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To the history of creation and activity of the museum of department of human anatomy of the Siberian state medical university (1888-2008)



ISTORIYA MEDITSINA

UDC 611 (09) (571.16): 069 S.A. Not Krylov, F.V. Alyabyev

E-mail: Alfedval@mail.ru

To the HISTORY of CREATION AND ACTIVITY of the MUSEUM of DEPARTMENT of HUMAN ANATOMY of the SIBERIAN STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY (1888-2008)

Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training Tomsky state university; Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training Sibirsky state medical university Roszdrava, Tomsk

"... this museum will long serve as a monument to scientific and pedagogical activity of the first professor of department of anatomy".

Prof. A.I. Sudakov

The university museums always played an important role in the course of teaching and promoting of scientific knowledge. The special value in pre-revolutionary higher educational institutions was represented by the medical museums (anatomic, pathoanatomical, forensic medicine, etc.). They were a part of so-called educational and auxiliary institutions and played a significant role not only in educational process, but also in scientific research.

The history of creation and activity of the anatomic museum of department of normal anatomy of the Siberian state medical university, oldest in Siberia, is of special interest. Its history is inseparably linked with life of department of normal anatomy, with pedagogical and scientific activity of her employees.

Ordinary professor Nikolay Mikhaylovich Maliyev and his assistant, the anatomist Sergey Mikhaylovich Chugunov stood at the origins of creation of the anatomic museum at the Tomsk university. N.M. Maliyev devoted not accidentally much time to creation and development of the anatomic museum as medicines of the anatomic museum were necessary as for the organization of educational process, mastering students

Photo 1. Ordinary professor of department of normal anatomy N.M. Maliyev

the main methods of an anatomic research, and for scientific research. N.M. Maliyev was a graduate of medico-surgical Academy (1864). During the Russo-Turkish war of 18771878 N.M. Maliyev as the field surgeon was in ranks of field army beyond Danube. From 1885 to 1888 was the privatdozent at department of normal anatomy of the Kazan university, gave lectures on anatomy to students of medical faculty. For operating time at the Kazan university he made several expeditions for the purpose of anthropological studying Udmurts (the former name - votyak) and Maris (cheremisa; 1870), Mansi (Voguls) on the Lozva River in the Trans-Ural region (1871), Udmurts and Besermyans (ethnographic group of Udmurts; 1872), Bashkirs (1875), a mordva (1878), Komi-Permyaks (1886) and also skulls Volga the Bulgar from the Ananyinsky burial ground (1880). In 1871, 18821883 and 1885 N.M. Maliyev with the scientific purpose visited Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Austria-Hungary and France. In Paris he listened to lectures on anatomy at Sappey, histology - at Roben and Ranvye, anthropology - at Topinar, visited Sharko and Bal's clinics, Dyupyuitrena, Natural History Museum got acquainted with M. Orfil's museums. Watched the course of a practical training on anatomy at Farabef. In addition N.M. Maliyev listened to lectures on Valdeyer's anatomy in Strasbourg, Kellikera in the Würzburg, visited Gis and Brown's museums in Leipzig, the Gene le in Goettingen, Girtlya in Vienna, the Reykhertovsky museum in Berlin, the Anthropological museum in Florence. In 1882 N.M. Maliyev was present at the hygienic congress at Geneva. The same year he was elected the corresponding member of the Parisian anthropological society. Was also indispensable member of the Moscow society of fans of natural sciences, anthropology and ethnography (1879) and Society of natural sciences at the Kazan university. In

1888 N.M. Maliyev was appointed extraordinary, and in 1889 - ordinary professor of department of normal anatomy of Imperial Toms-

whom the university which it managed till 1896 C

1889 was a board member of the Tomsk university. From 1890 to 1895 N.M. Maliyev is a secretary (dean) of medical faculty of the Tomsk university. From January 19 to September 28, 1895 N.M. Maliyev temporarily fulfilled duties of the rector of the Tomsk university. In 1891-1894 was also the chairman of economic council of clinics of the Tomsk university. Being the first professor of normal anatomy, he gave this course and conducted a practical training. N.M. Maliyev was a thin laboratory assistant, the great head of a practical training in the section hall [1. Page 5-6; 49-52].

