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Legislative and other regulations a basis for sanitary and educational and medical activity of orthodox clergy at the end of xix the beginning of the 20th centuries.

UDK 94: [34+614+2712]

E.V. Karavayeva



Kuibyshev branch of Novosibirsk State Technical University

"The refusal of the state of the tserkovnograzhdansky legislation - its transferring entirely to the field of maintaining church - would lead to a rupture of that century communication which exists between the state and church, that communication in which the state derives strength of mind, and church scoops fortress, that communication which gave life to our state and brought it invaluable services".

P.A. Stolypin (from the speech at a meeting of the State Duma on May 22, 1909) [1].

Being engaged in studying a role of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) in development of sanitary and hygienic culture of the population of Western Siberia of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th ages, in particular, of the Tomsk province, it is necessary to find out what duties were assigned to sacred and clergymen at the legislative level by both the secular, and spiritual authorities for the solution of this problem. Spetsi-

there are no alny researches of the matter in the available literature. In the present article the directions and types of sanitary and educational and medical activity ordered by legislative and other regulations to orthodox clergy for execution at the end of XIX come to light

>- beginning of the 20th centuries

As historical sources unpublished materials of the State archive of the Tomsk region are used: the decrees, orders, instructions of the government, the Synod and the Tomsk bishops distributed during the studied period through the spiritual consistory (SC) on arrivals by mail. Besides, statutes and other regulations of the government and Synod which were ordered on spiritual department or directly belonging to it, published in the weekly official magazine ROC Church Sheets (CS), in reports of the chief prosecutor of the Synod and in the official magazine Tomsk Diocesan Sheets (TDS) and also the medical charter from the XIII volume of "Code of laws" of prod. are demanded. 1857 which worked till 1917, having undergone a number of changes, and the thematic collections of acts relating to department of orthodox confession

>- S.V. Kalashnikova [2], A. Zavyalova [3].

Special attention in this work is paid to characteristic of laws in which there are instructions on the structure of charitable institutions, holding anti-epidemic actions and collecting donations for sanitary and medical needs. These directions of a research are priority because the studied period is characterized, on the one hand, by poor development of network of medical institutions, its scanty financing and the small number of medical personnel, especially in the Siberian provinces where the problem was aggravated with absence of zemstvoes, with another - frequent epidemics, significantly sokra-

Photo 1. St. John the Baptist Convent in Tomsk. In the foreground the stone monastic casing - school for orphans (construction of 1867). At the left there is a one-storey wooden house transferred to the possession of the monastery in 1898 - the building of hospital and infirmary. Photo of the head of the 20th century

shchavshy life expectancy of the population. However the kind of activity of the priests who were in close proximity to the country population and representing "in the village often only medical care" [4] was of matter not only in shortcomings of medical network, great importance.

One of the most important aspects of activity of Christian church was always charity. She practiced ROC, prichtam of separate churches, specific priests. During numerous tests of the 17th century (economic ruin, hunger and so forth) there was a need of legislative regulation of public charity as "the government timely measures can weaken or prevent disasters of the needing masses and even to direct private charity" [5].

It is conditionally possible to allocate three directions of charity of ROC: 1) contempt of persons of a ministry; 2) the organization of charitable institutions for parishioners - hospitals, shelters, almshouses, resettlement barracks, free dining rooms and so forth; 3) collecting donations to needing - to the immigrants who were injured during hunger and epidemics, to families of the died soldiers in favor of the Society of the Red Cross (SRC), etc. Actually all charitable events were held under decrees and instructions of the government, Synod and diocesan bishops.

Tradition to arrange charitable institutions at monasteries and churches existed since ancient times. It passed from Athos into the first Russian monastic monastery - the Kyiv Pechersk monastery, then to the Troitse-Sergiyevsky monastery and subsequently extended across all Russia. Such institutions combined functions of hospital, almshouse, the house of the disabled person. In the late sixties of the 19th century were followed by a row

decrees on establishment in existing and again arranged men's and convents of charitable and educational institutions.

