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West Russian lands and Kiev 12th century in fight for independence: role of an orthodox factor


West Russian lands and cues of the 12th century in fight for independence: role of an orthodox factor

The prominent Soviet historian-medievalist B.A. Rybakov in the book devoted to the 1500 anniversary of Kiev so describes features of ethnosocial evolution of southwest Old Russian lands which in many respects became the ancestral home of Russinians as unique and peculiar ethnic group: "In the history of Galitsko-Volynsky lands we see relocation of the historic center: in ancient times on the first place there was a dulebsky union of tribes which was on a joint of the east and West Slavic tribes of Prikarpatye and Volhynia. In the 6th century this union of tribes was broken by Avars, the old breeding center - Volhynia - decayed, and Vladimir Volynsky bearing a name of Vladimir Svyatoslavich paying much attention to West Russian lands becomes the center of these lands. Fertile soil, mild climate, relative safety from nomads made the fertile earth of Volhynia of one of the richest in Russia. here very intensively the feudal relations develop and there is a strong seigniorial layer. there are such cities as Peremyshl, Lutsk, Terebovl, cherven, Holm, Berestye, drogichin. long time we find nothing in chronicles about Galich. But in the 12th century Galich from the small specific town of minor princes quickly turns into the capital of the considerable principality which arose on lands of such Slavic tribes as white Croats, tiverets and catch. At a boundary XII and XIII centuries Roman Mstislavich Volynsky united the Galitsky earth and Volhynia in one big state which endured the Tatar-Mongolian invasion and existed till 14th century. Such is the scheme of history of the western Russia.

The West Russian princes tried to conduct independent policy in relation to Kiev in the 11th century: for example, Vasylko Rostislavich Terebovlsky blinded after the Lyubechsky congress, his brother Waugh-lodar, the prince Peremyshlsky, and their enemy davyd igorevich Volynsky, and then dorogobuzhskiya. Ivan Rostislavich Berladnik, the grandson of Volodar whose biography is full of various adventures was the last representative of small princes-derelicts. In 1144 he reigned in small Zvenigorod (from Galich in the north), and to the galichena, having used that their prince Vladimir Volodarevich was far on

hunting, invited Ivan and & #34; a vvedosha to a soba in Galich". When Vladimir besieged Galich, all city defended Ivan, but eventually he had to run to Danube, and Vladimir, having entered the city, & #34; mnoga people to an izsecha, and other pokazn execution злою". On Danube Ivan Rostislavich on the Berladi area also got a nickname of Berladnik" 1. Details of these events also became a subject of consideration of the present article.

Actually, this subject interested me in the course of acquaintance to the composition of the wonderful Russian historian of church of professor of the Moscow spiritual academy Sergey Ivanovich Smirnov (1879-1916) "As devotees of ancient Russia" 2 served the world. In general the feather of this wonderful Russian researcher and confessor possesses a set of the most interesting works on Orthodoxy history in Russia which - we will hope! - still will become property of wide circles of scientific and Orthodox community, still will find interested chitatelya3. But in this case the speech not about this scientist, and about one of characters of his work. and, in particular, my attention was drawn by a mention with S.I. Smirnov Ivan Berladnik

>- interesting and rather mysterious personality with whose name some drama events of ancient history of our earth are connected. Moreover, almost detective story when in the 60th of the 19th century the famous Moldavian historian, the writer and philologist Bogdan Petricheyku Hashdeu tried to udrevnit the history of the Moldavian statehood is connected with this name, having connected it with so-called berlad-nicknames and "having composed" for this purpose the historical document - "Ivan Berladnik's Diploma" 4, proving, allegedly, existence of a certain Moldavian-Slavic state in a river basin Byrlad in the territory of future Moldavian principality in the 12th century. It is interesting that the valid existence during some period of the Old Russian Berladsky principality still is recognized Karpato-dunaysky lands some historians as quite admissible opportunity in the form of the certain Slavic enclave which is cut off from Slavic peoples bulk like Tmutarakansky tsarstva5.