For operating time at the Tomsk university N.M. Maliyev collected an extensive and valuable collection of anatomic medicines (597 copies) stored in 10 cases. By approximate calculations N.M. Maliye-va the cost of this collection made about 2425 rub. Together with S.M. Chugunov it made the catalog which then was printed [2. Page 1-22]. The collection of anatomic medicines was made by N.M. Maliyev and partly anatomists S.M. Chugunov and N.A. Gerken. Only some medicines, mainly models on the history of development of anatomy, were acquired at the expense of the anatomic museum from the well-known foreign companies (A. Ziegler in Freyburg, Tramona in Paris, etc.) [3. Page 2]. At professor N.M. Ma-liyeve also formation of the kraniologichesky collection of the Tomsk university including 112 male and female skulls began. According to the rector of the Tomsk university, professor A.I. Sudakov, "this museum will long serve as a monument to scientific and pedagogical activity of the first professor of department of anatomy".

Subsequently N.M. Maliyev's successor extraordinary professor of department of normal anatomy I.S. Popovsky paid to replenishment by medicines of the anatomic museum of the Tomsk university much attention. At it 797 macroscopic and 52 microscopic medicines were placed in the anatomic museum. With production of medicines it was helped at different times by anatomists S.M. Chugunov, Ya.I. Pivovonsky,

K.A. Kytmanov, assistant to the anatomist A.I. Vinokurov, students N.N. Burdenko, M. Kozmin, N. Leva-shev, N. Speransky, etc. Under I.S. Popovsky's edition in 1904 there was a catalog of medicines of the museum of normal anatomy prepared by the anatomist K.A. Kytmanov with assistance of the student M. Kozmin [4. Page 257-308]. One of shortcomings of the catalog was the fact that in it medicines were not noted

Photo 2. Ordinary professor of department of normal anatomy G.M. Iosifov

collected by the prof. N.M. Maliyev and consequently, it was already at that time difficult to define what of medicines are made directly by professor

N.M. Maliyev and his assistants and what - professor I.S. Popovsky.

By the time of I.S. Popovsky's departure from Tomsk the anatomic museum included the general collection from 1446 anatomic medicines (1394 macroscopic and 52 microscopic), both dry, and spirit which were stored in round banks, in 10 cases and also kept in other ways (Dzhiakomini, Lyasskovsky, Vikersgeymer, etc.).

Thus, in the first decades the anatomic museum felt the undoubted need for new rooms. So, because of a lack of the place anatomic medicines, according to professor G.M. Iosifov, were placed so inconveniently what to consider them on the place of their storage for the purpose of study was a useless waste of time [5. Page 1].

This defect was eliminated with transfer in 1907 of the anatomic museum in a new anatomiches-

Photo 3. The building of the anatomic case (constructed in 1907)

a cue the case at I.S. Popovsky's successor ordinary professor G.M. Iosifov who continued collecting various exhibits in funds of the anatomic museum. Under the leadership of G.M. Iosifov huge work on the equipment of the museum was done. The anatomic museum was located on the second floor of the new anatomic building and occupied the total area of 55 quarter of sazhen. In the museum there were two departments: main (scientific) and educational. For the main museum 17 big metal cases glazed from all directions were made and acquired in Berlin from P. Altman of 410 quadrangular cans for the sum of 907 rub for storage of spirit anatomic medicines [6. Page 368]. The placement of spirit medicines to such banks had big advantage as they when lighting did not refract beams as in round banks, and thanks to it, did not change the surface of anatomic medicine. For the first 7 years of management of department

G.M. Iosifov in the museum placed 656 new medicines from which 369 were prepared by him. Among them there are 175 bone medicines (for their production it was organized matserovochny and bone workshops) and 284 - from other departments of anatomy. From an old collection of medicines G.M. Iosifov selected 925 copies. In total by 1913 in the science anatomic museum was 1581 anatomic medicine [5. Page 2].

In 1913 M. Iosifov with the active help of assistants to the anatomist A.P. Azbukin, A.I. Colm-kova and the anatomist G.I. Makarov made "The classified index of medicines of the museum of normal anatomy at the Imperial Tomsk university" in which all medicines of the anatomic museum were in detail described.

