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Re-evacuation of the civilian population from Western Siberia in days of the Great Patriotic War (1942-1945)



19. RGVA. T. 33879. Op. 1. 143.

20. CDNI IO. T. 123. Op. 1. 383.
21. In the same place. Op. 8. 45.
22. Central state archive of the Far East. T. 3183. Op. 1. 213.
23. In the same place. 251.
24. G.K. bugs. Memoirs and reflections. M, 1970.
25. V. Shlykov. Principles of formation of army: International experience//Army and society. M, 1990.

L.I. Snegiryova, T.A. Safonova

RE-EVACUATION of the CIVILIAN POPULATION FROM WESTERN SIBERIA in days of the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR (1942-1945)

Tomsk state pedagogical university

The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 was ruthless test of durability of the state and social and political institutes, economic, military, spiritual powers and organizing abilities of army and the people.

Judgment of the reasons and the prices of a victory of the Soviet people in war is impossible without studying a problem of evacuation and all complex of the problems generated by it, the reorganization of the national economy which became the most difficult direction on a military harmony. The solution of several interconnected tasks depended on the sizes and rates of evacuation of the population and production resources: rescue of millions of Soviet people from fascist enslavement and death; increase in military-economic capacity of eastern regions, and consequently, strengthening of defensive power of the country in general and eventually - the result of armed struggle with fascism.

Evacuation had to be made twice: in the summer and fall of 1941, and then in the summer and fall of 1942

Western Siberia became the most important region of evacuation. Here 244 enterprises, dozens of theaters, scientific research institute, more than 40 higher educational institutions [1, page 54] and 938.1 thousand people of the evacuated civilian population were evacuated (it is estimated on: [2, l. 3-5, 8; 3, l. 4, 11, 19, 21-26, 30; 4, l. 36, 38-39]).

Industrial output here in 1943 in comparison with the 1940th increased by 3 times, productions of mechanical engineering and metal working - by 11 times, productions of military products - by 34 times [5, page 74, 166-167]. The considerable contribution to these achievements was made also by the evacuated population.

In process of release of the Soviet territories from the enemy before the country there was a new task - recovery of the national economy destroyed by war which main criterion were interests of the front.

In difficult process of recovery of the national economy of the country the important place was taken by re-evacuation - return on old places of the evacuated population and material values. Re-evacuation significantly differed both on volume, and on terms from evacuation, it captured longer period and was carried out in four steps.

The first began in December, 1941 after defeat of Hitlerites near Moscow when still there was an evacuation. It continued till summer of 1942. However in connection with new fascist approach in summer of 1942 the re-evacuation was suspended, the second wave of evacuation began. The second stage of re-evacuation began after the Battle of Stalingrad. Development of a unified long-term plan of recovery work, including the re-evacuation mechanism began the country leaders.

In February, 1943 at the State Planning Committee of the USSR the Management on restoration of economy in cleared regions as a part of which the department of re-evacuation worked was formed [6, page 25]. In the first half of 1943 of rear areas including from Western Siberia, transfer to cleared regions of institutions, construction organizations, experts and executives amplified. Preparatory work for the third stage - mass re-evacuation was developed.

In August, 1943 at SNK USSR the Committee on restoration of economy in the areas freed from the German occupation was created. At all narcomats the special commissions on restoration of objects of the national economy subordinated to them which are in passing providing organized re-evacuation of people and material values were created.

The Department of the economic device of the evacuated population operating in structure of the office of Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR, Councils of People's Commissars of autonomous republics continued to be engaged in the general return of people to former residences and

the Region (edge) of executive committees created by the resolution SNK USSR of January 31, 1942. The competence of department included evacuation and the household device evakograzhdan earlier. Since August 14, 1945 this department returned itself the pre-war name - the Head resettlement department at SNK USSR as a part of which the department of re-evacuation and repatriation existing till 1950 worked [6, page 26]

The detailed program of priority recovery work during war was defined by the resolution SNK USSR And Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of August 21, 1943. "About urgent measures for restoration of economy in the areas freed from the German occupation". The resolution obliged heads of rear areas to return all evacuated to their former places of work [7, page 145179]. Further the program of recovery work and re-evacuation of shots was concretized in a number of resolutions state treasury bills [8, page 802-816, 829-834, 845-855].

