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STATE SCIENTIFIC PREDECESSOR of State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science LIBRARY: short essay of history (1918-1958)



knigovedeny

To the 90 anniversary of State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

UDC 02 (470)

BBK 78.33 (2)

The STATE SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY - the PREDECESSOR of State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science: SHORT ESSAY of HISTORY (1918-1958)

© A.L. Posadskov, 2008

State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 630200, Novosibirsk, Voskhod St., 15

Article is devoted to the history of the State Scientific Library (SSL) created in 1918 in Moscow and transformed in 1958 to the State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science - the main library of modern Siberia. Stages of development of GNB, its main achievements during the pre-war and military periods are shown. Activity of heads of library and the scientists who made a contribution to performance of a problem of GNB - library and bibliographic service of science and the industry during an era of industrial modernization of the country is analyzed.

Piyulya 1918 in library life of the country there was an event which did not draw then great attention which, however, had considerable long-term consequences. The resolution of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy (SSNE) of RSFSR created the State scientific and technical library of scientific and technical department (GNTB NTO) of VSNKh [1].

GNTB was the first central scientific library created by new revolutionary power. The value of library was defined by a leading position and the leading role of scientific and technical department of VSNKh as center of development technical, exact and partly natural sciences in the Soviet Russia. Selection of an initial (basic) kernel of literature was one of the first tasks of again organized library. The complexity of this work was that it was carried out in the conditions of Civil war and economic ruin. According to one of organizers of library, L.A. Schlossberg, in the first year of the existence its book fund consisted of Brockhaus and Efron's encyclopedic dictionary, accidentally collected books of different contents, some reference books and editions of institutions [2] subordinated to VSNKh which undertook to bring all literature which was issued them to library. For completing of GNTB funds then material support of the state was crucial. On December 20, 1918

V.I. Lenin signed the resolution of Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR on allocation from means of the State treasury more than 55 thousand rubles for strengthening of material resources of VSNKh library [3].

In the first years of existence of GNTB NTO VSNKh the volumes of its works were small. In 1919, for example, the number of regular readers made about 250 people [4]. Low-power of library was connected also with the fact that it was not only in the system of VSNKh: in parallel with it in the fall of 1918 the library of Presidium of VSNKh, and then (in the early twenties) - other libraries was created at central boards and departments of VSNKh (to Glavtopa, Glavelektro, Glavtekstile, etc.) [5]. In September, 1920 the specialized reading room of foreign literature at BANDAGE (Bureau of foreign science and technology) of VSNKh will be organized [6]. The separation of library science in the system of VSNKh begins to be overcome since October, 1923 when libraries of central boards and departments are transferred to position of branches of library of Presidium of VSNKh. On October 30, 1924 VSNKh makes the decision on transfer to NTO of the largest industry library of the central board - construction library of the liquidated Head Department of the State Construction (HDSC). GUGS library contained over 30 thousand volumes, many of which were unique. In March, 1926 it was finally merged with library stock of NTO VSNKh and transferred to the room, new, joint with GNTB, in the Business yard (in the square

Nogina). The Council of People's Commissars of the USSR released from the fund on transportation of the GUGS former library and its equipment in the territory of NTO of 10 thousand rubles, having exposed a condition: during transfer not to interrupt work of library [7].

Documents show that already during this period of GNTB NTO (renamed since November 1, 1918 into State scientific and technical and the NTO economic library) was considered by the management of VSNKh as the central scientific library of the Soviet industry. So, addressed to the chairman of VSNKh F.E. Dzerzhinsky the chairman of board of nauchnotekhnichesky department academician V.N. Ipatyev [8] wrote in the letter of August 11, 1924, petitioning for transfer of construction library to maintaining NTO: "NTO, having the Central scientific and technical and economic library, with the reading room of foreign latest literature, services them not only the research establishments, but also most of the experts working in VSNKh and other departments therefore accession of GUGS library will give the chance of NTO to use the richest material as book, and manuscripts and drawings..." [9]. Considering that many other institutions applied for construction library then (Glavelektro, Narkomput, etc.), the solution of a question in favor of NTO VSNKh should be connected, apparently, with a loaded word of F.E. Dzerzhinsky. The head of VSNKh paid these years feasible attention to library science in the department. He, for example, approved on January 26, 1926 the new Provision on the Central library VSNKh the USSR [10].