But we will return to a research of the historian of church S.I. Smirnov. He mentions a name of Berladnik in the following context: "The appeal to mercy, protection for unfortunate convicts, pechalova-ny Russian monks considered the business. Abbots of the Kiev monasteries pechalutsya before the grand duke Svyatopolk for the unfortunate prince Vasilk Rostislavich as soon as learned about the dazzle threatening to Vasilk. Before the same Svyatopolk the metropolitan and abbots pechalutsya for the prince Yaroslav Yaropolkovich and beg to him for freedom. Metropolitan Konstantin and & #34; abbot вси" petition, and with success, before Yury Dolgorukiy for the prince-derelict Ivan Rostislavich

Berladnik to whom death threatened. Protection of the Reverend Varlaam Hutynsky saved life to one convicted criminal whom Novgorodians were going to dump from the bridge to Volkhov" 6.

Apparently, professor S.T. Smirnov mentions the petition of the metropolitan Konstantin and all abbots before the prince Yury Dolgorukiy for the disgraced prince-derelict Ivan Berladnik. The speech in this case goes about the following episode. Yury Dolgorukiy who is finally approved in Kiev, needing the help of the son-in-law Yaroslav Vladimirovich Galitsky, agreed to give it his competitor and the enemy Berladnik. Ivan was seized in Suzdal and brought in fetters to Kiev where its ambassadors from Yaroslav with big team waited. But the clergy opposed this treacherous act; the metropolitan and all abbots told Yury: "It is guilty to you, tselovavsh a cross, to keep Ivan in such need moreover now you want to give it on murder". Yury obeyed, did not give Berladnik to galichana, and sent him back to Suzdal in fetters. But Izyaslav Davydovich Chernigovsky, having learned that Berladnik is carried to Suzdal again, sent to intercept it on the road and to bring to sebe7. Izyaslav Davydovich Chernigovsky's people beat off from yuryevsky servants of Ivan Rostislavich and transport him to Chernihiv (1157). Acting through Berladnika Izyaslav probably wanted to have a stronghold against ambitious aspirations of Yaroslav Galitsky and more all other princes patronized Ivan of Ro-stislavichu8.

Why the Russian clergy interceded for the disgraced prince-derelict before Yury Dolgorukiy, it is difficult to tell. This uneasy prince who was bringing together all dissatisfied fugitives called then brodnik in territories of the Southern Russia between Dniester and the Carpathians, and driving them in military campaigns from the Byrlad River on Russian lands together with steppe nomads hardly caused hot sympathy in clergy. In any case, its allied relations with Cumans whom he used for fight against the cousin of the powerful galitsky prince Yaroslav Osmo-mysl at Yury Dolgorukiy's approval could not have supports of Russian Orthodox Church. Apparently, the clergy in this case just tried to prevent a terrible sin to which Yury Dolgorukiy was ready to go, - perjury moreover interfaced to murder though violent, but nevertheless unfairly offended and humiliated Russian prince that could not be approved or allowed by orthodox consciousness of contemporaries at all.

But that for the personality there was Ivan Rostislavovich Berladnik and what pages were added by this bright figure to the history of our lands, in

history medieval Ponizya, we still should learn. Though, to be fair, it should be noted that its rough activity found the reflection and in the Russian chronicles, and in works of classics of the Russian historical thought - V.N. Tatishchev, N.M. Karamzin, S.M. Solovyov, V.O. Klyuchevsky, N.I. Kostomarov, etc., and in works of the Ukrainian, Moldavian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian and other historians of various countries, schools and the directions. And it is not accidental: questions of history of many territories and the people are connected with this remarkable figure of Old Russian history. Including lands Ponizya which part was a modern territory of the Republic of Moldova and the Dnestr Moldavian Republic in those days, partly - and Romania. Let's leaf through these pages and we.

Ivan Rostislavich Berladnik (apprx. 1120-1161) came from the family of Ryurik dynasty, in particular, of princes Peremyshlsky and Galitsky. Rostislav Volodarevich Peremyshlsky (mind.1129) was his father, Volodar Rostislavich Peremyshlsky (mind.1124) was a grandfather, Rostislav Vladimirovich Peremyshlsky (1038-1066), the great-great-grandfather - Vladimir Yaroslavich Ryurikovich (1020-1052)9 was a great-grandfather. From the father Berladnik inherited the city of Zvenigorod (Galitsky) which was located on the left coast of Dniester between Sered's mouths and Zbrucha. Possibly, it could apply for bigger destiny, but was forced to suffer of similar "deprivations" for a variety of reasons. In Zvenigorod he safely governed from 1129 to 1145, hiding the discontent with the brother of the father, i.e. own uncle Vladimirko Volodarevich Galitsky who it is illegal, according to Berladnik, usurped a galitsky throne, without wishing to share with the nephew "on justice".