The fourth stage of re-evacuation is connected with the post-war period.

Re-evacuation was carried out taking into account release of the territory from the enemy, removal of military threat from any given front-line areas, was a component of plans of military and economic construction during war and was carried out only according to the decision of state treasury bills, SNK USSR and Central Committee All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). On the basis of these decisions of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of federal republics, regional committees, regional committees of the freed areas, narcomats, departments, institutions withdrew the shots.

In all rear areas including in Western Siberia, there were representatives of the republics, areas from whom the population was evacuated.

Summer of 1943 in the country the inventory of all evacuated population in general and a personal inventory of the communists leading the party and Soviet, Komsomol shots and specialists of all branches of the national economy was carried out. On the basis of decisions of state treasury bills, SNK USSR, Central Committee All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) the local authorities of Western Siberia carried out a lot of work on their release, replacement and sending out on business to former places of work. Reevakuiruyemye received full calculation on production, the special admission in passport department of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs to that place where left. Executive committees in which territories they temporarily lived provided them necessary transport for their delivery and their property to points of loading, provided sanitation them in places of formation of echelons, organized sending and medical and sanitary service along the line. For each formed echelon doctors, nurses and necessary amount of medicines were allocated. When sending to

300 people - 1 nurse, up to 500 - 1 paramedic, to
1 000 - 1 doctor and 1 nurse, over 1,000 - 1 doctor and
2 nurses.

The cost of sanitation of the reevakuiruyemy population and also cost of medicines were paid at the expense of the means provided on local budgets on rendering the single monetary assistance to the evacuated population. From the same source necessary funds for payment of travel expenses of the people accompanying echelons were allocated. Besides medical staff, chiefs of echelons and seniors on cars were appointed. The special certificates confirming these appointments were issued it. They contained the appeal to all party, Soviet, economic organizations to assist in the fastest advance of routes. Echelons with evacuated had to follow without idle times, passing only structures with cargoes of NPO and bread.

Payment of cars for transportation of reevakuiruyemy was made by Resettlement management at SNK USSR. Transportation of people was paid by rail by the regional executive committees of areas which were carrying out re-evacuation. Transport to places of loading was provided for transportation of reevakuiruyemy citizens and their property at the expense of those organizations and institutions which were attracted by executive committees for this purpose. Besides, the government allocated money for rendering the one-time help reevakuirovanny.

The coming-back executives and experts received allowances and other material privileges according to pre-war - of November 23, 1931 - the resolution SNK USSR and Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) "About compensations and guarantees at transfer and a job placement to other areas" which made: a lump sum at the rate from 1.2 to 2.5 thousand rubles depending on specialty and qualification; travelers for the period of a way up to 25 rubles a day. It paid the actual journey and transportation of baggage (up to 100 kg on the person).

Reevakuiruyemye from rural areas got smaller support from the state. With collective farmers calculation for the earned workdays from 15% of fund for intra collective-farm needs for the level of previous year taking into account an estimate of harvest was made. They were allowed to take no more than 50 kg of hand luggage on the person, they received a dry ration and soap on the road. And though their journey was by rail made also free of charge, other types of the help were only most in it the person in need, on average up to 100-150 rubles on family.

Returning in a private order (to jobless, certain representatives creative in-

telligention, to the children sick and aged) allowances were also paid and material privileges, but in smaller volume, than reevakuiruyemy in line of duty were provided: a lump sum of 1 thousand rubles on the head of the family and on 250 rubles on other family members, payment of journey and trip cards.

All leaving could hand over on procuring points up to 2 c of grain and up to 4 c of potatoes and vegetables received from collective and individual kitchen gardens for the subsequent delivery of equivalent quantity of products to them in places of arrival (the order of re-evacuation is analyzed on: [9, l. 46 about.; 10, l. 89, 97, 99, 164-165; 11, l. 98; 12, l. 163-164; 13, l. 56-57]).

