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Sovietization of the Russian teaching in days of the New Economic Policy

str. 1 of 9 N.G. Katz

SOVIETIZATION of the RUSSIAN TEACHING in days of the New Economic Policy

The future of democracy in Russia depends not only on modernization of its economy, but also and from an intensification of the human factor demanding that each citizen well understood the role in free democratic society and was ready to realization of ideals of democracy in real life. [1]

The Russian education system, including secondary education, still should play a special role in development of this human factor. Today it is represented especially important to find a way which will help to turn the Russian school into the real tool of democratic society. Already in the near future the present school students studying today fundamentals of ethics and policy will become the adult citizens responsible for the future of democracy and for economic development of the country. However despite the extensive experience accumulated by the Russian school in the 20th century and also ardent desire of younger generation to study how to live in free society, the existing tradition and conservatism of thinking of a part of teachers often create difficulties in realization of problems of democratic education. Many teachers who received preparation and there are a lot of years worked in the Soviet education system, not only are not capable to training in thinking which is demanded by technologies of a new era, but also do not see ways to realization of problems of democratic education. Besides stereotypes of Cold War continue to live in minds of a part of teaching.

The beginning of the new millennium appeared hard time not only for Russian, but also for the American education system. The former democratic U.S. Administration sounded the alarm concerning a deplorable situation at schools, the low level of knowledge of many pupils and inability of a part of teachers to provide any serious level of training. The republican Administration of the President of J. Bush discusses the prospect of change of an order of financing (up to closing of the schools which are not coping with the solution of pedagogical tasks), introductions of special tests for identification of unskilled teachers. There is a discussion and the rights of parents for the translation of the child to another, including private, school and on obtaining the special voucher covering a part of cost for training.

Today both in Russia, and interest in studying historical experience of national education of the different countries grows in the USA. Historians are not the astrologers trying to predict future. They try to analyze today and lessons of the past to help society to find the correct ways to the desirable tomorrow. The thoughtful historical analysis can help to avoid too expensive past mistakes. In it probably the role of historical knowledge in life of society also consists.

The present article is devoted to the history of the Soviet school in the 1920th years. Process of involvement by Bolshevik party of one of groups of the pre-revolutionary intellectuals, teaching, in the wide program of social, political and pedagogical reforms, in participation in promotion of socialist ideology and also in fight against illiteracy is covered in it. The analysis of work of Bolshevik party with teaching considered in article allows to understand better broader processes of creation of the new, Soviet intellectuals. Though the first steps on the cultural front were taken in work at once after the October revolution and continued in the years of Civil war, the real influence of revolution on intellectual life of the country began to be felt only during 1920 - 1922, and systematic work was developed only in days of the New Economic Policy. [2]

In article issues of Sovietization of education on the basis of studying big group of the teachers working at schools of Petrograd and the Petrograd province in 1921 - 1928 are analyzed. The American historiography calls these years "the romantic period" in the history of the Soviet school when for the first time the problem of mastering knowledge was openly subordinated to political education of younger generation. [3] At the beginning of the New Economic Policy the Soviet state developed the concept of training which included the idea of creation of uniform labor school and polytechnic education of youth and also stimulated revolutionary experiments in pedagogics. Already by the end of the 20th the Bolshevik party gradually refused such experimenting. Revolutionary approach to issues of formation of Narkompros replaced with an evolutionary transformizm. [4] The power followed a way of development and application of the all-Russian school programs, got back to the idea of strict control over national education and refused any experiments in this area, having put forward a task

education of the new person. As J. Beredey writes, before eyes of the amazed world were developed the picture reminding that there was in the well-known novel by J. Orwell "A farm of animals". [5]

A turning point in the fate of all Russian intelligentsia of the 20th century was October military takeover and establishment of dictatorship of Bolsheviks in Russia. Creation of conditions for expansion of socialist construction became one of priorities for the new power. Its decision, among other things, demanded creation of an educational system and training of the educated and qualified personnel convinced of socialism victory. Proceeding from it, Narkompros of RSFSR under the leadership of A.V. Lunacharsky developed the principles of uniform labor school.

It was necessary to win fight for the management of teacher's weight against the All-Russian teacher's union (VUSOM) trying to turn teaching against the Soviet power. [6] In December, 1918 VUS was dismissed, and in the summer of 1919 the All-Russian labor union of workers of education (Union of Rabpros) which was turned into mass organization of teaching of the city and village was created.

