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L.A. Kalinnikov. An edging in the Russian philosophical culture



Kalinnikov L.A. Kant in the Russian philosophical culture: Monograph. — Kaliningrad: RGU publishing house of I. Kant, 2005. — 311 pages

At the end of 2005. The Russian state university of I. Kant together with the Baltic interregional institute of social sciences "Kant in the Russian philosophical culture" published the monograph by L.A. Kalinnikov. It arose thanks to original interpretation of a system of transcendental idealism, razrabatyvsheysya the author more than thirty years and given the chance to estimate Kant's influence on history of the Russian philosophy. The book is written on the basis of a number of the articles published at different times in "The Kant collection" and other editions, but united by the uniform methodology allowing to cover the most important aspects of influence of Kant on the Russian spiritual culture in conceptual unity. The structure of the monograph includes the preface, introduction, three semantic blocks devoted to problems of metaphysics of customs, gnoseology, esthetics and philosophies of art allocated in connection with Kant classification of abilities of a human soul and also the conclusion, the bibliography and the name index.

In introduction professor Kalinnikov compares the features of creation of philosophical systems characteristic of Kant and the Russian religious and philosophical thinkers, and draws a conclusion that the last created under "hop of passions", and the reason and reasonable sobriety are the property of Kant necessary for Russia. The first section of the monograph is devoted to metaphysics of customs, it is key for all book as Leonard Aleksandrovich proceeds from Kant's idea about a primacy of the practical mind leading motives of our behavior. The main attention is paid to the ethical works of Vladimir Solovyov written under the influence of Immanuel Kant here. Besides V.S. Solovyov's heritage L.A. Kalinnikov investigates Dmitry Merezhkovsky's poetry touching a situation of a white lie, and legal philosophy of P.I. Novgorodtsev: after Kant the author asks about the right to lie from philanthrophy and claims that the morals and the right are in indissoluble unity.

The gnoseological perspective of the second section is lit in polemic between Kantian tradition and the Russian religious philosophers on whose views Platon had a great influence. Besides Vladimir Solovyov L.A. Kalinnikov analyzes here P.D. Yurkevich, P. Florensky, S.N. Bulgakov and also V. Ern and L. Shestov's creativity who though directly and did not share Platon's idea, but is close to it in the religious Christian outlook. In conclusion of the section it is claimed that only Kant's philosophy can apply for a role of the only normal gnoseological theory, in it L.A. Kalinnikov marks out seven aspects and draws a conclusion that the more stoutly the system considers all parties and functions of philosophical knowledge, the closer it approaches the truth.

In the third section — "Problems of an Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art" professor Kalinnikov at first gives original interpretation of a Kant esthetics, proceeding from the idea of an activity subject, and then traces Kant's influence on the Russian literature. The author not only analyzes philosophical poetry of the Vl. Solovyeva, but also compares Kant and A.S. Pushkin's views of the genius's nature, finds out their relation to Education and romanticism. Besides, Vyacheslav Ivanov's creativity on which noticeable impact was made by Aristotle and Kant's figures is investigated here.

The author shows in the conclusion that the Kant philosophy is the Europeanism quintessence built in degree which can be for us the most effective and promote increase in logical and metaphysical culture. He claims that acquaintance to Kant and his system of outlook always was fruitful, and plans those fields of the Russian philosophy which Kant's genius, but who remained not affected in his book influenced.

The monograph by L.A. Kalinnikov will become the noticeable phenomenon in not numerous domestic literature devoted to Kant's influence on the Russian philosophy and culture in general will give a reason for revival of scientific polemic and Kant and the Russian philosophy" will serve as an incentive to further scientific research of a problem ".

S.V. Lugovoi,

asp. departments of philosophy and logic of RGU of I. Kant

V.N. Nikulin. Landowners of the Northwest of Russia in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century. Kaliningrad: RGU publishing house of I. Kant, 2005. — 340 pages

In modern Russia which chose the path long and not always successful reforms, special attention not only historians, but also general scientific community involves experience of reforming of our country in pre-Soviet time — time when Russia lived in conditions of domination private, that number land, property and the market relations. That is why the register of the most crucial issues of historical science included transformations of the Russian village after an abolition of serfdom and Stolypin agrarian reform today. In the solution of the first current problem the reviewed monograph also makes the significant contribution.

V.N. Nikulin's research written on considerable actual material with attraction for the first time of the archival sources introduced for scientific use shows difficult and contradictory process of evolution of landowner farms of the Northwest of Russia after an abolition of serfdom.