Re-evacuation of the population from Western Siberia was carried out in several directions:

1. Re-evacuation of the leading party, Soviet, Komsomol shots.
2. Sending out on business of experts of the national economy.
3. Mass re-evacuation of the population.
4. Private (individual) re-evacuation.

Mass re-evacuation of the population became one of the major and most difficult areas of work. In the fall of 1943 a number of the freed areas established free entrance on the territories (Smolensk, Kalinin, Oryol, etc.). However on entrance on some territories and to the cities, restrictions were introduced. It concerned first of all Moscow and Leningrad and also, in connection with big destruction of housing stock, such cities as Kiev and Kharkiv.

Taking into account it, and, above all taking into account need of uninterrupted supply of the front with military products first of all reevakuirovatsya to the eva-kograzhdena, not occupied in the industry.

During the carried-out new inventory of the evacuated population in Western Siberia in the fall of 1943 in Altai Krai, the Novosibirsk and Omsk regions 81,255 people who are not occupied in the industry including in Altai Krai-25,839, in the Novosibirsk region - 24,680, in Omsk - 30,736 were revealed. The main part of the revealed evacuated was made by residents of the Leningrad Region - 49,138 people and the Ukrainian SSR - 17,405. Evacuated from BSSR there were 5,168 people, KFSSR - 6,365, the Moldavian SSR - 964, the Lithuanian SSR - 667, the Latvian SSR - 764, the Estonian SSR - 755 [3, l. 2, 3]. On the basis of these data Committee on account and distribution of labor at SNK USSR and its departments in edges and areas together with NKPS found out the sizes of flows of the population which is subject to re-evacuation for the purpose of acceptance of necessary measures for their fastest transportation to native places.

In Western Siberia, according to Statistical department of Resettlement management at

SNK RSFSR, for April 1, 1943 (without the Kurgan region) was 934.6 thousand evacuated including 508.1 able-bodied from which 411.1 thousand people worked: 173.1 - in the industry, 151.9 - in agriculture, 86.1 - in other branches of the national economy, in the organizations and institutions (tab. 1). Evacuated arrived in Western Siberia and in July, 1943. Mainly it were disabled people from Leningrad and children from the Voroshilovgrad, Smolensk, Kursk and Leningrad regions. For July 1, 1943 in Western Siberia there were 938.1 thousand evacuated (see [14, l. 21, 54, 146]).

The analysis of data (tab. 1) demonstrates that as a result of the developed mass re-evacuation already by the end of 1943 the number of the evacuated population in Western Siberia was reduced with 934.6 (by April 1, 1943) to 507.4 thousand people (for January 1, 1944).

For this period able-bodied made 219.9 thousand people (42.3% of all reevakuiruyemy) of the population which left on re-evacuation. From them 177.0 thousand were released from the national economy that made 40.3% of all busy in it, 66.8 thousand (38.6%) - of the industry, 90.0 thousand (59.2%) - of agriculture, 20.2 thousand (23.4%) - of various organizations and institutions. If to speak about re-evacuation of industrial shots for this period, then more actively it went from the Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions, less - from the Omsk region and Altai Krai (tab. 2).

The provided data demonstrate that during the considered period the quantity evacuated, occupied in agriculture of the Novosibirsk region, was reduced from 49.9 to 10.1 thousand people that made 79.8% of persons of this category; in the Kemerovo region - from 35.2 to 14.6 thousand, or 58.5% all occupied for April 1, 1943; in Altai Krai - from 20.4 to 10.7 thousand. or for 47.5%. And only in the Omsk region the number reevakuirovanny was a little less. The evacuated population was reduced from 46.4 to 26.6 thousand people here that made 42.7% of the evacuated citizens occupied in this industry all [2, l. 3-5, 8; 3, l. 11, 17; 15, l. 122; 16, l. 28, 44; 17, l. 2, 26, 32-33].

During mass re-evacuation there was a process of reduction of number of the evacuated children (tab. 3) who left with parents, they were searched and taken away by relatives, they left with child care facilities and the organizations [17, l. 32].