Considering a question of work with teaching, Narkompros in 1919 noted that the soil for re-education of the intellectuals are new, more active, forms of its work at labor school, in agricultural communes, at socialist factories and the plants, in creation of the main foundations of new labor society. [7]

The political and economic chaos reigning in the country in the years of Civil war had negative consequences for all system of national education. Level of illiteracy was terrible. Thousands of potential pupils lost parents and turned into homeless children. Many school buildings were destroyed, there were no textbooks and the paper, there were not enough also teachers. Some former teachers left Russia from the remains of white armies. Other big group of pre-revolutionary teachers, trying to live somehow, left schools. The special shortage of teachers was felt in villages. The problem of qualification and ideology of those who worked at school was not less sharp for Bolshevik party. In 1920, for example, 56.3% of teachers of Petrograd had only 5 years of an experience, other 43.7% were so-called old teachers - those who began to work at schools before revolution. [8]

The party and Soviet layer among the Petrograd teaching was small too. So, in 1923 at schools of the city among 19,749 teachers there were only 543 party members that made only 2.7%. [9] Most of teachers remained are passive and are even hostile to the Soviet power, and were also such who did not want to recognize Bolshevist revolution as the come true fact at all. The Petrograd teacher Filatov told delegates of one of pedagogical forums in December

1924 that for his many colleagues teaching at school - "one party of reality, and the Soviet power

>- another". [10]

Bodies of the Soviet power sought to reveal such teachers and to replace with young teachers from workers and peasants. It was also necessary to help those who were ready to cooperation, to be prepared for work in new conditions, for the solution of problems of communistic education of youth.

Such situation with teaching at the beginning of the New Economic Policy was characteristic of the whole country in general. In 1922 Glavsotsvos - Narkompros's management responsible for issues of social education of youth, - published several instructions regulating employment of new teachers. Glavsotsvos demanded that everyone who filled out the questionnaire for reception for pedagogical work would be sent to Commission of experts. Such commissions were quickly organized at each regional and provincial department of national education. Despite shortage some competent people ready to come to school and to teach children to write and read, identification of politically unreliable teachers was a main objective of Commissions of experts. From January 30 to June 1, 1923 through the Petrograd provincial commission of experts there passed 1,136 candidates for teacher's positions, and only 28% from them were allowed to teaching. [11]

According to Glavsotsvos's recommendations, local commissions of experts divided all pedagogical shots of the country into three groups: 1) the teacher with ideology and education which corresponded to problems of communistic education, 2) the teachers demanding ideological "re-education" and professional retraining, 3) the "unreliable elements" demanding

"eradications" from schools. [12]

The vast majority of teaching was carried to the second group demanding systematic retraining and "re-education". Narkompros, defining the prospects of work with teaching, decided to open local advanced training courses, to clear schools of all unreliable and also to begin preparation new, Soviet, teachers, involving young workers and peasants in averages and the highest pedagogical educational institutions.

Bodies of Cheka - OGPU also actively revealed politically unreliable. In the mid-twenties arrested group of 25 teachers of the Leningrad schools - members of the underground organization "Voskreseniye". At meetings of this group, actions of retaliatory bodies were condemned, actions of the Soviet power were criticized, much and about "the Jewish domination" in Russia was told. The group represented the most conservatively conceiving anti-Semitic elements among the part of teaching hostile to the Soviet power. The group even published the underground newspaper which was called "Free voices" and planned the organization of the wide movement directed against communistic education of school students. [13]

Identification unreliable, of course, was not the dominating work form. Still before Narkompros adjusted systematic work among teachers, the local party and Soviet organizations and also departments of national education took the first steps in this direction. So, from November, 1920 to October, 1921 at Petrograd Podguch - the Department of training of teachers which organized short-term retraining of more than 6,400 teachers gubono worked. [14] In October, 1921 Podguch joined Department of professional education gubono.