Merge of libraries of VSNKh was carried out by the order of Presidium of VSNKh of September 13, 1927. The central library of Presidium of VSNKh, State scientific and technical both the NTO VSNKh economic library and the reading room BANDAGE were connected in one State Scientific Library of Scientific and technical management of VSNKh (GNB NTU VSNKh) [11]. Under the name of GNB the library also became history of library science of the country for the whole three decades.

It is necessary to tell about the first heads of library especially. M.L. Milstein, L.A. Schlossberg (director of GNTB NTO VSNKh), professor A.I. Yakovlev (the director of the Central library of Presidium of VSNKh, and since 1927 - the integrated GNB NTU VSNKh), V. Ges-sel, D.I. Ulyanov (V.I. Lenin's brother) were her directors in the 1920th. In the library world A.I. Yakovlev and L.A. Schlossberg were especially known, both of them got (in the order on VSNKh of June 11, 1926) personal gratitude of the chairman of VSNKh F.E. Dzerzhinsky [12].

With approach of an era of five-years periods the role and tasks of library significantly increase. On November 29, 1929 decision of VSNKh it officially prizna-

it etsyatsya by the central library of the Soviet industry, functions of the organizational and methodical management of technical libraries of the USSR, bibliographic providing science and technology are assigned to it [13]. The staff of library made only 34 people [14] by this time. In days of five-years periods it began to grow violently. In October, 1934 the state made already 101 units [15]. The structure of library changes. The interests of the guaranteed replenishment by its new literature force to create in May, 1929 the first specialized department - department of completing. Sharply bibliographic work extends. Fall of 1929 in the state of GNB was only one bibliographer [16]. The whole bibliographic sector which heads in view of large number of its states had the right of the independent publication of orders on the sector is soon created. Only the current bibliografirovaniye of the foreign periodicals which are available in library, maintaining separate card files at first belonged to duties of bibliographers (a card file on tanning department, a new American card file, etc.). Since summer of 1929 of GNB begins to prepare the edition of the so-called "translation of the American card file" (the annotated card file of "Engineering Index Service" which was issued American Society of Mechanical Engineers means), which turns into the edition of the annotated card file of the current world literature on the equipment soon. This annotated card file published in the typographical way which received the name "Tekhkart" - the first bibliographic edition of library - begins to leave in 1929 [17].

In the late twenties - the beginning of the 1930th of a form of the organization of work in library and its structure accept stable character. Since 1927 GNB had the right of free receiving literature of Gostekhizdat, besides, she received some books free of charge from Lenin's Institute. The library sought to concentrate at itself the reference media, being guided by reasons about optimization of completing of reference books in libraries of institutes of VSNKh [18].

The initial plan about completing by library of unpublished scientific and technical information, patent editions, special types of literature, from - photoinformation, etc. is gradually realized. So, together with construction library, many albums of various civil constructions, albums of railway constructions, constructions on the water, highway and soil ways, drawings of prospecting parties, electrotechnical constructions and a rare collection of economic notes of the constructed and designed railroads and also "extremely valuable and only materials in the USSR... former Construction were transferred to GNB in 1926

Ministries of Internal Affairs committee on planning of the cities, on arms, on trams, on constructions of government and public institutions and buildings, with drawings and plans...". In library there was "a complete collection of privileges on the inventions given in Russia in 18701916", i.e. patent fund of the royal empire. In 1934 in GPB the archive of technical reports of all scientific research institutes of the heavy industry with delivery them to the reading room was organized [19]. Thus, the library from the first steps turned into the complex scientific information institute using as published, and unpublished documents.

Long tradition is also existence in library of the multiple copying equipment. As a part of the transferred GNB of construction library the blueprint (svetopisny) workshop which performed blueprint works on ferro-prussiatny, gallic paper and sepia was created on December 2, 1924. NTO VSNKh institutions were customers of a workshop. According to famous erudite V.V. Grum-Grzhi-maylo, the products of blueprint workshop GNB were "on purity and quality of finishing of the best in Moscow". Long time, from the moment of the basis of a workshop and until the end of the 1930th, the recognized expert N.V. Krasnoselsky [20] was her manager. The workshop worked at self-financing and made for library considerable profit. Further (in the 1940th) it was transformed to production workshop GNB, further existed as a production and printing workshop of State Public Scientific Technical Library FROM Academy of Sciences of the USSR, nowadays this important division of library is called as the printing site of State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science.