From the provided data it is visible that for April 1, 1943 in Western Siberia there were 359.9 thousand evacuated children. Their greatest number - 115.6 thousand - lived in the Novosibirsk region. In their Omsk region was registered for this time - 106.9 thousand, in Kemerovo - 80.5, in Altai

Table 1

The number of the evacuated population and its employment in the national economy of Western Siberia

from 01.04.1943 to 01.01.1944, one thousand

The region For 01.04.1943 For 01.01.1944

Only Including able-bodied from them works about e with sv Including able-bodied from them works

only and t with about N of N e l In y m about r p in in agriculture in other organizations and institutions only in the industry in agriculture in other organizations and institutions

Altai Krai 148.0 61.1 58.0 9.4 20.4 28.2 133.0 67.8 59.0 19.1 10.7 29.2

Kemerovo region 212.5 106.5 94.7 47.0 35.2 12.5 110.7 61.3 52.6 27.5 14.6 10.5

Novosibirsk region 301.4 174.8 160.9 82.0 49.9 29.0 102.6 57.9 48.0 28.0 10.0 10.0

Omsk region 272.7 165.7 97.5 34.7 46.4 16.4 161.0 95.2 74.5 31.7 26.6 16.2

Total 934.6 508.1 411.1 173.1 151.9 86.1 507.3 282.2 234.1 106.3 61.9 65.9

Table 2

Re-evacuation of the population occupied in agriculture of Western Siberia from 01.04.1943 to 01.01.1944

The region It is engaged in agriculture, thousand Left for 01.01.1944

for 01.04.1943 for 01.01.1944 one thousand %

Altai Krai 20.4 10.7 9.7 47.5

Kemerovo region 35.2 14.6 20.6 58.5

Novosibirsk region 49.9 10.1 39.8 79.8

Omsk region 46.4 26.6 19.8 42.7

Total 151.9 62.0 89.9 59.2

Table 3

Re-evacuation of children from Western Siberia from 01.04.1943 to 01.01.1944

Region Number

the evacuated children, thousand left

for 01.04.1943 for 01.01.1944 one thousand %

Altai Krai 56.9 50.3 6.6 12.1

Kemerovo region 80.5 22.9 57.6 71.6

Novosibirsk region 115.6 37.2 78.4 67.8

Omsk region 106.9 66.4 40.5 37.9

Total 359.9 176.8 183.3 50.9

edge - 56.9. Due to the developed re-evacuation for January 1, 1944 the quantity them was reduced from 359.9 to 176.8 thousand people that made 50.9% of their number for April 1, 1943

The analysis of documentary data (tab. 4), shows that first of all on re-evacuation Western Siberia was left by residents of Moscow and the Moscow region, Leningrad, Ukraine, Belarus [2, l. 12(1); 3, l. 15].

From the table it is visible that during the specified period from the Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions 29,886 people (79.5% of all evacuated) from Moscow, 85 732 (71.1%) - left Leningrad, 14 221 (66.3%) - from the Moscow region, 27 359 (65.6% all evacuated to these areas) citizens White

Table 4

Re-evacuation of the population from the Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions from 20.05.1943 to 01.01.1944

Places of an exit evacuated Was registered evacuated Left

for 20.05.1943 for 01.01.1944 abs. %

Ukraine 99,595 38,300 61,295 61.5

Belarus 41,659 14,300 27,359 65.6

Moscow 37,586 7,700 29,886 79.5

Moscow region 21,421 7,200 14,221 66.3

Leningrad 120,432 34,700 85,732 71.1

Leningrad Region 36,262 36,700 plus 438 *

Other areas 147,295 74,400 72,895 49.4

Increase in number evacuated from the Leningrad Region was the result of evacuation of children and disabled people.

russiya and 61,295 (61.5%) - Ukraine. Only 218,493 persons from 356,955, or 61.2% all evacuated from these places. Whereas from the evacuated population of 24 other regions of the country placed in the Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions only 72,895 people returned on the former residence for this period that made 49.4% of all evacuated to the Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions from these places.