Owing to the proposal of the Synod chief prosecutor decree No. 14 on opening was adopted on February 29, 1868 at convents of schools, shelters for girls, mainly a ministry, and other charitable institutions, for example hospitals, almshouses [6]. The decree of August 29, 1868 the Synod ordered diocesan preosvyashchenny to deliver in perhaps short time of data on what is made by them in performance of the circular decree St. The synod of February 29, 1868. In the provided hierarchal reports it was reported that at 36 monasteries and 5 communities 38 schools, 5 almshouses and 2 hospitals including in the Tomsk diocese were founded. In spite of the fact that at convents where means allowed, there were schools, almshouses and hospitals, "the number of such monasteries was rather small... on extreme poverty of the most part from them" [7]. In the circular decree of the Synod of January 28, 1870 No. 11 diocesan preosvyashchenny it was recommended to aggravate the cares as about maintenance and development of the schools existing at women's monasteries, almshouses and hospitals, and about the device of those where an opportunity will be represented to that.

It is obvious because in monasteries shelters were organized, hospitals, almshouses, infirmaries and traditional occupation of nuns and monks were affairs of mercy, contempt of the orphans sick and poor, in 1911 the commission at head department of OKK supported involvement of nuns and novices to activity in the organization, having offered the next events: "1) training of novices and nuns for care for wounded and patients according to the program developed by head department of OKK; 2) in the monasteries having hospitals where

Photo 2. Nurses in staff of the Sanitary train [9]

there are no doctors, abbesses are granted the right to call the doctor at the expense of the Red Cross for training of nuns and novices; 3) in monasteries where there is a doctor at hospital, the Red Cross pays extra to him for medical preparation, in general any expenses of monasteries on preparation are covered by the Red Cross; 4) upon termination of a practical and theoretical course to hold examination in the presence of the doctor from OKK; 5) to give the rank "Substitute Nurse of the Red Cross" for work during the war in hospitals and so forth" [8]. The synod in the decree of March 7, 1911. "About involvement of nuns and novices to activity of the Red Cross" approved the offered actions and disposed about rendering due assistance of OKK by mothers superior of convents.

Considering also the fact that monasteries were based in the majority out of the cities and settlements, in the places differing in "healthy climate and beauty of the nature", the Synod in 1914 with the entry of Russia in war, stated the offer on the device in them special rooms for wounded, and at women's monasteries - also shelters for children whose fathers died in the war. The St. Synod through the circular decree of December 30, 1914 for No. 27 charged diocesan preosvyashchenny "to apply special cares to successful implementation of the above offers. and to inform the Synod what of the monasteries entrusted to their maintaining could be engaged in it at the expense of own means or other sources" [11]. Definition of the Synod of July 20, 1914 for No. 6502 (CV. 1914. monasteries, communities and all spiritual institutions were called No. 30) for withdrawal of all free rooms under hospital, for immediate identification and training of the persons capable to care for wounded, and for preparation by the means of accessories to the equipment of hospitals. Also the clergy was recommended to dispose in the lectures flock to assistance all measures and

ways to facilitate a fate of wounded, calling it for donations [12].

Besides the organization of children's shelters at monasteries the St. Synod definition of April 8, 1915 for No. 2585 called rural parish clergy for the device for the period of field works of children's shelters day nursery in which chest and juvenile "could receive both necessary food, and kind leaving while their mothers work in the field" [13].

In January, 1915 in TEV the instruction of TDK to decent dioceses [14] in which it was said that on orthodox clergy the sacred duty lies, especially in rural arrivals to assume a debt of the management of pasomy was printed. In the instruction there were also definitions reprinted from CV for 1914 St. The synod for which performance the clergy was called, namely: 1) to install in all churches special mugs for collecting donations in favor of OKK and families affected by war and to enclose them on each church service; 2) to organize in all orthodox parishes popechitelny councils about families of the persons which are in troops, and and to churchwardens it was authorized to pricht to help popechitelny councils from the church sums up to 50 rubles, without asking special permission of the diocesan administration; 3) to help wounded soldiers in their travel time in infirmaries and hospital: near stations of the railroads - directly, by establishment of watches at stations, and on removal - a prisylka of obrazk, linen and financial support; 4) to dispose the flock to donations for soldiers not only sums of money, but also things.