In Petrograd gradually there was the whole system of various auxiliary institutions which rendered the methodical help to teachers. So, in 1921 10 biological research stations where first of all dealt with issues of developing the skills of teachers of biology already worked. [15] But courses of retraining were often badly organized, had no sufficient financing, and teachers complained of boredom and hobby for political affairs to the detriment of pedagogics and a technique. [16]

The plenum of the Central Committee of the Union of Rabpros in April, 1921 as the major task called fight against "neytralizm" and political apathy in the ranks of teaching. The big group of teachers was sent to the regional schools of political literacy opened by Glavpolitprosvet in the summer of 1921. [17] By the beginning of 1923 in the USSR about 440 such schools, 50 of which worked - in the Petrograd province. The curriculum of regional schools of political literacy recommended by Agitprop of RCP(b) on August 2, 1921 included the following disciplines:

Rudiments of natural sciences of 10 hours

From capitalism to communism of 14-16 hours

Constitution of RSFSR 6 hours

Organization of production 4 hours

Agriculture and

food question of 5 hours

Cooperation 4 hours

Social security and

health care 2 hours

Church and school 4 hours

History of revolution of Russia,

RCP(b) and Komintern of 12 hours Party program, its organization and structure 2 hours [18]

From the very beginning "socialist re-education" of teachers included not only providing them all-pedagogical and methodical knowledge, but also instilling of the necessary understanding of the role by it in the program of socialist transformation of the country. N.K. Krupskaya said that "politically not grounded" teachers who do not understand economy questions "are absolutely useless for new pedagogics". She wrote in the draft article "Criteria of Assessment of the Teacher": "The teacher has to be the social activist, the participant sots. constructions... Has to understand problems of communistic education and carry out them in practice" [19].

In the resolution of April 25, 1921 the Council of People's Commissars demanded that local advice helped offices of the Union of Rabpros to open Houses of workers of education and to turn them into the centers of political re-education of teaching. Management of all Houses of workers of education was performed of the Central Committee constant bureau of the Union of Rabpros. [20] To fall of 1924 175 such Houses which were used for ideological work among teachers worked in the country. [21] In Moscow the Central House of workers of education was open, and in each provincial center the acted. In Petrograd, for example, in the order of teachers was the building on Plekhanov Street, 2 where in 1922 - 1923 more than 100,000 teachers participated in various actions is transferred. On April 22

1925 . The house of workers of education moved to the palace on Moika belonging before revolution to the prince F. Yusupov. [22]

Since 1923, programs of all courses for city teachers surely included questions of political literacy. In July, 1923. The Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen opened summer courses to which gubono directed 73 teachers of high school of schools of Petrograd. Teachers with an experience made more than 10 years of them 50%, 39 teachers had the higher pedagogical education, 4 - the higher religious education, 15 - secondary pedagogical education, 11 finished only gymnasiums, and, at last, 4 were students of the highest pedagogical educational institutions. [23] At the beginning of the 20th such educational structure was typical for teachers of high school. According to the Central Committee of the Union of Rabpros, in July - September, 1923 in the country 78 provincial and 203 district courses and also 336 district circles for teachers worked. [24]

The re-education of rural teachers aiming at transformation of this big group of the rural intellectuals into propagandists of socialist ideology among broad country masses became even more difficult a solvable task for Bolshevik party. In the summer of 1923. Petrograd gubono opened 16 monthly courses for rural teachers. [25] The special commission gubono headed by L. Glavatsky developed more balanced programs for these courses. The curriculum of one-month advanced training courses of rural teachers included 152 hours and consisted of the following sections and objects:

1) Political part of 60 hours

>- Capitalism and labor movement in the west of 14 hours

>- Development of capitalism in Russia and revolutionary fight of the Russian proletariat of 12 hours

>- World War I and proletarian revolution in Russia 10 hours

>- From the New Economic Policy by socialism of 12 hours

>- The world after World War I. Komintern 2 hours

>- Marxism as Scientific Ideology of 10 hours

2) Pedagogical part

(for all listeners one course by a teaching technique) was 92 hours obligatory

>- Child and hygiene of 20 hours

>- Technique of training in Russian 24 hours

>- Technique of training in mathematics 24 hours

>- The technique of training in natural sciences and geography is 24 hours

>- A training technique at elementary school 24 hours

>- Content of school work is 14 hours

>- The organization of life of children at school and out of school of 10 hours [26]

But to many rural teachers it was not succeeded to reach courses because of agricultural works in which they participated to support themselves and also due to the lack of good roads, clothes and footwear. [27] The same who reached in the responses noted that classes were very useful to everyday school activity, and they would like to continue increase in the qualification. 128]

Issues of political re-education of teaching were widely discussed on the pages Pravdas, Izvestia, "The teacher's newspaper" and other periodicals.