During mass re-evacuation staff of the plants, research and design institutes, higher education institutions and other educational institutions, institutions, organizations, theaters, orphanages, etc. came back to native places. In July, 1943 the Tomsk public warmly saw to Moscow staff of All-Union institute of experimental medicine of A.M. Gorky of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (VIEM) which was evacuated to Tomsk by one of the first, in the summer of 1941 and worked in the city about two years. Together with institute outstanding erudite professors A.A. Zavarzin, B.I. Lavrentyev (deputy director of VIEM), A.A. Smorodintsev, P.S. Kupalov, P.K. Anokhin, I.P. Razenkov, L.M. Shabal, S.Ya. Kap-lansky, N.P. Chukichev, A.B. Braunstein, E.N. Lev-kovich, P.A. Petrishcheva, etc., made a big contribution to a victory over the enemy came back to Moscow, working in the Siberian back [18, l. 12, 13].

On November 7, 1943 farewell performances of the Voroshilovgrad state Russian drama theater which was in evacuation in Slavgorod of Altai Krai were held. Its collective came back to Donbass. On. farewell performances of this glorified collective 60 thousand viewers visited [19].

At the end of 1943 the residents of Omsk warmly saw off to the capital the 2nd Moscow medical institute (all its faculties) which spent to evacuations in Omsk about two years [20, page 14]. From nine higher education institutions evacuated to Novosibirsk in 1941 began new 1943/44 uch. in the city only 3, the others were already reevakuirovana. And with them 17 professors, 29 associate professors, 48 assistants [21, l left. 180-181; 22, page 310-311].

All work on re-evacuation of the population was controlled by inspectors of Department of SNK RSFSR on the economic device of the evacuated population, its results were brought to the attention of the government. In the fall of 1943 the chief of this department L. Dmitriyev reported to the vice-chairman of SNK RSFSR GV. To Perov about the carried-out inspection of the complaints which arrived from the Novosibirsk region

about a congestion of the reevakuiruyemy population at the station Novosibirsk and inaction of local authorities. The carried-out inspection showed groundlessness of the complaint. The unorganized population left in process of availability. For leaving in

the structure of institutions, organizations two echelons [23, l were created in addition. 157].

However in general in the course of re-evacuation considerable difficulties, miscalculations, violations of decisions of the government and local authorities took place. There were cases of non-payment of full calculation evacuated for the work performed by them in the cooperative organizations, collective farms, state farms, failure to provide in time transport, negligent paperwork, failure to provide by trip cards or their incomplete merchandising. Certain economic heads on places, referring to difficulties of wartime, to impossibility of replacement of driving off, detained the evacuated citizens, and district executive committees did not show due persistence and insistence. The facts when directors of reevakuirovanny institutions and especially defense enterprises took away also the Siberians working at these enterprises took place without reckoning with their desire. Serious shortcomings took place in carrying out explanatory work among leaving.

Contrary to all restrictions a large number of people sought to return home self-willedally. Their stream every month increased and forced the central and local authorities to reckon with it and to take measures to its streamlining. The Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR the order of April 28, 1944 forbade regional and regional executive committees to make mass return of orders, evacuated without special on that, and demanded strengthening of attention to this work [23, l. 158]. At the end of February, 1944 bureau of the Novosibirsk city town committee of party, having heard the report of city commission concerning "About Streamlining of Service and Sending the Reevakuiruyemy Population", obliged the chief of the Novosibirsk station daily at the operational meetings to report

about the course of re-evacuation of the population also suggested the management of May Day district executive committee to establish control of providing driving off trip cards and all necessary [24, l. 149— 150]. In March, 1944 according to the order of the Altai krayispolkom, for timely sending the reevakuirovanny population, in the region the additional inventory of the evacuated citizens [12, l was carried out. 149-150]. In the middle of May, 1944. The Omsk regional executive committee made the special decision explaining a re-evacuation order. The same resolution the regional executive committee obliged the Soviet and economic organizations of area to render the every possible help and assistance in carrying out all work on re-evacuation to the special representatives who arrived in the area from the freed areas [11, l. 98].