the fact is that Vladimirko Volodarevich Galitsky at first was a prince Zvenigorod since 1124 when his father Volodar died and he sat down on reigning, and then when in 1129 his brother Rostislav died, it took Peremyshl to itself(himself), and gave to the nephew Ivan Rostislavich Zvenigorod. In one and a half decades the cousin of Vladimirk Ivan Vasilkovich dies, and since 1141 by the right of Vladimirko's inheritance Terebovl and Galich on Dniester borrows. Association in some hands of all Galitsky earth became a main goal of policy of the prince Vladimirko. He helps the powerful grand duke Vsevolod Olgovich, Oleg Svyatoslavich's son, with his fight against the Volynsk prince Izyaslav Mstislavich, but in several years, in 1144 precipitately went with it to an obvious gap and adjoined his enemy Izyaslav Mstislavich. In turn Vsevolod Olgovich two times went with the army to the Galitsky earth and both times brought the galitsky prince to a desperate situation. However resourceful Vla-

dimirko Volodarevich every time paid off with rich gifts. Through Vsevolodov the brother Igor to whom he promised the support in occupation of the Kiev throne if he helps it to reconcile with the brother, Vladimirko not only did not lose the throne in Galich, but also strengthened ego10.

When Vladimirko got beaten by Vsevolod, many influential citizens of Galich who were not loving the prince decided that suitable hour for change of the power came. They also invite to Galich to reign the Zvenigorod prince Ivan Rostislavich. And here, winter of 1144 when Vladimirko Volodarevich goes to hunting, residents of Galich appeal to Ivan to come to reign to them. Long the last had not to be persuaded. It goes with small team to Galich, and citizens joyfully open before it gate, having let in the city of the competitor of the galitsky prince. So Ivan Rostislavich becomes a prince Galitsky. But its board was short and unhappy.

Having learned about unexpected stab in the back from own nephew, Vladimirko Volodarevich resolutely set the team to Galich. He besieged the city and three weeks mercilessly fought with his defenders. However citizens did not concede and did not give up on favor of the prince expelled by them. Moreover, citizens with success made guerrilla sorties in a camp of the enemy, bringing a distemper and panic in Vladimirk's shelves. Also it is unknown, than all this story would end, but one night impatient Ivan decided to make personally a fighting sortie in a camp of the enemy. Having been fond of hazardous operation, he went too far to the country, and Vladimirk's troops cut off Ivan's team from city gate. In a desperate fight with regiments of the uncle the aggressive nephew lost the most part of the team, but managed to escape from an environment and to run. First he appears on Danube, near the Byrlad River, and then, having passed the Prut, Dniester, the Southern Bug, he steppes goes to Dnieper to Kiev. Ivan lost, thus, not only Galich, but also the Zvenigorod destiny. From this point also vagabond life of this enterprising and courageous prince-derelict, the first Russian nayemnika11 begins.

As the corresponding member of Imperial Moscow archaeological society V.K. Guldman described at the beginning of the last century its adventurous epic, "Ivan Rostislavich at first appears in the Moldavian city of Berlade which at that time served as a brothel for all refugees - princes and ordinary people, - thanks to the frequent intercourses with which the prince Ivan Rostislavich also received Berladnik's name. Following 1145 Berladnik appears already at the irreconcilable enemy Vladimirk - the prince of the Kiev Vsevolod. In the following

1146 it is in team of the brother Vsevolod of book of Svyatoslav Olgovich; then, counting on support to return itself destiny, appears as the sluzhily prince in Chernihiv, in Smolensk, in Suzdali, at one time - even in Novgorod, again in Kiev" 12.