In production of anatomic medicines the active part was taken by the anatomist G.I. Makarov, assistants to the anatomist V.A. Denyagin, A.I. Kolmakov and students laboratory assistants A.P. Azbu-kin, S.V. Vergilesov, K. Kattsen, P.N. Obrosov, I. Rayevsky, P. Sorokin, V.G. Shipachev. Almost all dry medicines on the blood system of vessels were painted by the student A.P. Azbukin (subsequently the head of the department of normal anatomy of the Tomsk university). The medicines made by students still are pride of the anatomic museum.

In days of the management of the museum G.M. Iosifov paid special attention to preparation of the medicines which were absent in the anatomic museum on lymphatic system of vessels, corrosion, transparent - for studying ossification of a skeleton at fruits, the voluminous medicines on vessels and muscles kept damp without liquid, in hermetically sealed glass boxes, and artificial mummies [3. C.3]. G.M. Iosifov noted that because of difficulties of an injection of lymphatic vessels many anatomic museums had no similar medicines. The methods of a research of large lymphatic trunks developed by him with the help ink - the gelatinous weight and deep lymphatic vessels by introduction of mass of Gerot to thickness of synovial covers of joints, aponeuroses, periosteums allowed it to fill up considerably the anatomic museum of the Tomsk university with medicines lymphatic siste-

Photo 4. The medicines made by professor of hypermarket. Iosifovy

of the Photo 5. Professor A.P. Azbukin in the anatomic museum TMI

we vessels [6. Page 370]. In total professor G.M. Iosifov prepared 40 medicines on lymphatic vessels which remained in good condition so far.

In addition G.M. Iosifov in operating time at the Tomsk university of many efforts directed to development of methods of preservation of corpses and anatomic medicines and achieved in this regard considerable results. The methods of storage of anatomic medicines and corpses offered them in the closed space without liquid and also a method of preparation of artificial mummies were highly appreciated by the scientific and medical public and were repeatedly put into practice. The first experiments of embalming of corpses were made by G.M. Iosifov at anatomic institute of the Tomsk university. So, on February 16, 1909 to them the man and the woman were embalmed and are placed in the special well closed cases. For several years the corpses turned into mummies. For the solution of a question as there can long be left be without changes embalmed corpses concluded in the closed spaces protecting from drying it placed in a glass jar with the covered cover a corpse of the child, embalmed to them on October 13, 1912

This the topic relevant at that time was repeatedly covered by G.M. Iosifov in the Siberian and Russian periodicals [7] and had important practical value as other ways of preservation of corpses were extremely expensive. G.M. Iosifov's experience was considered subsequently by professors V.P. Vorobyov and B.I. Zbarsky when embalming a body of V.I. Lenin during which G.M. Iosifov twice in 1924 went to Moscow as the consultant [8. Page 104, 215].

Active involvement of students to scientific work was distinctive feature of work of professor G.M. Iosifov in the anatomic museum. So, the student of the 4th course of medical faculty S.V. Vergilesov made medicines of a chest channel of some representatives of mammals by means of the method offered by G.M. Iosifov that is an injetsirovaniye of lymphatic vessels by oplotnevayushchy gelatinous weight. On materials of these researches of S.V. Ver-gilesovym work "For morphology of the beginning of a chest channel and its expansion at mammals" [9], awarded in 1908 with medical faculty of a gold medal was prepared [6. Page 202] and published in "News of the Imperial Tomsk university". Strikes scrupulousness and scale of this research. S.V. Vergilesov in the work notes that 30 dogs, 15 pigs, 12 cows, 16 rams, 25 horses and 8 hares served as an object of research [9. Page 12]. All anatomic material was provided to S.V. Vergilesov by the assistant to the Kiev polytechnical institute N.D. Protopopov.