October 18, 1944. The Novosibirsk regional executive committee considered a question of re-evacuation of the population in Le -

ningradsky and Kalinin regions. According to the order of SNK USSR of August 11 and 12, 1944, the regional executive committee obliged gorrayispolkoma and their relevant departments to complete all work on re-evacuation from these areas of the citizens who are not occupied at the industrial enterprises by the end of November, 1944, having warned district executive committees about inadmissibility of repetition of the mistakes taking place at re-evacuation of the population to the Kursk and Smolensk regions (failure to provide transport, negligent paperwork), having indicated the need of the correct sending the reevakuiruyemy population, rendering driving off the every possible help [13, l. 56-57].

Agendas of the Soviet, party bodies "About re-evacuation of the Donetsk industrial institute", "About assistance leaving on re-evacuation to Ukraine", "About providing with trip cards and transport of the citizens who are coming back on re-evacuation to cleared regions of the country" and others [12, l. 163-164; 13, l. 56-57;

25, l. 135], confirm control and the help of the Soviet, party, economic organizations of Western Siberia to reevakuirovanny.

In July, 1944 in Novosibirsk farewell concerts of symphonic orchestra of the Leningrad philharmonic hall were held, and on August 3, 1944 in club of Klara Tsetkin the last farewell concert of the Leningrad state philharmonic hall under the leadership of the honored artist of RSFSR E.A. Mravinsky was held. For 3 years, carried out in Novosibirsk, the philharmonic hall gave 5,220 concerts. Scientists, teachers, workers, fighters and commanders made warm thanksgiving speeches. Siberia saw off wonderful musicians, singers, actors. They should restore culture in the freed areas [26, page 303; 27, page 218, 220].

In October, 1944 the Leningrad Theatre for Young Audience which played 952 performances which 549 thousand viewers visited in three years of stay in Novosibirsk left home. In addition the theater gave 1,825 patronage concerts. From 23 productions of theater 11 were premier, prepared in Siberia [27, page 220].

In November, 1944 after three years' stay in evacuation the Novosibirsk public led staff of branch of the State Tretyakov gallery to Moscow. His employees thanks to the conditions created by local authorities held 20 exhibitions which were attended by over 500 thousand people during evacuation, read near

1 000 lectures about the Russian art at which there were over 80 thousand listeners [28, page 243]. Re-evacuation of higher education institutions continued. At the end of September, 1944 the public of Prokopyevsk of the Kemerovo region carried out to the place of the constant stay, to Stalino, to Donbass group of teachers and students of the Donetsk industrial institute which was evacuated to Kuzbass in September, 1941 and stayed in evacuation
3 years [29, page 11, 13].

The analysis of data on the general process of re-evacuation (tab. 5) shows that for 1944 and the first quarter 1945 from areas of Western Siberia there were reevakuirovano 341.3 thousand people that made 67.2% of all evacuated, living in this region for January 1, 1944 or 36.3% of total number of the population evacuated to Western Siberia (938.1 thousand people for July 1, 1943) [2, l. 3-4; 3, l. 11, 47; 16, l. 28, 44; 17, l. 2, 26; 23, l. 122; 30, l. 65].

It should be noted that if in 1943 the re-evacuation went more rapidly from the Kemerovo and Novosibirsk regions, then at this stage - from the Omsk region and Altai Krai. So, if from the Novosibirsk region for this period on the West

Table 5

Re-evacuation of the population from Western Siberia from 01.01.1944 to 01.04.1945

The region For 01.01.1944, thousand For 01.04.1945, thousand Left

only including able-bodied

Vvsy evacuated Including able-bodied All evacuated Vv that number able-bodied one thousand % one thousand %

Altai Krai 133.0 67.8 20.1 is not present data 112.9 84.8 there are no data there are no data

Kemerovo region 110.7 61.3 73.9 45.8 36.8 33.2 15.5 25.4

Novosibirsk region 102.6 57.9 30.8 14.9 71.8 69.9 43.0 54.0

Omsk region 161.0 95.2 41.2 20.4 119.8 74.4 74.8 46.5

The Tomsk region - - 17.0 5.4 is not present data - there are no data -

The Tyumen region - - 18.5 9.7 is not present data - there are no data -

Total 597.4 282 2 201.5 96.2 341.3 74.2 133.3 47.2

71.8 thousand left that made 69.9% of total number of the evacuated population in the area for January 1, 1944, of the Omsk region - 119.8 thousand, and of Altai Krai - 112.9 thousand, or respectively 74.4 and 84.8% all evacuated, living in these regions for January 1, 1944

