology, social hygiene and the organization of health care, bases of the medical right and biomedical ethics, fight bases against a population narcotization. For the first time together with the Ministry of social protection of RT cycles for specialists in social work, teachers, psychologists, parents of disabled children are carried out. In general for the fifth anniversary on 370 cycles of thematic and general improvement underwent developing the skills of 7646 doctors and pharmacists.

Among the staff of the university the academician and the corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Medical Science work,

6 academicians and corresponding members

Academies of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, 29 honored workers of science of the Russian Federation and Republic of Tatarstan, 58 honored doctors of the Russian Federation and Republic of Tatarstan, 4 honored workers of the higher school of Russia. Scientists of the university for the last fifth anniversary received 117 grants from various funds of support of science for the sum more than 14.2 million rubles. Participation of scientific groups of higher education institution in three drafts of the federal target program "Integration", 10 programs of branch research works, the program of scientific research of the Russian Academy of Medical Science became a fact of recognition of the importance of researches of our scientists,

7 interdepartmental scientific programs for health protection of mother and child.

The department of normal physiology of our university is recognized by the leading school of sciences of Russia. We support researches in many scientific areas, the most perspective of which are researches in the field of medical genetics, a heart surgery, transplantology, modern technologies of use of stem cells, creations and introductions of new pharmaceutical means. On the basis of the university it is carried out 1 1 4 symposiums, congresses and conferences, the All-Russian congresses of neurologists and physiologists, 7 international symposiums, 9 All-Russian schools of young scientists are most significant from which.

In recent years the medical university conducts considerable economic contractual works with such large partners on the volume as JSC Tatenergo, JSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim, JSC Tatneft. Our higher education institution was among the centers for test of medicines and the medical equipment, in its walls the test laboratory center is formed.

On the eve of the 190 anniversary from the date of education the Kazan state medical university kept and strengthened the personnel and intellectual potential allowing to have additional opportunities for training of highly qualified medical personnel, to continue scientific research on a wide range of scientific problems and to develop the international activity.

Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Science N.H. Amirov (Kazan)

Stuart Gerald
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