Active part in preparation of medicines for the anatomic museum was taken by the student V.G. Shi-pachev (subsequently professor of the Irkutsk university). It made for the museum several medicines of "nerves of a warm texture" at animals and the person. V.G. Shipachev prepared the specified nerves, immersing medicine under water, or in the water jet which is started up from a water supply system with a certain force. This method of a preparovka was invented by V.G. Shipachev and allowed it to allocate very thin branches of nerves. In addition the student V.G. Shipachev under the leadership of G.M. Iosifov conducted the research "To a Question of Supply with Blood Vessels of Peripheral Nerves" awarded in 1910 with medical faculty of a gold medal. This work was highly appreciated by the medical public and was published in the Russky Vrach magazine [10]. One more work of V.G. Shipachev of "Vasa vasorum (Vessels of vessels)" awarded in 1911 with medical faculty of a silver medal and published in "News of the Tomsk university" was also of undoubted interest. In these researches conducted by V.G. Shipachev on a large number of animals and on 15 human corpses, the above-mentioned method offered by G.M. Iosifov was also used. The fact that V.G. Shipachev and for a research of the arteries feeding nerves and for the research vasa vasorum used identical method by means of X-rays was of the special value of these two researches. So that to receive x-rays from medicines, to gelatinous weight V.G. Shipa-chev added bismuth, calomel or other substance impenetrable for X-rays. By means of such way V.G. Shipachev managed to find out a detailed anatomic picture of many feeding arteries of the person. X-rays were made by the device of doctor Grisson, roentgenograms were executed by means of P.A. Lomo-vitsky.

In 1910 one of G.M. Iosifov's pupils student P.N. Obrosov was engaged in setting of experiments on dogs at department of normal anatomy on the subject "Lymphatic Vessels Perikardiya".

Professor G.M. Iosifov is also the founder of the educational museum which was absent at old anatomic institute because of a lack of the place. The educational museum occupied at that time three rooms and had a special purpose. The medicines stored in it were divided into 2 departments. In the first department, duplicates of the medicines stored in the main museum (119 copies) were placed. They were not handed out to students. In the second department

>- the medicines which are handed out to students. Study anatomy by students of departments began on ready medicines. After familiarity with bodies that was checked in the course kollok-

a viuma, students started preparation of own medicines. The best of the medicines made by students served for replacement of the medicines which became useless [6. Page 370].

Thus, the anatomic museum of the Tomsk university at that time was considered as one of the best in Russia.

G.M. Iosifov promoted safety of exhibits of the museum in the years of Civil war. In 1923 during stay in Tomsk the museum was visited by the People's commissar of education of RSFSR A.V. Lunacharsky.

After G.M. Iosifov's transition to medical faculty of the Voronezh university by the head of the department of normal anatomy of medical faculty of the Tomsk university A.P. Az-bukin was elected. It together with the staff of department of normal anatomy (assistant E.I. Gontar, associate professor K.A. Koshkina, the graduate student G.K. Boreysho) converted the main (scientific) and educational museums and new medicines on blood, nervous and to other systems are made. The museum was also replenished with the bone medicines made by masters of department of Lupekh and Bezmaternykh [11. Page 139]. In the main science museum at the initiative of A.P. Azbukin, tours for the population with reading popular scientific lectures about the structure of a human body were conducted [12. Page 26].

In 1943 professor D.A. Zhdanov was appointed the head of the department of normal anatomy.

D.A. Zhdanov gave special attention to reconstruction of the fundamental museum of department of normal anatomy and labeling of medicines of the museum for simplification of independent work of students. In days of the Great Patriotic War the anatomic museum was not replenished with new medicines, a part of medicines did not remain in view of cold and lack of formalin, experienced employees left on the front. In this regard at the initiative of professor D.A. Zhdanov, museum medicines were mounted anew. The medicines made by G.M. Iosifov and D.A. Zhdanov are stored in the anatomic museum of SibGMU now. On them students of higher education institution on a practical training study lymphatic system of the person [13. Page 132-133].

In the period of the management of department of normal anatomy of associate professor E.I. Gontar (1947-1955) the reorganization of the anatomic museum comes to an end. E.I. Gontar brain medicines were issued for the museum. At this time work in the museum was headed by the assistant L.G. Shchitova. In the museum, cultural and educational work was carried out. Medicines of deep muscles of a forearm, a brush, deep muscles of a back, skeletons of newborns and embryos were mounted.