In a domestic historiography there are great works

A.M. Anfimova, I.D. Kovalchenko, L.P. Minarik, P.G. Ryndzyunsky,


N.B. Selunskoy on the history of landowner economy of the post-reform period. But in them dynamics of development of landowner manors on the scale of all European Russia was analyzed. Meanwhile, as the famous modern historian P.N. Zyryanov correctly noted, accounting of region features at its realization was of reform of 1861 g. That is why the researches studying specifics of transformation of the Russian village and landowner economy on regions including on the Northwest of Russia are so important. Getting acquainted with V.N. Nikulin's work, you see these features both in the area, and when comparing with other regions of the country. So, the author on concrete data showed that process of concentration of noble land property in hands of large and largest landowners was more noticeable in the St. Petersburg province, than in Pskov and Novgorod. At the same time process of reduction of number and the area of landowner manors in the capital province happened less intensively in comparison with Pskov and Novgorod. If to compare ways of maintaining landowner farms in the northwest provinces of Russia and in the North Caucasus, then it is possible to see an essential difference. In the Northwest big and largest land-owners more often than others, tried to conduct the economy by capitalist methods what you will not tell about the North Caucasian land owners.

Besides a stated purpose — a research of landowner economy, the author absolutely reasonably pays in chapters 1 to the monograph attention to activity of noble provincial committees and world intermediaries, considering it through a prism of fight of interests of peasants and landowners. From collision of different positions it is visible what drama was developed in the Russian village during reform realization as the world intermediaries advocating the interests of peasants were terrorized by landowners and as was such intermediaries a little. Most of them were faithful adherents of the estate, the anxious own wellbeing and desire to satisfy unlimited appetites of landowners.

The author's thought that the highest bureaucracy of Russia finally began to consider the projects of release of serfs prepared by provincial committees not as base for drawing up all-imperial situation, and only as collective opinion of landowners-noblemen on the forthcoming reform is rather interesting. And this collective opinion was generally negative. It disproves opinion of a number of the Soviet historians that, starting reform, the highest bureaucracy led by Alexander II thought only of the interests of landlords landowners whereas in fact both the emperor, and his immediate environment — the grand duke Konstantin Nikolaevich, the Minister of Internal Affairs S.S. Lanskoy, N.A. Milyutin, etc. — were anxious first of all with need of elimination of that obstacle in the form of the serfdom which got in the way of further development of Russia once again.

The tables provided in the book are saturated and attractive by the substantial level. Of course, it would be possible to graduate,

for example, data on the amount of land possession a little differently, having allocated manors in 50 — 100 tithes as it was done by A.M. Anfimov, but in the context of regional history, maybe, it and not so essentially.

In general the reviewed monograph by V.N. Nikulin represents the original scientific research making the significant contribution to studying agrarian history of post-reform Russia, and that is not less important, can serve as the valuable manual for students of departments of history of higher educational institutions.

V.N. Ratushnyak,

department chair of pre-revolutionary national history of the Kuban State University, Dr. east. sciences, prof., honored worker of science of the Russian Federation

The Baltic region in the history of Russia and Europe / Under the editorship of V.I. Galtsov. — Kaliningrad: RGU publishing house of I. Kant, 2005. — 252 pages

Began a good tradition to hold on the basis of RGU of I. Kant large international conferences on studying economic, environmental and historical problems of the Baltic region and development of regional cooperation. Another such conference — "Baltic Region as Pole of the All-European Integration", organized under the auspices of the Baltic interregional institute of social sciences in October, 2004, was of particular importance as it was devoted to the 460 anniversary of formation of the Konigsberg university and drew broad attention of domestic and foreign experts.

The reviewed collection of articles includes materials of the reports submitted on the section "The Baltic Region in the history of Russia and Europe". The majority of publications are devoted to special issues of studying history of the region, and it would be impossible and it is unproductive to try to capture all variety of the issues touched by authors within the short review. Let's focus on those from them to whom the most interesting is presented, from the modern point of view, approach to problems of regional history of the Baltic community.

The collection opens the section devoted to the history of the university. The general essay of the main stages of its formation and development contains in article of the dean of department of history of RGU V.I. Galtsov. The author points to a special role of "the most east European university in distribution and the approval of the German culture in the region during the Middle Ages era". This interesting subject received continuation in article of doctor B. Hoppe from Institute of history of the University of A. Humboldt (Berlin) devoted to some questions of comparative history of Konigsberg-Kaliningrad in the 20th century in that its part where the author narrates about formation of revanchist and nationalist sentiments in consciousness of the East Prussian population after


World War I and a role in this process of representatives of Albertina. Deserve also attention and the similar lines noticed by the author in psychology of the German population of East Prussia before World War II and the Soviet population of the Kaliningrad region after it can become the subject of the further scientific analysis.