Existence for this time in the Kemerovo region still considerable, in comparison with other areas of Western Siberia, the number of the evacuated population is explained by the special importance of Kuzbass for the front and recovery of the national economy of cleared regions of the country. The analysis of data demonstrates to what for the considered period left Western Siberia on re-evacuation of 160.6 thousand people of able-bodied population that made 62.5% of total number on

1 January, 1944

The evacuated population which left able-bodied across the Novosibirsk region made 54.0%, on Omsk - 46.5%. And only across the Kemerovo region, for already above-mentioned reason, it equaled 25.4% of all able-bodied, being in Kuzbass for January 1, 1944. For April 1, 1945 in Western Siberia there were 201.5 thousand more evacuated citizens, including 96.2 thousand able-bodied.

Thus, since the beginning of the developed mass re-evacuation from 938.1 thousand evacuated, living for July 1, 1943 in Western Siberia on former residences 736.6 thousand people, including 411.9 thousand able-bodied returned. However 201.5 thousand evacuated population for various reasons continued to live in Western Siberia, including in Altai Krai - 20.1 thousand, in the Novosibirsk region - 30.8, in Omsk - 41.2, in Kemerovo - 73.9 and 35.5 thousand in areas, newly created in August, 1944: Tomsk - 18.5 and Tyumen - 17 thousand people. Many of them still worked in various branches of the national economy (it is made on: [2, l. 3-4; 3, l. 11, 47; 17, l. 2, 26; 23, l. 122]).

The analysis of data (tab. 6) shows that on two of these areas of Western Siberia from 104.7 thousand evacuated 60.7 thousand were able-bodied. From them 43.4 thousand people, including 24.5 (56.4% of all working) - in the industry, 7.9 (18.2%) - in agriculture and 11 thousand (25.6%) - in the organizations and institutions continued to work. At the same time their main part 38.0 thousand people (87.5%) continued to live and work in the Kemerovo region. They made of 24.5 thousand evacuated, occupied for this time in the industry across the Kemerovo region 23.9 thousand and on Novosibirsk - 0.6 thousand people, i.e. 97.5% of all these two areas occupied on production.

Working in agriculture of the Kemerovo region made 5.7 thousand people from 7.9 (72.2%

Table 6

The number and employment of the evacuated population in the national economy of the Kemerovo and Novosibirsk regions for 01.04.1945, one thousand

The region about e with Including able-bodied from them works

only in the industry in agriculture in other organizations and institutions

Kemerovo region 73.9 45.8 38.0 23.9 5.7 8.4

Novosibirsk region 30.8 14.9 5.4 0.6 2.2 2.6

Total 104.7 60.7 43.4 24.5 7.9 11.0

all busy evacuated citizens of two above-mentioned West Siberian regions), and 8.4 thousand people from 11 thousand (80.4%) continued to work in the organizations and institutions of the Kemerovo region. On other areas of Western Siberia of data

about employment of the able-bodied evacuated population for April 1, 1945 are available only on agriculture.

According to Statistical department of Resettlement management at SNK RSFSR, from 43.4 thousand working in Western Siberia for this period of the evacuated citizens of 16.9 thousand (38.9%) continued to work in agriculture, including in the Kemerovo region - 5.7 thousand people, Novosibirsk - 2.2, Omsk - 4.3, Tomsk - 3.2, Tyumen - 1.5 thousand (percent are estimated according to these tab. 6; data on employment of the evacuated population in agriculture of Western Siberia for April 1, 1945 without Altai Krai due to the lack of data). Data on employment of able-bodied population for this period in the industry, in the organizations and institutions of Western Siberia, except considered above the Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions, are absent. In our opinion, it is explained by quite fast course of re-evacuation, large number of the directions on which it was carried out, big tension in this regard in work of the relevant departments of the Region - mountains - district executive committees and poorly put account.