More than ten years the prince Ivan with team of the turncoats taken in Berlada on Russian lands wandered. Arriving on service to different princes and being involved in their infinite intestine wars and quarrels, he unsuccessfully looked for the strong ally and the patron by means of whom he could return himself a princely table in Galich. Neither Svyatoslav Olgovich in 1146, nor Yury Dolgorukiy in 1149 did not become him a reliable support. And Ivan Rostislavich did not differ in diligence and fidelity to the patrons. When princes Vladimir and Izyaslav Davydovichi and Izyaslav Mstislavich drove Svyatoslav Olgovich into vyatichsky forests, Berladnik who took beforehand from Svyatoslav 200 hryvnias of silver and 12 hryvnias of gold passed to Rostislav Mstis-lavich Smolensky. A V.N. Tatishchev in general considered that it just selected money at Svyatoslava13. Not so Ivan Ro-stislavich and in service to Yury Dolgorukiy was diligent. The Suzdal prince sent him to the Dwin earth to intercept the Novgorodians collecting a tribute in the remote northern areas. But Ivan did not manage to make it. According to chronicles, Novgorodians beat off, having shed a lot of blood from both storon14.

Only the Chernihiv prince Izyaslav Davydovich tried to combat Vladimirk's son, one of the strongest Old Russian princes Yaroslav Osmomysl, the prince Galitsky, trying to approve the princely rights of Ivan Rostislavich for Galich, but it is vain. The team of berladsky turncoats personally devoted to the leader and the leader was simply not able to overcome his enemies and to help to climb up a desired throne. This team eventually could not even protect the prince Ivan plainly. As soon as Yury Dolgorukiy felt severe need in the allied relations with the brother galitsky prince Yaroslav Osmomysl, he conceived "to fasten" this union originally - to give Ivan Rostislavich to the galitsky prince on a fierce execution. From Suzdal by order of the prince Yury Ivan delivered to Kiev in shackles, and galitsky ambassadors with well armed team were already ready to bring him to destination. And not team of berladnik, but the word of orthodox priests saved life to the uneasy prince-derelict.

In 1157 on a feast at the Kiev boyar Petril Yury Vladimirovich Dolgorukiy was poisoned. A after his death the Kiev residents hating the grand duke excited a rebellion. Ivan spends some time in Kiev at the patron Izyaslav Davydovich. Here, on

freedom, he could communicate freely with dissatisfied with the prince of a galichanama, spin networks of skillful intrigues, prepare plots against the galitsky prince. The fact is that features of political life of Galich and another similar to it the cities on Dniester and in general in red Russia assumed instability and in small degree ensured princely safety in a capital hail. These features were noted still by researchers of the 19th century: "So, in all major cases deystvovatel are boyars; they call princes, they make plots, occupy management of the earth in the hands, etc., and citizens are silent or are in a passive role of adherents of the highest estate, performers of its outlines; that value which kept the population in Kiev where boyars seemed newcomers because with the new prince also new boyars were entirely passed this value in Galich to the boyars important on the wealth and that influence which they constantly kept over the people thanks to the positions. The national weight provided to itself out-of-pocket, without leader, of course, had to be divided into parts and be inclined on the party of any given boyar" 15.

Naturally, in these conditions existence in Kiev of the whole nest of conspirators could not but disturb Yaroslav and as the chronicler speaks, he began to look for the cousin Ivan. In 1158 Yaroslav managed to obtain the consent of all Russians and Polish princes and also the Hungarian king not to give to Ivan any support and to combine efforts for his capture. However, Izyaslav Davydovich Chernihiv still firmly protected Ivan Rostislavich. When ambassadors of almost all Russians and the Polish princes together with the ambassador of the Hungarian king demanded to give them the disgraced prince, he resolutely refused of

Ivan Rostislavich did not begin to push luck once again. In 1158 he flees Kiev to the steppe, to Cumans. Having appeared around a river basin Byrlad with the new allies again, the prince-derelict was engaged on Danube in robbery of galitsky merchant ships. This occupation was to the taste not only to Cumans, but also the subjects "berladnikam" which knew it and remembered on last adventures when it for the first time appeared here, having avoided death under walls of Galich. Seeing as the number of a host of his adherents in the eyes grows, Ivan Rostislavich decides to conduct "berladnik" to Galich to expel from there the worst enemy and the cousin Yaroslav Vladimirovich (Osmomysl). Several intercepted vessels on Danube belonging to galitsky merchants supplied Ivan Rostislavich with good production and attracted in his ranks up to six thousand berladnik, such

the restless, unfortunate and expelled from the houses tramps - galitsky brodnik what was also him. A considerable part of this ill-matched host was made by the nomads Cumans counting in another adventure of the galitsky derelict it is good to profit due to robbery.

