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Communications of Galitsky Russia and Earth Moldavian in the 14-15th centuries.



the menovaniye of the Old Russian population of the region connected with a sort of their classes. In Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands also Bulgarian Turkic peoples, Hungarians, Pechenegs, Cumans, Torquay periodically wandered. Old Russian pages of history of our region deserve further study.

LITERATURE

1. E. Tkachuk. What is looked for by us in yesterday?//International historical magazine "Rusin" [Chisinau]. 2005. No. 9 2 (2). Page 107.
2. N. Telnov, V. Stepanov, N. Rusev, R. Rabinovich. "and... Slavs dispersed on the ground". Chisinau, 2002. Page 72.
3. S. Sulyak. Autocrat's son vseya Russia//International historical magazine "Rusin" [Chisinau]. 2005. No. 9 2 (2). Page 41.
4. Tsit. on: "And. .razoshlis Slavs on the ground". Page 56.
5. History of the Moldavian SSR. T. I. Chisinau, 1965. Page 68.
6. R. Rabinovich. A problem of presence of Galitsky Russia in Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands in 1140-1240//the International historical magazine "Rusin" [Chisinau]. 2005. No. & gt; 2 (2). Page 74.
7. Tale of Igor's Campaign. M, 1978. Page 83.
8. See: MohovN.A. Moldova feudalism eras. Chisinau, 1964. Page 81-82.
9. PSRL. 1962. Page 496-497. Tsit. on: "And. .razoshlis Slavs on the ground". Page 137.
10. "And. .razoshlis Slavs on the ground". Page 139, 192.
11. In the same place. Page 138.
12. S. Sulyak. Decree. soch. Page 14.15.
13. Pletnev S.A. Polovtsian earth//Old Russian principalities of H-HS of centuries of M., Science, 1975. Page 281.
14. "And .razoshlis Slavs on the ground". Page 196.
15. S. Sulyak. Decree. soch. Page 36.
16. Tsit. on:. "And .razoshlis Slavs on the ground". Page 203.
17. S. Sulyak. Decree. soch. Page 18.
18 ". Also Slavs dispersed on the ground". Page 209.
19. S. Sulyak. Decree. soch. Page 35.

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Lyudmila KISHKA

COMMUNICATIONS of GALITSKY RUSSIA AND the EARTH MOLDAVIAN In the 14-15th centuries

The Moldavian state arose during absorption of South Russian lands by the Lithuanian principality and Poland. As Russia was

it is weakened by mongolo-tatar invasion, this policy did not encounter the special resistance of the Russian princes. Small Lithuania attached nearly a half of the territory of Russia. In the 40-50th of the 14th century. The Polish kingdom and Lithuania after long-term war divided the territory of the Galitsko-Volynsky principality. Lithuania received Volhynia, and Poland took Galitsky Russia. How did these events affect ethnocultural processes in the Moldavian principality which arose in 1359?

In Lithuania the Russian people made about 90 percent of the population, and the Lithuanian state even officially began to be called Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russian. The Lithuanian writing did not exist yet, and Russian became also official language of the state. In Russian the debate in vilensky diet and official deloproizvodstvo1 was conducted. Being prior to the beginning of the 15th century pagans, the Lithuanian princes did not impose the belief to orthodox citizens. A bit different policy already during this period was pursued in Galitsky Russia by kings of Poland. In 1385 Lithuania and Poland appeared under one scepter. And still political changes did not change the ethnic image of the former territory of Ancient Russia.

Creation of the Moldavian state also did not entail change of ethnic structure of the population of Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands. In the 14-17th centuries the territory limited from the North and the East to Dniester, and from the southeast - generally the line of Tyagina-Yassy-Suceava - Russinians, descendants of the Old Russian population of these lands inhabited. In 1500 they made nearly 40 percent of the population of Moldavii2. For the next one and a half centuries a part of Russinians was assimilated by Moldavians, and still, the chronicler Grigor Ureke noted in the second half of the XVII century, a third of inhabitants spoke Russian yazyke3.

What language was? It is known that Pavel Berynda is an author of "The slavyanorussky dictionary" (1637), perhaps, the native of Moldova, - laid the foundation for the all-Russian literary language. Its native language, probably, became a basis of all-Russian created by it. "In a basis [book Russian] of language XIV-XVII of Moldova centuries, - the expert on Slavic writing A.I. Yatsimirsky claimed, - Russian was put: on the one hand official West Russian, and with another - an oral galitsko-Volynsk dialect" 4. The linguistic community demonstrates that to the middle of the 14th century in the territory between Dniester and the Carpathians a part of the population of Galitsky Russia lived.