It is necessary to add that self-financing from the very beginning successfully supplemented the mechanism of economic activity of the library consisting on the state budget. The resolution of Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of April 24, 1924 NTO VSNKh and its institutions, including library, was allowed to receive means "as the conclusion of oral and written conditions, contracts, agreements and accounts for the executed various works", i.e. speaking the modern language, economic contracts [21].

The problems of library concerning the served contingent of readers at a boundary of the 19201930th also reminded today's. Let's cite the report of the director of GNB V. Gessel for 1928: "It is necessary to hear often that f [undamentalny] GNB, serving mainly pupils in higher education institutions, does not serve directly the purposes of VSNKh, NTU and their institutes. The reason exposes allegedly remoteness and suburban location of library. Such situation is explained by a condition of book fund. and small awareness of institutes about bibliote-

ke...". As necessary measures it was offered, in particular, "to organize perhaps wide notification about a condition of book fund of library of all whom it can interest and. to change the system of use of library to make that more convenient for various institutions and persons, to bring closer, so to speak, library to these last" [22].

Creation in 1931 of GNB branches in Moscow at Houses of the equipment of Sokolnichesky and Proletarian areas and in the town of science and technology of Central Park of Culture and Leisure of A.M. Gorky [23] was one of ways of solving the problem of availability of the scientific book. And though these branches were closed further (the first - in 1934, the second - in 1940, the third - in 1941), the tradition of creation of regional branches was carried on after war. The regional offices of State Public Scientific Technical Library of Russia existing then in Moscow were "successors" of this system.

Since the beginning of the 1930th there are changes in departmental accessory of State Scientific Library. In January, 1932 the Government decree liquidated VSNKh, on its basis branch national commissariats are created. GNB as the central library of the industry was transferred to the jurisdiction of the National commissariat of the heavy industry. On the basis of the resolution of Narkomtyazhprom of September 15, 1933 the management of all network of technical libraries of the heavy industry was assigned to GNB [24].

In the 1930th the activity of library proceeded under the general guide of the people's commissar of the heavy industry G.K. Ordzhonikidze. From G.K. Ordzhonikidze's secretariat a large number of the editions sent to the secretariat including limited editions of the plants, reports of scientific research institute, etc. came to funds of library. In the second five-years period the narcomat managed to achieve the right to the complimentary obligatory copy of literature in All-Union book chamber together with the Marx-Engels-Lenin's Institute (MELI) at the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). The right of the first selection of literature was granted IMEL which remained after this edition received GNB [25]. Considerably completing of library foreign literature improved. According to the order across Narkomtyazhprom of October 19, 1937. "About an order of an extract and use of foreign literature" the centralized currency and currency-free completing began foreign literature of GNB and other libraries of a narcomat [26].

G.K. Ordzhonikidze, V.V.Kuibyshev, academicians I.P. Bardin (the chief engineer of Kuznetskstroy in the 1930th), A.E. Fersman, A.A. Skochinsky and other heads of the industry and sciences in the USSR used books from a background at this time -

Dov of library. It is interesting to track as, for example, providing G.K. Ordzhonikidze with literature was organized in GNB. The person on duty on the reading room daily rang 22 h 45 min. (at that time the library worked for readers from 10:00 till 23:00) in the secretariat of the people's commissar and requested about the available urgent requirements of literature. The next morning the requirements were fulfilled and the necessary literature arrived on a table of G.K. Ordzhonikidze, his deputies or those employees to whom it was necessary. In 1937 in GNB work on individual bibliographic service of the managerial personnel of the heavy industry was adjusted [27]. According to check for January 1, 1939, in GNB funds there were 306,479 copies of domestic books and annual sets of magazines and 100,902 foreign. In total the book fund of library contained 407,381 copies of literature [28].

Fruitful was the thought of creation of GNB branches in the large, industrially developed cities of the USSR which had a certain scientific potential. The program of creation of such regional scientific and technical libraries (GNB basic libraries) began to be carried out since 1932. In 1932 the first GNB basic libraries in Baku, Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, Kharkiv were created, in 1934 the branches of library will be organized in Gorky, Novosibirsk, Rostov-on-Don, Saratov, Stalingrad, Tbilisi and Chelyabinsk, in 1935 - in Kiev [29]. On January 27, 1934 in structure of GNB the network sector for the organizational and methodical management of branches of library was created. The sector a long time (from the moment of the basis till 1950th) was headed by one of the oldest workers of GNB Ts.B. Kuks [30].