Not only government and Synod directives about collecting donations, but also appeals of separate societies were repeatedly published in church and diocesan sheets. For example, Guardianship of the empress Maria Fiodorovna about blind people in 1892 through TEV addressed private

to philanthropists with a request "to render him the kind assistance" in formation of flying groups from oculists for their sending to different areas of Russia [15]. In 1897 at cash desks of OKK the collecting donations for the device in the empire of colonies for contempt leprous was announced [16]. The decree of the Synod of February 10-24, 1916 for No. 935 (CV. 1916 No. 12) priors of churches were informed on permission to military charity of the White Cross to carry out on November 20 and 21, 1916 in churches of all dioceses of the empire collecting donations, about need of assistance from clergy to this action by the address to parishioners with a vicarial word or lecture [17], etc.

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Photo 3. The official report decent the Tomsk diocese about collecting donations for OKK [10]

It is important to tell that all decrees, orders of the Synod, diocesan bishops, recreation center ordered need of a sermon - "one of the main forms of the educational and tutorial activity of the priest" [18] designed to accompany all types of activity of clergy. Instructive sermons formed not only ideas of parishioners of essence of belief, of church holidays and ceremonies, but also of household sanitary and hygienic norms, of importance of receiving medical assistance and so forth

Special need of opening of charitable institutions and collecting donations arose not only during participation of Russia in military operations, but also during numerous epidemics, oso-

benno for immigrants. The secretary of state A.N. Ku-lomzin so wrote in 1897 about position of immigrants: "On perfect ignorance of difficulties of the device on new places people low-power, not having any material supplies" [19] come into Siberia.

At distribution of epidemic of cholera in 1892 the Tomsk governor made the instruction that the clergy of those villages and cities through which immigrants follow undertook an initiative of the organization of cheap and free dining rooms and rooms for rest and contempt of patients, pointing to the Scripture: "... the alms save from death" (Comrade of XII, 9) [20]. In 1897 in support of immigrants the collecting donations on strengthening of medical assistance needing [21] and on formation of charity foundation for assistance to the Siberian immigrants [22] was begun.

It is possible to state one more reason promoting involvement of clergy and also teachers in sanitary and educational and medical activity, is an imperfection of the legal framework on holding medical and sanitary preventive actions. For example, in articles of the Medical charter of prod. 1857, devoted to a question of fight against ospenny diseases, it was defined that the ospoprivivaniye is the act optional to all citizens of the empire, but already then it was clear that vaccination - the major measure for prevention of epidemics of smallpox. The Tomsk professor P.N. Lashchenkov, stating "the immediate tasks of the sanitary legislation in Russia" in 1910, wrote: "The question of obligation of an ospoprivivaniye was subject to consideration of the State Council twice - in 1876 and 1891, and, unfortunately, both times the obligation it were recognized as undesirable that "not to aggravate the available not arrangement to an ospoprivivaniye from the population and owing to impracticability of the measure, in view of a lack of medical personnel" [23]. In 1910 P.A. Stolypin offered for discussion in the State Duma the bill "Provision on a Safety Ospoprivivaniye" providing obligatory vaccination and revaccinations, but this project was not even discussed [24].

In chapter 2 "About an ospoprivivaniye" the Medical charter of prod. 1857 the structure of provincial, regional and district ospenny committees in which work representatives of spiritual department of orthodox confession surely took part was defined: members of recreation center, decent archpriests, etc. [25]. Ospenny committees exercised control of collecting statistical data on instilling of safety smallpox, of timely instilling of smallpox in all children without exception, behind supply of ospoprivivatel with a fresh ospenny detrit and tools and behind training of ospoprivivatel. So, the Tomsk provincial ospenny committee, having carried out in 1858 audit of an ospoprivivaniye to provinces, accepted

resolution of October 19, 1859. "About measures to distribution of a safety ospoprivivaniye in Tomsk lips." [26] in which it was defined: "To ask the diocesan administration to oblige priests to deliver monthly to volost boards of data on the been born and died babies and to note in registers of births to whom exactly of them smallpox was imparted". Besides, committees were recommended to impute through the diocesan administration an indispensable duty to rural priests that they "at a baptism of newborn babies convinced their parents about need and beneficence of a safety ospoprivivaniye and in general took due part in this salutary business by the actions determined by the law". In the publication articles about an ospoprivivaniye from the XIII volume of "Code of laws" of prod. were reprinted. 1857