From the Danube and Carpathian lands the troops of berladnik moved to Dniester. Moving ahead upstream the rivers, they could occupy the city of Kuchelminu. But at a siege of galitsky fortress of Ushits on the left coast of Dniester the berladnik faced the desperate resistance of the garrison which was remaining faithful to the prince Yaroslav. And only treachery of several hundred smerd which came over to the side of berladnik opened for Ivan a real opportunity to storm the city. By the way, what "smerda" in the city are? According to the Russian historian S.M. Solovyov, the word "smerda" in this context of the chronicle is treated as opposition of city common people to boyars and organized army of the prince. He writes: "... We think that here has to understand under smerda of ordinary people, black, common people or even in general all citizens contrary to team; so, under 1152 it is readable that Ivan Berladnik besieged the galitsky city of Ushitsu where there ascended the ambush of the prince Yaroslav and fought strong, but smerda began to jump through wall visors to Ivan, and ran across their 300 people; here smerda - Ushitsa's inhabitants protivopolagatsya to an ambush, team princely: the last fought strong against Berladnik, and smerda were run across to him" 16.

But also in the ranks of attackers there was no unity. For some reason the prince-derelict did not allow Cumans to plunder the city. It upset plans of Cumans, and they angry and embittered on the leader, left back home on Dunay17. With the army rest Ivan Berladnik in 1159 comes to Kiev to Izyaslav Davydovich occupying then a grand-ducal throne in a capital hail. Izyaslav addresses Yaroslav Osmomysl with the requirement to provide to Ivan Berladnik the relying destiny but caused on fight by the galitsky prince he lost also own destiny, and then died.

By the way, having occupied after Monomakhovich's death of Yury Dolgorukiy by the right of seniority a grand-ducal table in Kiev, Izyaslav had to concede the Chernihiv table to the younger relative, the cousin Svyatoslav Olgovich, the prince Novgorod-Seversk, but gave it not all principality but only Chernihiv and seven more cities. Gathering in a campaign against Yaroslav Osmomysl, he called to himself in Svyatoslav's help and, having been refused, threatened: "Look, the brother! When God willing, I cope in Galich, then do not expostulate on me as you from Chernihiv back to Novgorod Seversk will spread

mu". And here Svyatoslav's answer is interesting to our subject to the brother, the Kiev prince: "My God, you see my humility how many I renounced the, not though to pour blood Christian, to ruin the fatherland; I took the city of Chernihiv with seven other cities and that empty: there live in them psar yes Cumans" 18. With a population outflow from Kievan Rus', thus, economic decline of Chernihiv, Lyubecha and other ancient richest and prosperous cities of the Dnieper Bank clearly was outlined.

In this regard V.O. Klyuchevsky explains to

with a population outflow on the West "one important phenomenon in the Russian ethnography, exactly, formation of the Little Russian tribe". He writes that the population outflow stream from the Dnieper Bank "went to the West, to the Western Bug, to the area of Upper Dniester and the Top Vistula, deep into Galicia and Poland. So the South Russian population from the Dnieper Bank came back to the forgotten places left by his ancestors in the 7th century long ago. Outflow traces in this party are found in the fate of two okrayny principalities, Galitsky and Volynsky. By the situation in political hierarchy of the Russian areas these principalities belonged to number of younger. The Galitsky principality, one of the princes, allocated, orphan by genealogical situation, belonging to one of younger lines of Yaroslavov of a sort already in the second half of the 12th century becomes one of the strongest and influential in the southwest: the prince opens it gate to Kiev as speaks & #34; Word about regiment Igoreve" about Yaroslav Osmomysl. Since the end of the 12th century, at princes Roman Mstislavovich who annexed Galicia to the Volhynia and his son Danila, the connected principality considerably grows, densely becomes populated, his princes quickly grow rich, despite internal distempers, dispose of affairs of Southwest Russia and Kiev; The chronicle calls Roman & #34; autocrat of all Russian земли"" 19.

as for Berladnik, having been left without the most part of the army, having experienced the death of the only patron, the Chernihiv prince Izyaslav beaten, and then and killed by Yaroslav Osmomysl, Ivan Rostislavich decides to go to Greece. And endured crash of business of all the life probably it was not terrible to him who realized all hopelessness of attempts to set in in Galich to find death in Thessaloniki (Soluna) in 1161 (according to other data, in 1162). According to the legend recorded by the chronicler, this prince was poisoned yadom20.