The library conducts active work with the branches. Departures on places of executives of GNB for establishing activity and instructing of personnel of branches were frequent, to GNB constantly there came the employees of technical libraries sent from places, managing affairs of library it was entrusted to provide them with accommodation and food. On the basis of the GNB basic libraries regularly held regional meetings and conferences of nauchnotekhnichesky libraries (only in 1937, for example, such meetings took place in Gorky, Sverdlovsk, Novosibirsk, etc.). On December 25-28, 1933 in Moscow the first All-Union meeting of technical libraries of the heavy industry convened by GNB devoted to questions of the organization of network of technical libraries took place. On May 13-15, 1937 there took place the second such meeting of an asset of employees of scientific and technical libraries of the heavy industry [31].

For the 1930th also publishing gained development bibliographic

GNB. Except the annotated card file Tekhkart, GNB begins to issue six monthly trade bibliographic magazines united by the general name "News of Technical Literature" ("NTL") since 1936. Then, in 1936 there are first editions of a series of methodical letters and instructions of GNB for the aid to employees of libraries (till 1945 there were 36 releases). Since 1937 the library publishes a series of recommendatory bibliographic indexes "What to read to the worker about the production" (till 1941 there were over 180 indexes). Besides, the library releases the become widely known help and bibliographic grants "The world technical periodical press" (1939), "Foreign technical reference books" (1940), a number of the bibliographic indexes devoted to outstanding Russian and Soviet scientists. Top of publishing of GNB during this period was the issue of the monthly kritiko-bibliographic magazine Technical Book. The magazine issued at first (in 1935-1938) publishing house of Narkomtyazhprom "For industrialization" with active participation of GNB, in 1938 was transferred for the edition directly to GNB. It consisted generally of the reviews of books of technical subject prepared by the most prominent Soviet specialists in the order of library. During 1939-

1940 and edition about 800 highly skilled reviewers, including 33 academician and the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 422 doctors and Candidate of Technical Sciences were involved for of GNB in kritiko-bibliographic work. The edition of the magazine was interrupted with war. Among employees and editors there is "NTL", other bibliographic editions and the Technical Book magazine it is possible to meet names of N.F. Bolkhovitinov, I.I. Artobolevsky, V.P. Vetchinkin and other scientists with world names [32].

Due to the increase of volume of publishing work on December 1, 1935 in structure of library on the basis of a former publishing part the publishing sector is created. Then, in 1935 at human resources department the educational and methodical commission for discussion of the library textbooks and methodical materials prepared by GNB for printing will be organized. On December 26, 1936 the provision on the GNB independent publishing house which got to work since January 1, 1937 is approved. The blueprint workshop, translation agency and group of a subscription for the GNB [33] editions were a part of publishing house, besides an editorial part.

Steady growth of amount of works in the 1930th was supported with rapid personnel growth of library. For May 1, 1935 the staff of GNB made 149 people, for April 15, 1937 - already 258 people Besides, there were non-staff employees of the bibliographic sector, work

which it was paid with the fee from self-supporting means of sector [34].

Since transition of GNB to maintaining Narkom-tyazhproma by the director of library there was Béla Aleksandrovich of Santo - the Hungarian communist internationalist, the head of armed forces of the Hungarian Soviet republic in 1919 who proved on the director's post as the strong-willed and far-sighted head.

Worked as deputy directors in the 1930th to B.M. Lauka, then L.Ya. Katsnelson. Long time M.P. Gastfer was a scientific secretary of library known in the future bibliotekoved.

In the 1930th in library there began work large theorists and practitioners of the Soviet library science F.I. Karatygin, V.V. Vlasov, I.M. Fru-min, A.V. Kremenetskaya, O.S. Chubaryan, etc. the first structure of the academic council of GNB [35] was approved on November 25, 1935.

However there was not enough qualified personnel of librarians, and one of merits of library in the 1930th was the organization of their mass preparation. The first actions for preparation and developing the skills of librarians were begun with GNB at the end of 1931. Activity of GNB in the sphere of library education had various character. "groups of a technical minimum", i.e. groups of young librarians whose training was provided on three production cycles were annually gathered, for example: 1) scientific processing of literature, 2) storage of literature and service of readers and 3) information and bibliographic service. The program of each cycle was designed for 32 h, classes of circles were given three times a week. At the same time in GNB library courses and seminars for developing the skills of employees were held. Says the fact that selection of listeners on courses and seminars was carried out by the special commission of GNB considering questionnaires of persons interested to study [36] about the interest of librarians in these actions.