Unfortunately, the subject of influence of teachers very relevant under our conditions and the researchers working at the university on development of mass consciousness and regional culture in the Soviet and Post-Soviet period was mentioned only in the review article of V.I. Galtsov about the twenty-five year period of development of historical researches in the university and training of historians for needs of national education and cultural institutions of area.

Article of the expert in the history of the Kaliningrad region and Eastern Europe from Berlin doctor E. Mattes "& #34 draws attention; Whether there Will be they Russians? & #34; Thoughts of the historian on a hot topic". This subject is really relevant, and just article attracts the main interest the fact that the author not so much offers certain ready conclusions and statements how many he plans an extensive circle of the questions connected with a problem of conditions and sources of formation and content of regional consciousness, especially regarding "self-identification" without which research the problem of regional mentality cannot get deep scientific permission especially as it sounds very relevant in relation to history not only the Kaliningrad region, but also other national and cultural and territorial communities of the Baltic region. At the same time the author did not manage to avoid some common and enough outdated stereotypes in assessment of post-war history of the region and the fate of historical heritage of the previous era, so, the more bases are available to make this problem a subject of an extensive and impartial discussion at the subsequent scientific forums of historians of the Baltic countries.

As usual, in the majority of articles the problems of the international relations in the region of the Baltic Sea and political development of the Southeast Baltics are considered. At the same time the works devoted to a research of social and economic problems of history of the region are for the first time published in the collection. Among them a particular interest submits the report of professor of department of the Russian history of department of history of the St. Petersburg university T.M. Kitanina. Investigating features of economic development of Finland as a part of the Russian Empire at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century, the author convincingly proves that process of isolation of this region in the economic sphere began much earlier, than there was a formal granting political independence to Finland. T.M. Kitanina's conclusions and development of Finland known to us during the subsequent period of its history bring to more sweeping historical generalization: original national independence of the state evolves not from spontaneous political decisions, and as a result of realization of long-term social and economic prerequisites.

The variety of subjects of reports and primary attention of historians of the countries of the Baltic region by the period of the XIX—XX centuries reflects the width and a variety of the directions on which studying regional history develops. A combination of these two signs — an indicator of a particular interest of experts of the different countries to the most relevant, and sometimes to very disputable and even painful problems in modern and contemporary history of the region. At the same time this circumstance can be considered as the certificate that within cooperation of the Baltic historians there were yet no main directions of researches which would allow to unite the individual interests and efforts on their development of experts of the different countries.

Meanwhile examples of fruitfulness of such cooperation are presented in the collection by historiographic articles of professor E. Gonsovsky, director of Institute of anthropology and archeology of the Higher humanitarian school to them. A. Geyshtora in Pultusk (Poland), and the head of the Baltic expedition of Institute of archeology of professor

V.I. Kulakova. Both authors, summing up the results and estimating results of studying the most ancient periods of history of the region, rely on works of the German, Russian, Polish and Lithuanian historians and archeologists who made the contribution to development of the general subject and show an example how productive can be cooperation of efforts of representatives of various schools of sciences in development of common problems.

Of course, ancient history is less connected with various extra scientific representations and aspirations, less konfliktn in terms of collision of political and ideological addictions, however already available experience of long-term cooperation of historians of the region and, in particular, results of last conference and the atmosphere of professional and human mutual respect of all its participants reigning on it allow to hope that in the joint scientific projects touching on the most burning issues, scientific interests and professional approach nevertheless can prevail over all other reasons. It is necessary only to define such projects and to develop an optimum form of their joint realization.

K.B. Shustov,

edging. east. sciences, the associate professor of RGU of I. Kant

Chronicle of the Kaliningrad region / S.P. Galtsova, I.A. Gordeev, L.A. Efremov, etc.; Edition V.N. Maslov. Kaliningrad, 2005. - T. 1: 1945-1976. - 592 pages; T. 2: 1977 - 2005. - 704 pages

On the eve of the 60-year anniversary of area the Kaliningrad public had an idea to celebrate a significant event a series of historical and art publications under the general name "A victory given rise". It was supposed that they will make a noticeable contribution to the documentary and graphic description of the past and the present of the Kaliningrad region. For a number of reasons completely this idea did not manage to be realized. But also what was made by collective istori-


k and archivists under the leadership of the candidate of historical sciences, the associate professor of RGU of I. Kant of W.N. Maslov (he is a scientific editor), prepared for the Letopis Kaliningradskoy Oblasti edition, the genuine respect causes.