In the decree of May 3, 1811 for No. 24622 the need to enter training in instilling of safety smallpox in graduation classes "public schools, and especially into spiritual and national" was defined by

>. In the note to Article 987 of the Medical charter based on this decree it is written down: "Though from these pupils and not all will have ability and an opportunity to be engaged in inoculation, but noticed advantage obvious for this purpose will give, at least, useful tips another" [27].

In the report of the chief prosecutor of the Synod for 1861 it was reported: "For the Synod ordered to promote distribution of an ospoprivivaniye in Western Siberia to bishops: To the Tobolsk Theognostus and the Tomsk Porfiry, that they constantly inspired in the clergy subconducted by him care about perhaps bigger distribution within those dioceses of the correct ospoprivivaniye, and spiritual educational to impute to management an indispensable duty to strengthen in the Tobolsk and Tomsk seminaries theoretical and practical teaching an ospoprivivaniye" [28]. By circular decrees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of October 30, 1805 and on March 23, 1839 it was defined: "... instilling of safety smallpox in counties. it is permitted to everyone who on test of local doctors is recognized having for these data and will receive from them in volume the certificate" [29].

Also in the Medical charter rules of burial in case of death from infectious diseases were reported, namely - it was forbidden "to bury in general before the expirations of three days if death followed not from plague or any other infectious disease, somehow: a rotten and catching fever, smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, - in these only cases to prevent spread of an infection, to start burial before of the marked term" [30].

During the studied era church regulations about change of funeral ceremonies for the dead from infectious diseases continued to work. For example, under the decree of the Synod of July 16, 1812 of their body

should not have kept in church of more than a day. Long before it, October 18, 1755, the Synod decree on a burial service of the babies who died of smallpox was adopted at home, and in the decree of November 14, 1830 it was offered to read the burial service over them at cemeteries [31].

The medical department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs the circular decree of July 13, 1892 ordered to prichta of all churches to execute the rules concerning burial of the dead from cholera namely: ". corpses should not be washed, treatment of clothes on dead men disinfecting solution and the room in a coffin of disinfecting substances, with the subsequent dense zakolachivaniye of a coffin [is necessary], to read the burial service in churches with an indispensable condition that at a burial service the coffin was driven in, populous farewell during the funeral and a commemoration should not be permitted" [32].

In the decree of Medical department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of March 30, 1905 for No. 353 additions to the rules "About Taking Measures to the Termination of Cholera and Plague at Emergence Them in the Empire" approved on August 11, 1903 were reported. Changes provided that "burial of the dead from cholera has to be made in dense coffins which bottom becomes covered by a layer of disinfecting substance which fills up also the corpse wrapped in the sheet moistened with disinfecting solution". Besides, the requirement about burial of the dead from cholera at especially allocated cemeteries as burial of cholera corpses in the general cemeteries was recognized not as dangerous from the sanitary point of view [33] was excluded from the rules about fight against cholera and plague approved on August 19, 1903.

All these regulations which change happened depending on development of scientific knowledge were the management to observance of health requirements by clergy when performing their professional duties.

It is necessary to tell that priests, carrying out the duties, in some cases together with the police authorities had to participate in the absence of the doctor in certification of death that was recommended by the decree approved on January 26, 1887 (prod. SZ. 1892. T. XIII, Article 703) [34].

According to the decree of January 24 and on December 16, 1852, the clergy undertook to take part in work of committees of public health. The last were organized from local chiefs on each management, namely: provincial - from the inspector of a medical justice, the senior veterinarian and the ecclesiastic appointed by a consistory; district - from the district leader of the nobility, district or the policeman of the doctor, the mayor and the senior in the city of the ecclesiastic. The double purpose of establishment of committees - prevention and suppression of diseases - had to be reached by distribution in the people of sensible concepts about ways of protection from diseases both people, and house zhi-

cotton. It was offered to publish manuals in the form of separate additions in provincial sheets and free of charge to distribute them to everyone, especially clergy, for distribution between parishioners [35].