The fate of the son Berladnik, the prince Rostislav who, without having the family, lived at the prince Smolensk David is not less dramatic and sad. Citizens of Galich where then the Hungarian king's son of An - ruled

came to Smolensk to Rostislav Ivanovich in 1183

a tray (Andras), the son of the king Béla III who ground in a dungeon of Vladimir Yaroslavich who was looking for at it protection against willfulness of galitsky boyars. Guests suggested the prince Rostislav to occupy a galitsky throne, having expelled from the principality hated all the Hungarian newcomers. Rostislav brought together small team and immediately went to Galich. Two boundary cities in the principality accepted its party at once.

But under walls of Galich Rostislav encounters fierce resistance not only from Hungarians. As it turned out, not all citizens wish to see it the prince. Combatants, Rostislav's friends advised it to return to Smolensk, having been realistic about a situation. But the prince Rostislav Ivanovich answered what already bored him to wander on others lands and he wishes to lay down life on the otchena. After that he rushed in the thick of galitsky and Hungarian regiments, was hit from a horse, covered with wounds and half-dead is brought by inhabitants in the city. Here, in Galich, Rostislav died as wished, "laid down on the otchena beside the ancestors" 21.

The famous Soviet researcher academician M.N. Tikhomirov in one of the basic researches on the history of Old Russian statehood saw in all epic by the prince-derelict and his son not just accidental collisions in the fate of a picturesque figure of the burned adventurer. He stated very deep judgments of how this story reflected real conditions of fight for the city privileges of the nobility, boyars, princes and a city veche. "Galitsky citizens,

>- Tikhomirov writes, - were ready to support the junior prince Ivan Rostislavich Berladnik as opposed to his uncle Vladimirk. It is very probable that such support proceeded not from all citizens in general, and from the certain circles seeing the defender of interests of democratic population groups in Ivan. Not without reason during Ushitsa's siege Ivan Berladnik smerda jumped through a city wall to his camp, "and ran across them 300".

Accidental news of the berladnik who received the name from the city of Berlada or Byrlata, in the south of Moldova, allow to see in them predecessors of the latest brodnik. Among them there had to be runaway lackeys, smerda, the ruined citizens. Thus, the arrangement of smerd to Berladnik is not accidental as also special hatred of the senior princes to it is not accidental. Not without reason Yury Dolgorukiy treated Ivan as the criminal, kept him in fetters and was ready to give him on punishment to Yaroslav. Still earlier against Ivan Rostislavich the whole coalition of princes was created. Yaroslav Galitsky "podmolvit princes of Russians and the king (it is necessary to understand, Hungarian) and the Polish princes that there were to him assistants on Ivan". This association of princes is explained by the general fear before

Berladnik as head of the movement of city and rural bottoms. Chronicles ominously speak about the fate of the prince-berladnika, giving the chance to assume that his death in the foreign land was caused by a poison, "others so say that from a poison there was to him death" 22.

The famous Russian historian, the writer and the journalist, the publisher of the well-known magazine "Moskovsky Telegraph" of N.A. Poleva in the three-volume thorough research "History of the Russian People" which was issued at the beginning of the 30th of the 19th century, describes a story with calling in Rostislav Ivanovich's princes as follows: "It was Berladnik's son, Rostislav... This young man lived in Smolensk and heard that there are also his adherents in Galich still remembering unfortunate Berladnik. With small team Rostislav wanted to solve a victory speed and courage. He would also be in time, maybe, but Andrey was active, met him with strong army and forced to fight. Sorrowfully Rostislav saw that recognized him are not. & #34; God the judge that who called me and deceived; but it is better to die, than to wander in the foreign land as my father and I, & #34 wandered; - he told and began fight. Mortally wounded his Hungarians took and brought to Galich. The young men touched by an unfortunate fate to the galichena became agitated. Andrey ordered to appease them and to save him from the son Berladnikov. Put a poison to Rostislav's wounds and showed to the people a dead body it. Galichane calmed down, concealed disappointment" 23. Especially as Vladimir Yaroslavich, Yaroslav Osmomysl's son, soon ran from the Hungarian prison where he was ground according to the decision of the father Andrey Iyerusalimsky, the Hungarian king Béla, and then, having secured with support of the German emperor Friedrich Barbarossa, together with Poles approached with team walls of Galich. Citizens rebelled and began to cut Hungarians in revenge for disrespect for orthodox religion and standards of morality. Vladimir Yaroslavich set in in Galich again.