"Chronicle" represents very volume (almost 1300 pages of the text) the two-volume edition. "Chronicle" contains data on the most significant events which took place in the Kaliningrad region for the expired sixty years. Specialists area studies specialists can ask quite reasonable question: in what the meaning of the similar edition if in the field of already several decades the collection of the documents "The Most Western" where the same events are stated in more detail is published?

The difference consists not only in a chronological framework: "The most western" covers events only till 1982 so far, and "Chronicle" expands this framework so far. Perhaps, one of the most valuable qualities of the two-volume book is the detailed story, in fact in "the teletype line", about daily everyday events in edge life, allowing to present capaciously and figuratively and the atmosphere far the 40th — the beginnings of the 50th, both public moods of the period of "thaw", and notorious "stagnation", and turmoil and confusion of "reorganization", and, of course, enclave eksklavnye present peripetias.

Authors of "Chronicle" absolutely precisely set the task for themselves "to create complete history" the Kaliningrad region. For this purpose they had to study a huge array of the Kaliningrad periodical press, documents of regional archives, to process a significant amount of the reference media, scientific literature, to consult with participants or witnesses of events. It is enough to tell that more than seven thousand (!) facts from life of residents of Kaliningrad found reflection in the two-volume book.

It is necessary to pay tribute to the scientific editor of the edition who managed not only not to be lost in the huge volume of information, but also kept strict logic in selection and statement of material. As a result "factual aggression" in public consciousness of residents of Kaliningrad took place, but it is just that "aggression" which bears in itself a positive charge, forces any resident of the area who will pick up this book, to think of the past and to reflect on the present and the future. As about the, and area in which he has honor to live.

"Chronicle" distinguishes the high professional level of performers as historians and archivists, so editors and printers. Here both the thought-over arrangement of material, and additional chronological information on pages of books. Separately it is necessary to tell about the section "Notes and Indexes". It is some kind of "book in the book". Information placed in this section is very volume, supplemented with references to sources and attracts genuine interest what stretches hidden threads of the past to the present. Here the versatile information about people, labor collectives, the enterprises, institutions of education, health care, with - contains

tsialno-consumer services, etc., played a significant role in the history of formation and development of the region.

As for critical remarks, the way of division of material into two volumes raises a question. Probably, in "Preface" it would be necessary to give an explanation, than the similar periodization of history of the Kaliningrad region is caused: 1945 — 1976 and 1977 — 2005? Whether only technical need of uniform division of the published material into two parts?

In the output data of "Chronicle" it is specified that the book is created by "group of authors". It would be more correct to speak about "group of originators" as its text reproduces various documents and works by other authors without original comments and the analysis. In this case copyright of originators extends to selection and original configuration of materials. By the way, in the output data it is reported also about copyright of the edition of the regional Ministry of Culture. But copyright is protected by result of creative activity. Not absolutely it is clear what in this case the ministry applies for.

The last question is beyond the review. But it is necessary to tell about it because in our area practice of violation of the law about copyright became very widespread. By the way, the valid author can not always object to such "co-authorship" understandably.

G.V. Kretinin,

Dr. east. sciences, the prof. of RGU of I. Kant

L.M. Fukson, G.V. Kretinin. Right after war. Creation and formation of a system of national education of the Kaliningrad region in 1945-1950: Monograph. - Kaliningrad: KGu publishing house, 2005. - 230 pages

L.M. Fukson, A.S. Zaboyenkova, G.V. Kretinin, V.N. Maslov. To bring up and train. Preschool educational institutions, orphanages, boarding schools and special schools of the Kaliningrad region (1945-1991): Monograph. - Kaliningrad: RGu publishing house of I. Kant, 2005. - 106 pages

L.M. Fukson, G.V. Kretinin. Management case. institutions of formation of the Kaliningrad region and their heads, 1945 - 2005: Reference book. - Kaliningrad: RGu publishing house of I. Kant, 2005. - 173 pages

Questions of history of national education constantly are in the sphere of scientific interests of the Kaliningrad scientists which names are widely known to pedagogical community. Many of them were the famous teachers. Problems of national education and education were in the center of attention of E.M. Kolganova and I.P. Kolganov, group of authors under the leadership of V.G. Birkovsky, R.G. Ankudinova, A.S. Zaboyenkova, etc. The considerable document file on the history of education was published in collections of the documents prepared under the leadership of I.A. Farutin and V.N. Maslov.