In the Medical charter, in the section on actions of local nachalstvo for prevention of general diseases, chiefs of provinces were recommended to take measures and first of all "to inspire in inhabitants that the taken measures are necessary for the termination of a disease". At the same time priests were offered "to assume a duty to explain need and advantage of those measures and to convince that they were quiet, relying on God's clemency and care of the administration, and uncomplaining obedience helped with all-useful business to councils and orders of the doctor" [36]. The synod, supporting this initiative, on July 9, 1892 issued decree No. 1677 on acceptance from the spiritual authorities of measures to prevention of harmful consequences of non-execution of the precautions ordered by the administration against cholera [37].

Clergy also obliged to participate in work of the sanitary and executive commissions which began the activity in the territory of Western Siberia since 1892-1893. So, in cholera epidemic of 1902 one of paragraphs of the Basic rules for prevention of development of cholera within Tomsk lips. there was point, according to decrees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of March 19 and 23, 1893, about the organization of the sanitary and executive commissions (the Rights. Vest. 1893. No. 15) [38]. According to these rules, for example, the prior of Trinity Cathedral of the lake Pavel Komarov, the priest of Trinity Cathedral of the lake Vladimir Ilyinsky, the priest of Alexander Nevsky Church of the lake Dmitry Raki-tin, the district doctor Boleslav Ivanovich Vender, etc. took part in work of the Kolyvansky sanitary commission on prevention of emergence in Kolyvan and neighboring villages of cholera and fight against it (as a part of 10 people) [39].

On October 14, 1904, during typhus epidemic in the southern sites of the Zmeinogorsky County Tomsk lips., the district sanitary and executive commission adopted the resolution on the basis of the decree of April 22, 1904 on performance by the commission of actions for prevention and fight against a typhus, dysentery, smallpox and other infectious diseases by the rules of August 11, 1903 approved by Medical department [40]. The district doctor, the representative of spiritual department archpriest of Zmeinogorsky cathedral, the official on country affairs of the 1st site of the Zmeinogorsky County and so forth took part in work of the district commission. By the commission it was decided: "1) to ask through stanovy police officers, rural priests, members of the pricht, rural teachers and other corresponding persons to assume duties of sanitary trustees for which to develop the detailed instruction.;

6) to ask doctors in the areas infected with smallpox, to take various measures to instilling in local community of smallpox and to a revaccination.; 7) died of a typhus and smallpox can be buried at the general cemeteries with observance of terms according to Article 702 the Doctor. charter of prod. 1892, that is in prevention of an infection it is allowed to bury the dead before the expiration of three days. At storage of a body of the dead from an infectious disease, ablution of the dead man, situation in a coffin and burial all precautionary measures" have to be observed [41].

One of obstacles in fight against infectious diseases were superstitions. For example, in article "About National Superstitions" the teacher from Tomsk lips. V. Mu-raveysky, having divided sorcerers on childbirth, having described their activity, came to a conclusion that "znakharsky treatment holds among peasants big authority, much bigger, than medicine. The mistrust reason to paramedics and doctors is that the znakharsky science is the science, country, and "fur-coats Torahs" - God knows them, "they pour cholera then to treat and tear up money" [42]. Smallpox epidemics especially extended and followed by considerable mortality on settlements of the Old Believers refusing to impart smallpox including an inoculation "the press of Antichrist" [43].

For eradication of the prejudices interfering distribution of instilling of safety smallpox in Article 1002 of the Medical charter on the basis of decrees 3 and 25 of May, 1811 it was defined that an explanation to the people of the advantage coming from instilling of safety smallpox is assigned, irrespective of suggestions of police, on parsons [44]. In the Medical charter there were recommendations for priests of belief of the people of advantage of an ospoprivivaniye, namely: they had to compare actions of smallpox natural to smallpox safety, warning "under fear of God's anger" that "non-use of curative safety smallpox on one prejudice, obstinacy or negligence is the serious crime of conscience interfaced quite often to manslaughter" (Article 1003); to bring, "especially on villages", on a divine liturgy of children who recovered thanks to instilling of smallpox and to put them ahead on the place (Article 1004), special from the priest, that he upon termination of a church service for assurance of safety and advantage of instilling of safety smallpox announced names recovering and those who lost relatives from natural smallpox [45].