Creation at the end of 1932 of the correspondence biennial courses of the raised type calculated on 1,000-1,500 listeners was the following step. Under the contract of October 17, 1934 with Head department of educational institutions the library created library branch of training center. On July 4, 1935 in GNB courses on developing the skills of librarians with a separation from production were open and, thus, the full-time courses of shots are entered. For training of the qualified staff of branches of library on the periphery the group on training at the GNB network sector was organized in September, 1934. It is characteristic that for full-time employment the employees were enlisted in GNB only after successful passing test by hundred -

zha. Assignment not passed a test experience too was not a rarity [37].

Also work on rationalization of work and technological processes was conducted in library. In the mid-thirties became traditional competitions of improvement suggestions (in 1934, for example, from 27 drummers of GNB 36 such offers arrived). A lot of work on work rationing was conducted, since 1935 performance standards on library and bibliographic processes were annually specified. Competitions "on the best person on duty on reception of requirements (dispatcher) and the best feeder of literature" were held (i.e. on the best by profession). In 1935 the timing on the way of the movement of the book for improvement of this production cycle was carried out [38].

The fate of library was inseparably linked with the fate of the Soviet science and culture. Fully those destructive consequences which were connected with a statement in the country of the mode of Stalinism also affected it. Since March, 1935 in GNB the commissions on withdrawal of so-called "enemy literature" which caused significant damage to book fund of library worked. The repressions of 1937 developed in Narkom-tyazhprome after G.K. Ordzhonikidze's death concerned also leadership team of library. In September-October, 1937 were discharged of work and are repressed the director of the GNB Kiev branch V.P. Clark, Kharkiv - B.Ya. Elkina, Leningrad - E.I. Petrova. In a month the turn of the director of GNB B came. A. Santo. On December 8, 1937 he was dismissed and arrested [39]. In the conditions of mistrust to old library shots some experienced experts, among them - future deputy director of library in 1961-1965 and one of organizers of its transfer in Novosibirsk V.V. Vlasov actually lost work. Since January 1, 1938 he was discharged from office as "not provided the management" with group of scientific processing [40].

Discharge from work of a number of the leading experts has an adverse effect on activity of library and its branches. Right after B.A. removal by Santo the GNB publishing house is liquidated - in documents it again (as till 1937) is called as the publishing sector. On December 10, 1937 without any explanations the GNB branch in Tbilisi was closed (books are transferred to the Georgian scientific library Narkomprosa of GSSR). Then, in 1937. The GNB Baku branch was transformed to industry library Bakneftekombinata [41].

In March, 1939 Narkomtyazhprom was divided into six industrial narcomats. At a meeting of six new people's commissars on March 9 it was decided that GNB turns into Narkomat's maintaining of fuel industry on condition that it will be

to serve all six newly created narcomats. In September, 1939 after division Narkomtopa the library began to belong to Narkomat of the coal industry [42].

Severe years of the Great Patriotic War added the heroic page to the history of library. War rushed into the fate of many librarians at the end of June, 1941 on June 27, 1941, having interrupted a holiday, the director of GNB B.P. Mikhnovsky (former director of GNB publishing house) returned to Moscow. Returned on July 1 to hand over affairs to the new director I.V. Osmov and to leave on military service. From June 23 to June 30, 1941 to Moscow from holidays returned on an urgent call of 28 leading experts of GNB [43]. Many employees of library in the very first days of war went on the front or to a national militia, among them - A.I. Surkov managing one of the GNB, B. Moscow branches I. Fedorov is the head of department of completing, V.P. Lisitsyn is the chief accountant, etc. In 1942 V.V. Vlasov was called up for military service. At the front one of the most qualified employees of GNB, long time working as the manager of the bibliographic sector, the metallurgical engineer A.Ya. Podzemsky died [44]. The personnel of library is sharply changed. Since July 1