In 1925 the issues of political self-education of teachers were discussed by the X congress of the Leningrad office of the Union of Rabpros which made the decision on creation of the Commission on political self-education of teachers of Leningrad. The commission opened a special office of political self-education at the House of workers of education. Even such popular forms of cultural work among teaching as excursions in historical and revolutionary places of Leningrad (in 1925/26 academic year 4,394 persons took part in them), were used for "re-education". [29]

Such political pressure upon teaching did not remain to

fruitless what the statements sounding from stands of pedagogical meetings confirm, in particular: "There was a time when teaching stood apart... But there passed time, the party threw down a challenge and friendly gave a hand, and teaching has to take part in the general work". [30]

Despite some exaggerations, such declarations reflected the desire growing among a part of teaching to better prepare themselves for work at the Soviet school. Ideology questions, of course, continued to dominate in all events held among teaching in the 20th. Nevertheless, the analysis of activity of local and provincial departments of national education allows to reveal the new trend in construction of the Soviet school shown to the middle of the 20th and directed to revolutionary change of a technique of teaching. This new movement in young Soviet pedagogics was not accidental. In the first years of the New Economic Policy when intellectual life in the country was rather free, many progressive teachers, such as Blonsky, Shatsky, Pinkevich, Pistrak and Krupenina, began implementation of experimental programs in national education. Besides it was the internationalization period in pedagogics when the best works of the western psychologists and teachers, including and American, many of which were followers of school of Freud, were translated into Russian and printed, despite difficulties with paper. Progressive teachers from Great Britain and the USA became constant guests of Narkompros and tried to help with creation

new training programs. [31]

Special fame in the Soviet Russia was gained by the ideas of the outstanding American teacher J. Divey, popular those years, and also training in "Dalton-planu" and "a method of projects". As the American historian F. Hechinger writes, the best representatives of this romantic period in the history of the Soviet pedagogics studied at the European and American colleagues to need to devote the researches to search of new, novel ways in training. [32]

While Narkompros, at the initiative of N.K. Krupskaya, supported the initiatives on a pedagogics field, new pedagogical methods not always successfully worked at the level of ordinary Soviet school of that time with its everyday economic and personnel problems. Most of city teachers preferred to learn as before, making use of experience at pre-revolutionary Russian school. Rural teachers found a new technique unusually difficult even for their own understanding. Trying to help teaching to master these methods, Narkompros hurried to publish programs at least for developing the skills of employees of preschool educational institutions, elementary and high schools and also pedagogical administration. The structure of these programs was the general and included two parts: pedagogical and socio-political. [33]

Since 1926/27 academic years, the so-called basic schools which had the pedagogical museums and libraries began to open. Responsibility for systematic retraining of teachers was conferred on them according to the programs developed by Narkompros now. [34] Course retraining with the uniform center - regional basic school - with insignificant modifications was approved across all territory of the USSR. At the beginning of 1928 in Moscow the Institute of Developing the Skills of Teachers (IDST), and on places - its offices which organized network of a correspondence course was open. This developed system of skills development existed actually till 1932 [35]

Noting positive changes in re-education of teachers, the IV plenum of the Central Committee of the Union of Rabpros (1928) stated end of the first period in retraining of pedagogical shots. The plenum specified in the decision that at the organization of political education of teachers it is necessary to answer the increased inquiries of teacher's masses. [36]

Thus, retraining became the important factor promoting "socialist re-education" of many old teachers. Another, not less stimulating factor, there was for them a collaboration with the young teachers from workers and peasants who came to schools after Civil war. The public activity and revolutionary enthusiasm of young people, their ardent desire to serve revolutionary pedagogics lit many old teachers the aspiration not to lag behind young colleagues. Besides, arrival to school of new teachers led to significant changes in social shape of the Russian teaching. These changes are clearly demonstrated by the following table:

A social origin of teachers in RSFSR (in %) [37]

1911 1926 from noblemen 9.6 - from peasants 36.2 51.6 of workers - 5.1 of the bourgeoisie 19.3 - from priests 20.2 - from handicraftsmen and handicraftsmen - 3.3 of dealers - 1.9 of the intellectuals-16.1 of persons of liberal professions - 16.1 of other social groups 14,7 6,5

Updating of social composition of pupils of schools, namely - inflow to schools of children of workers and peasants was the third factor influencing ideological and political "re-education" of teaching (it is not considered by most of researchers of history of the Soviet school). The Soviet school student differing in high public activity and who replaced behind the grammar-school boy's school desk brought absolutely new tone in all school work.