In the charter of recreation center there are also instructions about "disgust of orthodox Christians from any superstitions and superstitious ceremonies". Except constant observation through parsons and decent, diocesan bishops had to inquire about that at a review of the diocese and "to stop the arising superstitions the lectures and prohibition, irrespective of measures which it is obliged at -

to nimat the local civil administration on force of the Code of laws (SZ. T. XIV, Article 3, 34, 35, 37)". If necessary bishops had to report about manifestation of superstitions to the chief of the province and the Synod [46]. Thereby they could promote punishment according to Articles 934 and 935 of the Code about punishments (SZ. T. XIV, Article 42-44) of the persons giving themselves for the sorcerers or magicians preparing and distributing or selling "the multimagic drinks and other structures or mascots having as if supernatural forces and actions".

One more way of fight against superstitions was a prohibition to priests to bury without medicolegal survey of the dead "from inadmissible treatment by the charlatans and other persons who do not have the right for treatment (of Dec. 19, 1828 for No. 2531 of §3; On March 23, 1839 for No. 12165 of §85)" [47]. If forensic medical examination confirmed a cause of death owing to a volshba, then the sorcerer was punished (according to Article 1082 of the Code about punishments), and burial was made without the appropriate church ceremonies that promoted formation of a negative position of society concerning superstitions.

In the 80th of the 19th century. The recognized fact that fight against epidemics by application against their distribution of corresponding measures is possible only on condition of obtaining by administration in due time exact data on appearance of infectious diseases and extent of their development was medical department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

In 1887 the Ministry of Internal Affairs made an attempt through provincial medical managements, local police and doctors of monthly collecting information about number of the dead from infectious diseases which were published in "Official gazette". Biennial experience of collecting of data through doctors and police showed that statistical data on the dead from infectious diseases among the population in provinces and areas are extremely inexact and are not true as the population often out of time reported to police about appearance of a disease or did not let about it know at all.

January 19, 1889. The medical department issues decree No. 46 on registration of mortality from infectious diseases on metric records as a way of more successful fight against epidemics. - on April 28, 1889 the Ministry of Internal Affairs was notified by definition of the Synod of February 28 on distribution on all dioceses of monthly sample by priests from registers of births of information about number of the dead from infectious diseases on a sample of the card presented by Medical department [48]. It should be noted what in the decree was reported about involvement of clergy in this activity for three years as an experiment. For involvement of clergymen to registration of mortality from infectious diseases according to the order of the Synod was published the brochure "About Signs and the Course of Infectious Diseases" which

published in supplement No. 23 TsV and dispatched on all church parishes. Also in the decree of January 19, 1889 it was offered to governors to take through the diocesan administration measures to that "1) church prichta were informed that during the first ten days of every month they have to enter the digital data for the previous month demanded by headings of the forms sent them in cards; ranks of local police are obliged to address prichta for timely receiving from them those cards; 2) provincial and regional medical justices attended to production in the appropriate number of lists of church parishes and also cards for registration of mortality and their mailing on arrivals; 3) local police departments disposed about timely monthly receiving from local church pricht of cards with data on mortality and on bringing of those in district managements" [49]. The emperor Alexander III recognized a way of collecting by dioceses of data on infectious diseases through parsons as a measure very useful and deserving encouragement [50].

By definitions of the Synod of June 21-28, 1889 and on May 16, 1890 to parish clergy it was imputed a duty at the beginning of every month to do sample of registers of births of information about number of the dead in their arrivals from infectious diseases within the previous month and to report these data of local police through a mark them on the special cards given to clergy. In definition of the Synod of March-14 11 of April, 1893 was decided "to continue the duty of monthly sample of registers of births of data assigned in 1890 to church prichta" [51]. So, it is possible to claim that collecting statistical data from registers of births for Medical department became a constant duty of parish clergy.