However there are no generalizing works which would cover all sixty-year history of national education still. The reviewed works are the first thorough attempt to meet this lack. The idea of their creation soared in air long ago, and at last in October, 2003 the Department of education and sciences of administration of the Kaliningrad region made the decision on writing of history of education since 1945 till present. The staff of management and scientists of the Kaliningrad university were involved in realization of such important work.

The reviewed editions are united by the uniform plan developed by specially appointed editorial board as a part of leading experts on history and formation of area under the chairmanship of the rector of the university A.P. Klemeshev. The main attention in them is paid to the period of formation of national education in the Kaliningrad region. It is a significant step forward in studying a problem. Certainly, still it is necessary to work much that the history of education for the sixtieth anniversary was presented in full.

The monograph "Right after War" is devoted to the first post-war fifth anniversary of existence of the Kaliningrad region. Authors rather convincingly showed how in exclusively difficult political, social and economic, demographic conditions it was succeeded to create and "start" the mechanism of national education of area, to make its work stable and as showed further experience of educational institutions, successful.

The Kaliningrad teaching, without exaggeration, made a labor feat in days of the fourth five-years period. In the territory destroyed by war, in the absence of state authorities and the shortage of the most essential — products, clothes, household items, in the summer of 1945 the decision on the organization of high school for children of the military personnel is made. In 1946 — 1948 when there was an intensive settling of the territory of the area by the Soviet people, there was a question of urgent opening of schools. It was necessary to solve the problems connected with repair of buildings, providing pupils with textbooks and writing-materials. The personnel question as in difficult post-war conditions it was necessary to provide schools with teachers was particularly acute. The solution of this task was complicated by the fact that the exact number of families which had to move to the area, and, therefore, distribution of children on areas and schools was not known.

Authors managed it is reasoned, leaning on extensive istochni-kovy base, to show difficulties of formation and coordination of efforts of the power on creation of a system of national education which successfully exists and today. Issue of a research about development of national education in the Kaliningrad region in a year of 60-year anniversary of the Great Victory and on the eve of the celebration of anniversary of area should be considered as an important event for all pedagogical public.

— different subsystems of the general education system were chosen as an object of research of the second book — "Bring Up and Train": child care educational institutions, including preschool, and educational institutions of the closed type. Authors of the monograph claim that in

the work they relied on internal unity of the studied processes having the real embodiment in the fate of children of post-war generation which was not protected owing to the early childhood or because of social, economic and physiological circumstances. In a scientific turn archive materials which give the chance to get acquainted with the first orphanages, with creation of network of preschool educational institutions and institutions of the closed type in the territory of the area are introduced for the first time. Work covers already longer period — from 1945 to 1991, actually it is about the Soviet stage of functioning of educational institutions. Studying the questions connected with education and training demands the continuation, specification and expansion of an object of a research. In particular, the problems of modern education requiring close attention of researchers are still insufficiently studied.

Scientists, teachers, social workers and all pedagogical community always lacked reference books about educators. To understand what occurred in education, it is possible only relying on knowledge of specific people which worked every day with children. The third work of group of authors — "The management case" — is the reference book. Authors proceeded from a right parcel: history is first of all people, their destinies, their participation in the state and public processes. Certainly, the Kaliningrad teachers are worthy that all names were told. Authors concentrated the efforts on collection of information about directors and heads of educational institutions for the entire period of existence and functioning of a system of the general education.

Collection of information about the managerial personnel of institutions and organizations was very difficult task. In general authors coped with it. They had to study the large number of documents of regional, city and regional archives, references provided by educational institutions, memoirs notes of veterans of the Kaliningrad education, their oral memoirs. All information was systematized and prepared for the edition. Huge and necessary work is done. That dosadny inaccuracies and mistakes which meet in publication materials. Of course, when reprinting it is necessary to remove whenever possible all arising questions.

Summing up the result, it would be desirable to emphasize that all three reviewed editions are written in good language and are available for laymen. They gained fame in educational institutions of the Kaliningrad region, their materials are used by practical workers and also in teaching the latest period of history of Russia and when studying appropriate sections of a course of historical study of local lore.


N.Yu. Nikulina,

edging. east. sciences, dots., director of Institute of the RGU modern educational technologies of I. Kant

Heather Adams
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