Galichane did not love his grandfather, the prince Vladimirk. This is true, but matter not only in it. Galichane from the very beginning, apparently, were dissatisfied with Vladimirk's reigning and during a campaign Olgo-vichey to Galich in 1144 forced it to begin with them negotiations. Galitsky citizens showed the attitude towards Vladimirk the same year. Having used absence of the prince, "sent to the galichena for Ivan Rostislavich to Zvenigorod and entered it to themselves into Galich". Vladimirko besieged three weeks Galich and fought with Ivan, did not cut off the last from the city yet and did not force to run for Danube. But also after that citizens "fought all week for Ivan with Volodymyr".

Citizens only "нужею" gave up in hands of Vladimirk who made over them rough handling. Intercourses of galitsky citizens

with Ivan Berladnik proceeded and further. In 1159 they sent to Ivan to propose on war: "Only you will show banners, and we will recede from Yaroslav". Later "galitsky men" communicated with his son Rostislav of Ivanovichem24.

Good attitude galichan to Berladnik reports about bloodthirstiness of Vladimirk who "swam in blood" residents of Galich and, referring to the Kiev chronicle, and N.M. Karamzin: "The brother Vladimirkov, Rostislav, left the son by a name of Ioann nicknamed Berladnik from which the uncle took away lawful inheritance: this young man lived in Zvenigorod and got love of the people. Using absence of Vladimirk who went to Tismenitsa for animal catching, to the galichena called for themselves Ioann and unanimously declared the prince. Angry Vladimirko started the city. Inhabitants resisted courageously; but Ioann in a night sortie was cut off from city gate: broke through through enemies, went to Danube and, at last, to Kiev. Galichane were given. Inclined more to severity, than to mercy, Vladimirko swam in their blood and with disappointment heard that the grand duke took his nephew under protection as innocently persecuted" 25.

By the way, on an episode with Rostislav Ivanovich, Berladnik's son, the famous historian of the Russian right V.I. Sergeevich in the master thesis "A veche and the prince paid attention in the middle of the 19th century. The Russian state system and management at the time of Ryurik dynasty". He notes that in Rostislav's invitation to a galitsky throne in 1159 "two layers of galitsky society are .yasno distinguished: boyars (galitsky men) and just - participation in calling of the prince not only the first which very early stood apart in strong estate which value cannot be called in question, but also the last" 26 is also shown to the galichena. In other words, attempts of citizens of Galich again to invite to a princely table of Rostislav Ivanovich inherently were attempts to revive value of veche elements in public life and restrictions of ever-increasing value of seigniorial oligarchy. These attempts, as well as in a case with Ivan Berladnik, encountered the rigid resistance of boyars and princes, both domestic, and overseas.

In these conditions of the becoming tougher fight between social groups feodalizirovavshegosya society the orthodox church did not occupy as we see, an accurate and unambiguous position of support of one of forces and suppression of other, democratic forces as it was tried to be presented sometimes in an atheistic historiography of Soviet period. Priests acted rather as the constraining, stabilizing beginning which tried to hold the warring parties reaching in mutual fight running wild and an ozvereniye within moral standards and morality.

And here we cannot but agree with an important conclusion of the great Russian historian S.M. Solovyov which, describing rescue by the metropolitan Konstantin of Ivan Berladnik and other similar evidence of huge value of clergy for the political and moral life of people and its various classes, cites words of the metropolitan Nikifor who told, warning hostility between Rurik Rostislavich and Vsevolod III: "Prince! We are put in the Russian land from god to keep you from bloodshed!" And further the historian notices: "That century when concepts about the national right were weak, and were not ashamed to kill or detain ambassadors if their speeches were not pleasant, ambassadors ecclesiastics because it was less possible to be afraid for them at universal respect to their dignity ordinary went.

In people of the described time it is not difficult to notice special arrangement and respect for monkhood; the respect it was got by right by ancient Russian monks, especially monks of the Kyiv Pechersk monastery, the feats. In society of that time, rough, on-luyazychesky still in which the new, best concepts brought by Christianity encountered powerful resistance the first monasteries represented special, society where a new order of things, the new religion was preached not only by a word, but also business.... Entering monastic gate, the layman moved to other, highest world where everything was wonderful where his mind was blown by marvelous legends on feats inochesky, miracles, visions, about the supernatural help in fight against evil spirit; it is no wonder that the monastery attracted to itself many and best people" 27.