In the Russian book language of that time - the Moldavian chroniclers called it Slavic or Serbian - in Moldova the church service was held. On it the state office-work was conducted, Moldavians used it in private correspondence. It gives the grounds to believe that very most part of Moldavians knew Russian. And, of course, knowledge of Russian simplified to Moldavians of communication with

Galitsky Russia. Other factor facilitating to the population of Moldova communications with Galitsky Russia was the community of orthodox belief. In the 14th century. The Moldavian church submitted to the metropolitan of Galich. In 1387 Moldavian gospodar Pyotr Mushat himself put the head of the Moldavian church - the bishop (before priests were appointed from neighboring countries). It caused sharp counteraction of the Constantinople patriarch. Business reached that the patriarch betrayed Moldova proklyatiyu5. For settlement of the conflict in 1401 from Constantinople the special patriarchal salting, the scientist-theologian, the Bulgarian by origin Grigory Tsamblak was sent to Moldova. On behalf of the Constantinople patriarch Grigory Tsamblak approved the protege Moldavian gospodarya6.

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With Grigory Tsamblak's activity connected the bright page of history of cultural ties of Moldova and Galitsky Russia. It was the person of versatile talents and big education. Grigory Tsam-blak was born in 1364 in Bulgaria. He became history as the Bulgarian writer, the church figure, the hierarch of Byzantium, Bulgaria, Serbia, Moldova, Belarus and Ukraine, the author of the numerous sermons which had a wide response. After settlement of the conflict between church and temporal power it at a request gospodarya Alexander Dobry undertook writing of life of the Moldavian Saint Ioann Novy. Till 1406 served in cathedral church of Suceava, directed correspondence of prayer books. Church relations between Moldova and Russian lands were rather intensive. In 1409 Grigory Tsamblak moved to Kiev and soon became the participant of fight between Moscow and Lithuania which extended and on affairs of church. In 1415 Tsamblak was elected the metropolitan of Kiyevskim7.

Owing to the political reasons Grigory Tsamblak supported achievement of the union with Catholic church. At the head of big group of orthodox clergy he arrived to cathedral and conducted negotiations with the Pope, but this initiative did not find support in Kiev. Despite church political differences with the metropolitan Kiev, in Moscow the valid relation to it remained. About his death in 1419 in the Nikonovsky chronicle it is told: "In the same winter Grigory the metropolitan Tsamblak in Kiev died, the Bulgarian, book very much is, it was trained in book wisdom of everyone since childhood and a lot of writing, having created, left". For all the life he made and rewrote about 30 books and propovedey8. It is characteristic that with Catholics the Moldavians took in a question of the union the same position of rejection, as well as orthodox clergy of the Kiev metropolitanate. The metropolitan of Moldova, under pressure of the patriarch Constantinople supported the union on the Florentine cathedral, did not dare to come back in knyazhestvo9.

The existence of the Moldavian state was threatened by Turks and Tatars. Many times also troops of the next Walachia interfered in the principality. Galitsky Russia in these conditions was a shelter of Moldavians where they found rescue. Of Moldova supports at kings of Poland were forced to look for Gospodari. In Galitsky Russia, important events of the Moldavian history were played. In 1415 gospodar Alexander Dobry arrived in the city of Snyatin where to the king, "sitting on the eminence and with a crown on the head, brought a solemn oath of citizenship and an oath of fidelity together with all boyars of the valashsky earth, throwing under the king's legs the banners" 10. On September 29, 1436 lenny oath of allegiance to the Polish king Vladislav was taken in Lviv gospodar by Iliyash. Vladislav, it is noted in the chronicle, "in all greatness sat on the city square on specially built eminence perfectly cleaned". Iliyash and 35 boyars, "having fallen on knees as a sign of fidelity and obedience, broke staffs of banners and threw them under legs to the king" 11.