The fourth important factor was "bow" of pedagogical collectives with staff of the industrial enterprises and involvement of teaching in public activity. Working patronages in Petrograd became one of unusual forms of this work. The first such patronage was born in 1923 in Vyborgsky district rich with revolutionary traditions. One of societies operating at the Red Hammer plant organized the deputy groups which addressed all workers of the Vyborg side to deduct a part of salary (0.5%) for needs of sponsored schools. [38] Workers of Red Hammer were the first labor collective of Petrograd which came active contact with

sponsored pedagogical collective. This initiative was supported also by a session of the Moscow and Narva district committee of RCP(b) in 1925 which called for all support of working patronages. [39] Widely lit in the press, working patronages promoted strengthening of proletarian influence in the Petrograd schools.

At last, work on elimination of illiteracy also helped growth of mutual understanding between teachers and workers. Any country in the world did not know a cultural and educational campaign of such scale before. A considerable part of this huge work was carried successfully out by teachers in the 20th. By words ignorances and a civil blindness present adult population, current builders of new life could not leave A.V. Lunacharsky, the teacher "in the dark". [40]

Great attention of the pedagogical public was drawn by the all-Russian competition for the rank of "The best teacher of the USSR" begun at the initiative of the Pravda newspaper in 1925. Materials which were published by the newspaper confirmed that teaching in the weight became more and more socially active, changing the political person. Teacher's work more was not limited only to training of children any more. The teacher became a social and active figure of society now. Life did it by a peculiar agitprop of the cultural revolution. From the teacher the original universalism, ability to be guided in the wide range of the questions concerning workers and peasants was required. City teachers helped working and Red Army clubs, were a patron of rural schools, spent days of "The red calendar". Rural teachers opened reading rooms, organized cooperatives, promoted the advanced agricultural knowledge, worked in red corners. According to the Union of Rabpros, in 1925 the teachers of the Leningrad province gave daily till 1 hour 42 minutes such activity. [41]

What there were results of change of the political image of teaching? First of all, such teachers began to introduce much more actively the principles of communistic education in life. Secondly, the suspiciousness, coldness and misunderstanding existing before between teachers and workers gradually thawed, giving way to the relations of cooperation and mutual

interest in improvement of work of schools. Thirdly, teaching began to be involved gradually the party organizations, especially in the village. About turn of mass teaching on the party of the Soviet power told also decisions of the numerous pedagogical congresses and conferences which were taking place on the eve of opening of the I All-Russian congress of teachers at the end of 1924 - the beginning of 1925. So, at the I Leningrad city teacher's conference in January, 1925 the decision to try to obtain that each teacher became "the builder of the Soviet state and the conductor of the ideas of communism in broad masses of the population" was made: "Our conference has to tell that we to the Soviet power from now on do not speak about loyalty because the Soviet power - our power without any contracts and conditions". [42]

At the I All-Russian congress of teachers which opened in Moscow in January, 1925 there were 1,559 delegates with a casting vote, of them 72% were made by rural teachers. [43] Its work and the made decisions showed that transition of bulk of teaching to the platform of the Soviet power approached end. As assurance on fidelity to a political regime the words of the declaration of a congress sounded: "Everywhere and everywhere we will be faithful assistants to the Soviet power and

The Communist Party in their world-wide and historical work because we know now that serious work which is done by party is business of all worker of mankind. From now on in this case the honourable and responsible place has to belong to the national teacher". [44]

Materials of a congress were published and discussed on pages of many periodicals. So, "The Leningrad truth" wrote on January 28, 1925 that teachers in the USSR actually turned towards the Soviet power, proved the political maturity and showed to the Western European colleagues as it is possible to work at the cultural front successfully. [45] Analyzing this rhetorical statement of the press, we have to remember that in 1925 many communists in the USSR and also leaders of the international communistic and labor movement, still kept belief in the future world revolution and estimated experience of the Russian revolution through a prism of possible revolutionary shocks in the world.

Success of work of Bolshevik party on "socialist re-education" of the largest social group among Russian intelligentsia - teaching - has to be considered, first of all, as result of implementation of the New Economic Policy on all "fronts", including also "the cultural front". This process,

of course, was not final, especially among city teachers who even the New Economic Policy still remained in recent years less politically active, than their rural colleagues. Sovietization of all teaching, perhaps, would be completed less painfully if there was no radical change of a socio-economic policy: sharp folding of the New Economic Policy and transition to the forced and violent construction of the state socialism in a Stalin way. Instead of methods of political propaganda and professional retraining in work with the intellectuals including with teachers, medieval methods of hunting for witches, brute force and use of retaliatory bodies which completed process of "re-education" of many teachers were adopted, some - in GULAG camps.