Speaking about the national structure of the reevakuiruyemy population during the period from January 1 to April 1, 1945, it should be noted that its main part was made by residents of Ukraine and Belarus. At the same time there was a re-evacuation of residents of Moldova, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Karelian-Finnish the ASSR, but in much smaller quantities because and I free these areas which are just freed -

shchiyesya from the enemy, could not accept all returning on re-evacuation at once. Besides these national republics the re-evacuation continued to the Central regions of the country and to the Northwest region. So, 6 thousand people from 10.8 thousand (55.5% all evacuated, which are for January 1, 1944 in the Kemerovo region) returned to Moscow and the Moscow region for this period. Besides, 7.7 thousand people from 13.8 were reevakuirovana to the Kalinin, Smolensk, Voronezh regions and Stalingrad that made 55.8% of the evacuated population from these areas which is in area for the same time [2, l. 12; 3, l. 15; 31, l. 28 (1.2)].

In general it is possible to draw a conclusion that the main part reevakuirovanny during the considered period returned to the main areas of evacuation.

From the end of war the fourth began, post-war, a re-evacuation stage from Western Siberia. The course it during this period shows (tab. 7) that for January 1, 1948 in Western Siberia there were 47,471 persons evakograzhdan. Re-evacuation was almost complete because, according to Statistical department of Resettlement management at SNK RSFSR, they remained in Western Siberia on the permanent residence. From the table it is visible that most (15,673 persons) settled in the Omsk region, 12 850 - in Altai Krai, 10 025 - in Kemerovo, 4,842 - in Novosibirsk, 3,602 - in Tomsk, 479 - in Tyumen areas (it is made on: [2, l. 1, 5; 4, l. 36, 38-39; 32, l. 5; 33, l. 14; 34, l. 2]).

Remained in Western Siberia to the evakograzhdena were made by 0.5% of all which arrived on evacuation from the western areas in the West Siberian region on

1 July, 1943. Thus, Western Siberia was left by 95% of all evacuated population of the western regions which arrived here on evacuation in 1941-1943 i.e. 890,629 people (it is estimated on: [2, l. 3-5, 8; 3, l. 11, 17; 15, l. 122; 16, l. 28, 44; 17, l. 2, 26, 32]).

It is necessary to consider that a part of the evacuated population was mobilized in army. Schi-

Table 7

Re-evacuation of the population from Western Siberia from 01.04.1945 to 01.01.1948, one thousand

Number evacuated

- l ^Ч tenge about ^ч About and N 40 tenges ^ч ^ч About ^ч About and N from 40 tenges ^ч ^ч ^ч ^ч About and N oo about \^ù ^Ч About ^ч About and N

Region

Altai Krai 20.1 18:05 14.072 12.85

Novosibirsk region 30.8 8.115 8.115 4.842

Kemerovo region 73.9 37.452 25.815 10.025

Omsk region 41.2 37.838 30.516 15.673

Tomsk region 18.5 6.884 6.648 3.602

Tyumen region 17.0 4.357 2.17 0.479

Total 201.5 112.696 87.336 47.471

it tatsya inexpedient to reevakuirovat many child care facilities, nursing homes and aged. Some citizens voluntarily refused re-evacuation. A part of the leading party and Soviet, Komsomol, managerial personnel, specialists of various industries, especially communists, were left at work in Western Siberia.

Among remained in Western Siberia eva-kograzhdan the greatest number residents of Ukraine - 12,056 people, Leningrad and the Leningrad Region - 11 883, Belarus - 5 661, Moscow and the Moscow region - 4,693 made. Among the remained 2,833 residents of Moscow - 1,394 persons settled in the Tomsk region. The smallest number remained in Western Siberia was made by inhabitants of the Baltic republics: Estonia - 16 people, Lithuania - 24, Latvia - 3 (made on: [34, l. 2]).

Re-evacuation created great difficulties with shots in Western Siberia, however the cleared regions which endured occupation were in worse way. The Reevakuirovanny population was serious replenishment of shots in these areas. Re-evacuation was better planned and carried out with smaller losses, than evacuation.

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Ryan Graham
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