1. B.A. Rybakov. Kievan Rus' and Russian principalities of HP-HSh of centuries of M., 1982. Page 510.
2. S.I. Smirnov. As devotees of Ancient Russia served the world. Moscow diocesan sheets. No. 6-8. 2003.
3. The confessor in the ancient Eastern Church (dukhovnichestvo history in the east). Part 1, 2. Sergiyev Posad, 1906; Old Russian confessor. Research on history of church life. M, 1914. With additional volume "Materials for the History of Old Russian Penitential Discipline"; Vodokreshch. Materials for history of Epiphany ceremonies in Ancient Russia. Sergiyev Posad, 1900; The Celebration of Easter in Ancient Russia. Additions to Church Sheets, 1900, No. 15-16; The Holiday of the Baptism of the Lord in Ancient Russia. Additions to Church Sheets. 1901. No. 1; As fasted in Ancient

Russia? Additions to Church Sheets. 1901. No. 9 8, 9, 10; As devotees of Ancient Russia served the world. Theological Messenger. 1903. No. 3, 4; Life of the Reverend Daniil, Pereyaslavsky wonder-worker. The story about finding of relics and its miracles. M, 1908, etc.

4. N.A. Mokhov. Moldova feudalism eras. Chisinau, 1964. Page 82-84. A.I. Sobolevsky. Diploma of the prince Ivan Rostislavich Berladnik of 1134. In prince: Works US of the Archaeological congress. T. 2. M, 1895; Tolochko of Subparagraphs 1storichsh portrait. Kiev, 1990.
5. The Tmutarakansky kingdom was the Old Russian principality at the end of X - the beginning of the 12th century and existed on Taman Peninsula, was cut off by Cumans from other Slavic massif and stopped the existence after long wars with Cumans and the Byzantine empire.
6. S.I. Smirnov. Decree. soch. The author refers at the same time to the message of the Ipatyevsky chronicle of 1157
7. Konstantin Ryzhov. All monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 short biographies. M, 1990. See also: http://mterpretive.m/dictþmry/454/word/%C8% C2%C0%CD+ %D0%CE%D1%D2%C8%D1%CB%C0%C2%C8%D7+ %C1%E 5%F0%EB%E0%E4%ED%E8%EA/
8. Encyclopedia Wikipedia.Иван_Ростисла-вович
9. E.V. Pchelov Ryurik dynasty. Dynasty history. M, 2001.
10. Brockhaus and Efron. Encyclopedic dictionary. Biographies. T. 3. M, 1993. Page 411, 512.
11. Konstantin Ryzhov. All monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 short biographies. Moscow, 1999.
12. V.K. Guldman. Ancient monuments in Podoliya (Materials for drawing up the archaeological map of the Podolsk province). Kamyanets-Podilsky, 1901. Page 128. Of course, about any "Moldavian city of Berlade" in those days and the speech was not - Moldavians these lands began to occupy two centuries after (a bus comment - N.B.).
13. Konstantin Ryzhov. Decree soch.
14. M. Smirnov. The fate of red or Galitsky Russia before its connection with Poland. SPb, 1860. Page 118-119.
16. S.M. Solovyov Istoriya Russia since the most ancient times. In fifteen books. Book III. T. 3-4. M, 1960. Page 35.
17. V.K. Guldman. Decree. soch. Page 128.
18. V.O. Klyuchevsky. Course of the Russian history. Part 1. Soch. T. I. M, 1956. Page 282.
19. V.O. Klyuchevsky. Decree. soch. Page 284.
20. V.K. Guldman. Decree. soch. Page 108.
21. In the same place.
22. M.N. Tikhomirov. Old Russian cities. M, 1956. Page 208.
23. Poleva Nikolay. History of the Russian people. T. 2. M, 1997. Page 90.
24. M.N. Tikhomirov. Decree. soch. Page 109-110.
25. N.M. Karamzin. History of the state Russian. In 12 volumes. T. M. P-highway, 1991. Page 123.
26. Sergeyevich V.I. Veche and prince, M., 1867. Page
27. S.M. Solovyov. Decree. soch. Page 63.

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