The clergy was involved also in drawing up reports during general diseases. For example, the Minister of Internal Affairs tsirkulyarno ordered of October 30, 1892 for No. 2011 about drawing up reports on cholera epidemic on the special program [52] with providing metric data. In turn the Tomsk medical justice sent on January 20, 1893 the resolution to the diocesan bishop with the application on drawing up reports on the special program decent dioceses. On the application there is a resolution of the bishop Makari (Nevsky) of January 25, 1893: "Immediately to make the order about bringing of a prichtama of the required data". By large italics on fields it is written: "Not to slow down" [53]. In the State archive of the Tomsk region in fund Tomsk the recreation center is dealt with 93 official reports of priests about cholera epidemic of 1892 made according to this program.

At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century doctors unanimously spoke that "the most necessary and radikal-

Nov means of fight against epidemics is to raise the cultural level of the village, to lift an economic condition of the peasant and literacy" [54]. For example, in 1906 in the official report to the medical inspector Tomsk lips. from the sent doctor of the Ministry of Internal Affairs it was reported that "scanty percent of literacy in these regions. is one of the main reasons that the country population treats sanitary and hygienic measures extremely indifferently and they consider all sanitary measures for themselves burdensome and violent" [55].

Uchilishchny council at the Synod promoted adoption of the decree of July 31, 1910 on development of health education of the population through church schools and about preparation for this work of teachers. The synod the resolution on participation of church schools in fight against alcoholism and child mortality and also on distribution through them the sanitary and hygienic data was accepted. For distribution among the population of these data through church schools it was entrusted to diocesan uchilishchny councils: 1) to recommend to managers and teachers to accustom pupils to observe requirements of hygiene, first of all, with an example of contents in model purity of all school rooms, attracting, whenever possible, pupils; 2) to monitor especially contents in the hygienic relation of latrines; 3) to care for sufficient supply of schools with boiled and clear drinking water; 4) to accustom children to cleanliness, watching purity of their hands and popularly explaining to them, mainly in the form of stories, the rule of personal hygiene; 5) to supply schools, as far as possible, with the corresponding wall pictures and tables; 6) to arrange on short-term pedagogical courses for teachers of church schools special readings and conversations on hygiene [56].

The clergy under which authority parish schools and schools of the diploma were was also involved in holding sanitary actions during numerous epidemics. For example, Management of the chief medical inspector of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the circular decree of July 30, 1905 for No. 705 ordered holding actions for fight against meningitis, including "prevention in schools of children from the rooms infected with meningitis and suspected by this disease and so forth". The medical office forwarded the copy of the present circular with a copy of the brochure specified in it for data and the guide in the district sanitary and executive commissions, and those in turn dispatched on arrivals [57].

Studying the legislative and other regulations existing in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the orthodox clergy was actively involved in sanitary and educational and medical activity. It is also possible to claim that at the state level

there was an awareness of effectiveness of participation of priests in this process what the obligations for the structure of hospitals, almshouses, children's shelters assigned to them at churches and monasteries testify to, on holding medical and sanitary actions during epidemics, on collecting donations for victims of epidemics, for wounded soldiers and other, on fight against superstitions. Besides, work on monthly collecting information about number of the dead from infectious diseases which became since 1890 their constant duty was charged to them.

Especially it would be desirable to note regulations which obliged clergy to hold events for involvement of the population to instilling of safety smallpox and to provide statistical data on this work. According to the prof.

V.A. Zvereva, the ospoprivivaniye was "the only large and rather productive anti-epidemic measure which was carried out in rural areas" [58]. Considering this fact, it is possible to assume that the effectiveness of an ospoprivivaniye considerably depended on attraction to this activity of the clergy receiving in regulations detailed instructions for its implementation.


1. Sidorovnin G.P.P.A. Stolypin: life for the Fatherland / G.P. Sidorovnin. - M.: TERRA: Prince club, 2002. - Page 322.

2. Index of initial resolutions, decrees, definitions and St. Pravitelstvenno's orders

Dressler Jens
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