However vassalitt Moldova in many respects was formal. In the XV-XVI centuries of the earth of the Western Russia, especially Bukovina, the Shchepenitsky earth and Pokutye, were object of fight between Moldova and Poland. Poe kolivo gospodar Pyotr Mushat received in 1388 from the Polish king on the security of 3000 rubles lent to him silver. Money was not returned, nevertheless, the Polish kings demanded return of this area. But its population, orthodox Russian people, preferred the power of orthodox Moldavian voivodes, but not Catholic kings. At the end of 1456 in the north of Moldova there was a country revolt under Lev's leadership. Having begun in Moldova, it was thrown in the Polish possession, and Lev's "team" reached Snyatin. Pyotr Aron agreed with the Polish sirs about joint actions against insurgents. But soon, in April, 1457, he was overthrown by the new applicant for the Moldavian throne - Stephen III12. About Lev there is more any mentions in documents net13. It is possible to assume that he was Stefan's supporter, and the purpose of his actions in Galitsky Russia was to deprive of Pyotr Aron of support of the Polish king.

That Stephen III could apply such method of fight it is possible to judge also by other episode of the Polish-Moldavian relations. At a meeting with the Polish king in Kolomye in 1485 Stefan was deceived in the expectations and humiliated. The relations between monarchs worsened from year to year. Moldavian gospodar took part in formation antiyagellonsky koalitsii14, and under 1488 we find the improbable story in "The Moldavian-German chronicle" of Stefan the Great's times. This year "the voivode Stefan of one boyar sent to the earth of Russinians and [he] borrowed with it up to Galich, and for the fourth year sir Ni - came

Galitsky Coca also broke its army at Rogatin.". Further it is told that that boyar ran to Belgorod. Stephen, having learned about it, secretly sent behind him a pursuit, and he was seized near Belgorod with his 36 horse servants. The boyar was brought to Suceava, there he stayed year in the conclusion. Then Stephen let out him and sent to Galitsky lands again. The boyar occupied these lands up to Galich again. But at Kolomyi the Poles attacked it, grabbed together with five colleagues and dumped from the Kots15 lock wall.

Obviously, it is about Mucha's revolt which can be dated 1490-1492. The head of a performance appears in the message as the performer of will Moldavian gospodarya. Exactly as "invasion Moldavian gospodarya", the Polish king treated this revolt. And the bases to suspect diversion were available for it. Stephen III did not execute the leader of a revolt who is allegedly captivated, and covered from punishment. In a year gospodar gave to the rebel an opportunity again to excite a rebellion and to intrude in the Polish possession. But whether it is possible to consider that Mucha just executed Stefan the Great's order? In the Polish chronicle by the bishop Peremyshl Yang from Torgovisk the social nature of a revolt is noted: "A certain Mucha from Moldova in a short space of time gathered crowd of army from rural people in 9000 people. He intruded in that part of the Russian land where Snyatin lies. The city was taken and destroyed. Then it occupied many cities and villages up to Galich and subordinated to itself(himself)" 16. Whether it is possible to assume that Moldavian gospodar organized a country revolt? The Moldavian historian N.A. Mokhov, considering these events, does not state such assumption, but it, in our opinion, follows from the given facts.

The revolt was country, and Russinians of Bukovina rose. But if it was initiated by Stefan the Great, then he caused considerable damage and to local feudal lords. The secretary of the grand master of the Teutonic Order L. Nakker who visited Bukovina and Pokutye in seven years after the revolt under the leadership of Mucha noted: "The country was so devastated that big misters, those which survived and were not killed lost all property and, without having anything, were forced to go to beg". So, peasants Russinians rose, and the revolt among peasants Russinians of the Galitsky earth extended. Seized Mucha (or Andrey Borulyu) local shlyakhtich too. The Polish chronicler of the 16th century Michal Stryykovsky, telling about a revolt, does not mention participation of Moldavians in it. And descendants saw in Mucha of the, the Russinian. Wishing to note someone's courage, they spoke "Jac Kozak Mucha" 17.

Later, in 1509, during a campaign of the Moldavian voivode Bogdan in the Polish possession many galitsky noblemen whom the Moldavian chroniclers called the Russian shlyakhty joined it. When on -

the course was not successful, expecting repressions and confiscation of manors, they went together with the Moldavian army to Moldova. Thus, in Galitsky Russia then there were also people, including from noble families which sought to get rid of the Catholic power by means of orthodox Moldova. But these hopes were not carried out as Moldova was too weak to support the population of Galichina. These migrations turned out so mass that in the 15th century led to disappearance in Galitsky Russia estates of great boyars. They ran or lost the possession in Polish konfiskatsiyakh18. But interaction of the population of Moldova and Galitsky Russia did not stop. In a new century the Moldavian-Carpatho-Russian communications got other forms.