1941 in Moscow the evacuation of kindergartens begins, many employees of GNB go to the east together with children. There is a mass dismissal from GNB with a formulation "in connection with evacuation of children" and "in view of departure from Moscow". By our calculations, for July-September, 1941 not less than 54 people Due to the reduction of amount of works in the evacuated Moscow left GNB for this reason the directorate of library considerably reduces its staff (only for July, 1941 - on 56 people). By the end of March, 1942 the staff of library made only 95 people, i.e. 1/3 pre-war [45]. At the same time in library in the years of war many highly qualified specialists - O.S. Chubaryan, M.P. Gastfer, F.I. Karatygin continued to work. In July, 1942 the scientific secretary employed known further bibliotekoved Yu.V. Grigoriev. Directors of library in the years of war were I.V. Osmov (July, 1941 - May
1942), M.P. Beniaminov (June, 1942 - died
28 September, 1943), S.A. Hilkov (since October
1943 ) [46].

It is necessary to emphasize that the difficulties which fell upon library during the first period of war did not cause either confusion of her employees, or work disorganization. On July 5, 1941 the director of GNB issued the order on work of library in the conditions of wartime. To chiefs sect - the ditch and the manager of departments was offered to be the basis for work primary satisfaction of inquiries on defensive subject for what "immediately to begin drawing up bibliografiche-

sky lists on special topics according to standards and patents (in a section of the serviced industries). to see, update and to immediately organize use. the executed bibliographic indexes, first of all on defensive subject... to start immediately drawing up the annotated bibliographic indexes on defensive subject: PVHO, air-raid shelters, gasproof shelters, fight against fire bombs, recovery repair, etc.".

Departments of completing and knigokhraneniye were offered to begin work on allocation of the most valuable part of fund for its possible evacuation. The edition of the kritiko-bibliographic magazine Technical Book was stopped, the release of a series of the magazines "News of Technical Literature", card files Tekhkart, abstract collections and methodical literature temporarily stopped, the scope of technical translations was limited to questions of defense [47]. Then, in July, 1941 GNB sends to the branches and industry technical libraries the special letter "About reorganization of work of libraries in connection with wartime". The meaning of the letter is similar to the document quoted above: to provide exhaustive informing the enterprises and organizations for development of new military subject, to pay a maximum of attention to needs of defense industry. It was recommended to strengthen work of MBA [48].

The listed above circle of problems outlined for itself by GNB in July, 1941 (air and antigas defense, fire bombs, etc.) was not accidental. The fact is that in the very first days of war GNB began to service information the center of air defense of Moscow, sending it materials about international experience of conducting air defense in the conditions of war. Further information activities of GNB on service of strategically important narcomats and the enterprises continued to extend. Information of GNB was sent, for example, to heads of the Kuznetsk coal basin. According to instructions of the academician I.P. Bardin (at that time the deputy people's commissar of ferrous metallurgy of the USSR) and on the thematic list which is specially made by it the library resumed information service of executives of Narkomchermet. Since the beginning of 1942 information was sent to also leading Narkomat's asset power plants, Narkomatov to chemical and rubber industry, Glavgaztopprom at Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, etc. The library conducted information service of design and research works Narkomatov of defense, arms, the tank industry. It is counted that by the beginning of 1943 GNB executed for them 1,387 bibliographic references and published 1,937 papers and the translations [49].

Events at the front meanwhile developed in the summer and fall of 1941 not in favor of the Red Army. Offensive of fascist troops at Moscow raised a question of export from the capital of all cultural values. Evacuations were subject also books. On August 16, 1941 from Moscow the train with books of GNB secretly went. Accompanied by the deputy chief of the sector of scientific processing of literature A.Ya. Serebro were transported in

Hammers, nowadays Perm (temporary residence of Narkomugol), the most valuable funds of library. Evacuation of GNB - one of the most dramatic pages of its history. On October 14, 1941 in Moscow the last is published, before departure in. Hammers, order of the director of GNB. Next day, October 15, Council of defense announced evacuation of the capital. Documentation of library is interrupted from this day more than for one and a half months. Only on December 5, 1941 in Molotov there is the following order on GNB. The library resumed work in the main structure here, in Moscow there was first a GNB not numerous Moscow group which was headed by the deputy director B.A. Pankova [50].