[1] Gershunsky B. Russia in Darkness on Education and the Future.San Francisko, 1983.P.57-63; Education and Society in the New Russia.Amonk; N.Y., 1994.P.6-7.

[2] Clark K. The "Quiet Revolution" in Soviet Intellectual Life//Russia in the Era of NEP: Explorations in the Soviet Society and Culture.Bloomington (In.), 1991.P. 212.

[3] Counts G. The Challenge of Soviet Education.N.Y.,1957.P.60.

[4] Holmes L. Soviet Schoolteachers and Moscow: Educational Policy and Classroom Practice, 1921-1931.Washington (DC), 1984.P.4.

[5] The Politics of Soviet Education.N.Y.,1960.P.58.

[6] FitzpatrickSh. Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union, 1921-1934.N.Y.,1979.P.34-43.

[7] HECTARE of the Russian Federation .F.5462.Op.1. 42. L.4.

[8] CGA SPb.F.7744.Op.3. 2523. L.251.

[9] Narkomprosa.1928.№ weekly 31.S. 7-8.

[10] CGA SPb.F.6207.Op.7. 3. L.2.

[11] CGA SPb.F.2552.Op.1. 1157. L.12.

[12] HECTARE of the Russian Federation .F.A-1575.Op.1. 159. L.116.

[13] HECTARE of the Russian Federation .F.5462.Op.12. 47. L.54.

[14] CGA SPb.F.2552.Op.1. 664. L.2.21-23.

[15] A.A. Bobovsky. Work on developing the skills of teachers in Leningrad//Developing the skills of teachers. M.,1958. Page 128.

[16] Holmes L. The Kremlin and the Schoolhouse.Bloomington (In.), 1991.P. 54.

[17] HECTARE of the Russian Federation .F.A-2313.Op.4. 92. L.5; Worker of education.1929.№ 20.C. 39.

[18] HECTARE of the Russian Federation .F.A-2313.Op.4. 23. L.13.

[19] Scientific archive of RAO .F. 38. Op.1.D 44.

[20] CGA SPb.F.2552.Op.1. 564. L.11.

[21] S. Dulin the Union of Workers of Education in resolutions of its congresses and conferences. M.,1925.C. 15.

[22] CGA SPb.F.6207.Op.7, 554. L.5; Op.8. 182. L.4.

[23] CGA SPb.F.2552.Op.1. 1184. L.44-45.

[24] HECTARE of the Russian Federation .F.5462.Op.5. 26. L.157.

[25] CGA SPb.F.6307.Op.7. 554. L.7.

[26] HECTARE of the Russian Federation .F.5462.Op.5. 85. L.41.

[27] Holmes L. The Kremlin and the Schoolhouse.P54.

[28] HECTARE of the Russian Federation .F.5462.Op.5. 85. L.58.

[29] Labor union of workers of education in 1925 - 1926 M.,1927.C. 126-127.134.

[30] CGA SPb.F.6307.Op.7. 3. L.2.

[31] MoosE. Soviet Education: Achievements and Goals.N.Y.,1967.P.12.

[32] Hechinger F. The Big Red Schoolhouse.Gloucester (Mass.), 1968.P.41.

[33] CGA SPb.F.2552.Op.1. 2169. L.53.

[34] In the same place.

[35] In the same place. 2523. L.251; 2524. L.213.

[36] HECTARE of the Russian Federation .F.5462.Op.10. 152. L.126.

[37] In the same place. Op.12. 47. L.50.

[38] CGA SPb.F.6307.Op.6. 10. L.8.

[39] CGA SPb.F.2552.Op.1. 1602. L.27.

[40] HECTARE of the Russian Federation .F.A-2306.Op.69. 487. L.9.

[41] Labor union of workers of education in 1925 - 1926 of Page 141.

[42] CGA SPb.F.6307.Op.8. 13. L.51.

[43] Z.I. Ravkin. The Soviet school during recovery of the national economy. M.,1959.C. 257.

[44] Teacher's newspaper. 1925.18 January.

[45] Leningrad truth. 1925.28 January

Elfrieda Linda
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