Participation of peasants of the earth of the Moldavian and Galitsky Russia in the general revolts, the sympathies for orthodox Moldova shown also Russian shlyakhty Galitsky land, a common position of orthodox clergy of Moldova and Russian lands of the Polish-Lithuanian state give the grounds to claim that in the 14-15th centuries the partition of the Western Russia between various states did not lead Old Russian nationality to ethnocultural split yet.

LITERATURE

1. See: Statutes of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russian. T.1-2. Odessa, 2002.
2. Field L.L. Essays of historical geography of Moldova of the 13-15th centuries Chisinau, 1979. Page 90.
3. UrekeGrigore. Letopisetsul Tsery Moldovey. Chisinau, 1971. Item 110. Tsit. on: ShornikovP.M. Moldavian originality. Tiraspol, 2007. Page 33.
4. Historical roots of communications and friendship of the Ukrainian and Moldavian people. Kiev, 1980. Page 48.
5. MohovN.A. Moldova feudalism eras. Chisinau, 1964. Page 165.
6. V. Stati. History of Moldova. Chisinau, 2003. Page 60.
7. Soviet Moldova. Short encyclopedia. Chisinau, 1982. Page 667.
8. N. Russev. Ioann Novy's life and Grigory Tsamblak's life in connection with formation of the Russian ideological and political space//the International historical magazine "Rusin" [Chisinau]. 2007. No. 9 2 (8). Page 12.
9. D. Kantemir. Description of Moldova. Chisinau, 1973. Page 179.
10. Tsit. on: P.M. Shornikov. Decree. soch., Page 116.
11. Tsit. on: V. Stati. History of Moldova. Chisinau, 2002. Page 213.
12. Stati V Istoria Moldovei in date. Chisinau, 2007. P.85.
13. N.A. Mokhov. Moldova feudalism eras. Chisinau, 1964. Page 146.
14. See: P.M. Shornikov. Decree. soch. Page 117.118.
15. Slavyano-moldavsky chronicles of the 15-16th centuries M.,1976. Page 53.
16. Tsit. on: MohovN.A. Decree. soch. Page 149.
17. In the same place. Page 148-150. It is indicative that the country revolt of 1563-1566 also began in the neighborhood of Hotin, and his also local Russinians lifted. In 1671 to the north of the line of Tyagina-Yassy-Suceava, in Orgeev, one more revolt headed by the Moldavian Mikhalchey Hynku and the Russinian Apostol Durak broke out. Risen occupied the capital of the Principality of Yassa and expelled gospodarya Georgy Duca.
18. M. Grushevsky. The illustrated history of Ukraine. Donetsk, 2003. Page 160, 163.

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Yulia BORODINA, Tatyana KUROPATKINA

DOBROVETs, KASIN, KNEZhA... Population shifts of the Southern and Western Russia in H1-HS of centuries (according to toponymics)

In the territory of modern Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Moldova and Romania there are many cities and villages with identical or similar names. The most plausible explanation of this phenomenon is that the cities of Northeast (Moscow) Russia which arose after the cities of Russia Western and Southern, were founded by immigrants from the South and the West. It is known that at Old Russian princes Svyatoslav Hrabrom, Vladimir Svyaty, Yaroslav the Wise, Vladimir Monomakh the border of Russia passed across Danube. At the end of the XII century the galitsky prince Yaroslav Osmomysl extended the power to lands to Danube. In the 12-13th centuries of monks of Karp - those-Dniester lands called berladnik, brodnik, galitsky vygonets. It were no names of tribes more likely they reflect a sort of their classes. They had also cities. It allows us to answer a question of participation in migrations also of the population of these lands. But we will begin with the cities with identical names which emergence is obviously not connected with migrations.

The most known of them are Vladimir-Volynsk founded in 988 g, subsequently the capital of the Volynsk principality and Vladimir-Zalessky - in the northeast of Russia, known from 990 g. Both of them are based by Vladimir the Gorgeous Sunshine, are on coast of the rivers and have the circular building. The first, Vladimir-Volynsk,

Mary Gwen
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