Defeat of Hitlerite troops near Moscow at once affected activity of library. The library work in Moscow which is winded down to a minimum begins to extend: funds will be reactivated, activity of the subscription, help department, etc. is resumed. Already on January 7, 1942, in ensuring implementation of the order of the director of GNB I.V. Osmov, in the GNB Moscow group a row being (fired at evacuation) the employees "for arrangement of branch" is employed [51] again. On March 5

1942 the order of the director of GNB on the translation of fixed assets and property of library from is issued

Molotova to Moscow. Together with books from evacuation there arrived I.V. Osmov, scientific secretary M.P. Gastfer, the editor-in-chief of the bibliographic sector O.S. Chubaryan and other leading experts. In Molotov the GNB molotovsky group as a part of eight people which in November, 1942 was transformed to the GNB [52] Molotovsky branch was left.

Return of library to Moscow was followed by considerable expansion of its scales

works. Already on March 24, 1942 the order on GNB "About Strengthening of Bibliographic Service of Defensive Tasks of the Industry" is accepted. Actually it was talked of resumption of bibliographic and publishing work of library in full. Besides, drawing up the bibliographic grants which did not have analogs before war, for example each decade typewritten leaflets of annotational and abstract type "Novelties of the foreign equipment - on service of defense of the USSR" was planned (on subjects: production of arms, ammunition, tanks, planes, building of strengthenings, air defense). Preparation of the steklografirovanny edition of a series of abstract collections of foreign technical experience on single questions of defense industry and recovery work in the industry began. Work of translation agency was again organized, drawing up and the edition of catalogs of the old and new translations is begun, their use became more active. Coordination of all bibliographic works was charged to the editor-in-chief of the bibliographic sector

To O.S. Chubaryan [53]. Since the end of 1942 the edition of all six issues of the NTL magazine in the reduced volume renewed, and materials for 1941-1942 were also published during

1943 . Unfortunately, the kritiko-bibliographic magazine of GNB "Technical Book" was not restored [54].

Employees of GNB experienced in the material and household relation during this period all difficulties which fell to lot of military generation. They were constantly mobilized for logging, drovozagotovka, for work on fuel unloading, etc. And one by one librarians of GNB were sent by crews in hospital to Kaluga and Rostov Veliky, patronage of which the library undertook [55].

However, despite all tests, the main functions of library during this period with honor were performed. Among them - completing of funds of domestic and foreign literature. The following data give an idea of damage caused by war to case of completing and of overcoming consequences of reduction of completing by library in the first years of war:

Quantity of the literature which came to GNB in 1941-1945 [56]

Literature 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945

Books domestic (furnace. unit) 33,629 13,505 18,000 19,404 21,542

Magazines domestic (sets) 1,024 220 375 360 503

Books foreign (furnace. unit) 4,842 999 1,015 2,482 2,110

Magazines foreign (sets) 1,360 1,080 1,160 1,200 1,300

Also the pre-war system of training of librarians is gradually restored in GNB.

29 March, 1943 board of Narkomugol, having heard the report of the director of GNB, suggests library to begin work on developing the skills of employees of technical libraries of the coal industry [57] again.

In the conditions of wartime the role and value of basic libraries - GNB branches in the regional and regional centers raised. The library takes measures to protection and a re-deployment of funds of those branches over which the threat to get to the combat zone - Kharkiv, Rostov, Stalingrad, Saratov hung. Traveling tasks to the employees sound severely and unusually: "zamurovka of the first copy". A part of fund of the Saratov branch in 1942 was evacuated to Perm. Nevertheless GNB branches in the European part of the country suffered notable losses at this time. From the Kharkiv branch the aggressors took out 1/4 most valuable literatures and the equipment, having almost completely destroyed the room. From the Rostov branch the Hitlerites withdrew 5 thousand the furnace. unit of the most valuable fund (including reference books and reports of scientific research institute). Were completely destroyed the GNB Kiev branch which had by the beginning of war 165 thousand copies of literature and Stalingrad (to bake 65 thousand. unit) [58].

From first months of war of GNB it was headed for expansion of volume of work of basic libraries. On places, leading experts of GNB - V.V. Vlasov, F.I. Karatygin, to B.M. Lauka, etc. are affiliated for long terms (two months and more). Their purpose is the organization of the strengthened work of branches and rendering the expeditious help to them [59]. The GNB new branches, the first of them are created - in Barnaul. In July-August, 1941 for it literature from GNB funds is allocated. Since the beginning of 1942. The Altai GNB branch got to work. At the end of 1942 on the basis of the book funds and the remained group of employees of GNB evacuated from Saratov the GNB branch in Molotov (Perm), at the beginning of 1943 - branch in Karaganda is created. To each branch

Joseph Elvin Henry
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