In 1955 professor V.V. Kuntsevich was elected to management of normal anatomy of department. Under its management the catalog of medicines of the museum according to which for 1958 1481 medicine were registered was made. During this period the assistant V.A. Chernova and la -

Photo 6. Manager of department of anatomy E.I. Gontar

A.G. Penyaeva's borant made restoration of dry medicines on vascular and nervous systems. Since 1961 management of the anatomic museum was performed by associate professor V.A. Tsvetkova. She put in order a card file of the museum, cards on new medicines are made. Under its management the restoration of medicines was continued, new medicines are made. Active part in preparation of medicines was taken by laboratory assistants

A.I. Partas, G.P. Str and M.G. Larin. In total for the museum they made 14 most complex medicines. These years the museum was replenished with medicines of patients of children's age. In total during management of V. V. Kuntsevichem department the anatomic museum was replenished with 93 medicines. These years the excursion activity of the anatomic museum was actively conducted. From 1955 for 1970 in the museum 886 tours were conducted. For these years the museum was visited by 24329 people.

In the years of management of department of professor G.K. Boreysho (1970-1976) the anatomic museum was replenished with new medicines. On materials of the doctoral dissertation of G.K. Boreysho medicine intra organ limfatiches-was mounted

Photo 7. Professor of department of normal anatomy of TMI G.K. Boreysho

ky vessels of a gullet and small intestine. The head of the museum associate professor V.A. Tsvetkova in the museum created a collection of medicines pre- and the post-natal periods of development. At this time students widely are involved in restoration of museum medicines

>- members of scientific student circle of department of normal anatomy. Under the direction of G.K. Borja-sho they issued medicines of bones of a skull of the newborn. At the initiative of professor G.K. Bo-reysho the cooperation with excursion bureau of Tomsk was established that increased the number of excursions in the anatomic museum. Only from 1970 for 1976 the anatomic museum was visited by more than 16400 people.

In 1971 a great job on updating of explanatory labels to medicines was done. The new medicines (5 skeletons of embryos, etc.) received from Moscow came to the anatomic museum.

Photo 8. Head of the department of anatomy N.P. Minin

During management of department of the associate professor N.P. Mi-nina (1976-1988) the anatomic museum was base of educational process for students of the Tomsk medical institute. In the anatomic museum, active sanitary and educational work with the population of the Tomsk region and other regions visiting the museum was conducted. In production of museum medicines along with teachers the active participation was accepted also by students of the Tomsk medical institute.

Now under the leadership of managing department professor L.V. Savelyeva in the anatomic museum made repairs, work both on restoration of old museum medicines, and on production of new is carried out. From 2002 for 2006 the senior laboratory assistant T.V. Vasilyeva made 32 medicines. Work on the organization of the educational museum on systems and bodies in educational rooms is begun [14. Page 82].

Anatomic museum of department of anatomy of the Siberian state medical university

now is not only educational base

for carrying out a practical training on anatomy,

but also plays a significant role in scientific research.

LITERATURE

1. Professors of medical faculty of the Imperial (state) Tomsk university - the Tomsk medical institute - the Siberian state medical university (1878-2003): Biographic dictionary / Page F. Fominykh, S.A. Not Krylov, M.V. Gribovsky, G.I. Mendrina, A.I. Vengerovsky,

B.B. Novitsky. Tomsk, 2004. T. 2; Rectors of the Tomsk university: Biographic dictionary (1888-2003) /

S.F. Fominykh, S.A. Not Krylov, K.V. Petrov, A.V. Litvinov, K.V. Zlenko. Tomsk, 2003. T. 5.

2. N.M. Maliyev. Catalog of medicines of the museum of normal anatomy of the Imperial Tomsk university//ITU. 1896. Prince 10 [pagin. the 11th].
3. A.P. Azbukin. Department of normal anatomy//Works of the Tomsk medical institute. Tomsk, 1938. T. 9.
4. K.A. Kytmanov. The systematic catalog of medicines of the Museum of normal anatomy at the Imperial Tomsk university / Under the editorship of the prof. I.S. Popovsky//ITU. 1904. Prince 24.
5. G.M. Iosifov. The classified index of medicines of the museum of normal anatomy at the Imperial Tomsk university//ITU. 1913. Prince 53 (pagin. the 2nd).
6. A short historical essay of the Imperial Tomsk university for the first 25 years of its existence (1888-1913). Tomsk, 1917.
7. G.M. Iosifov. Preservation in hermetically sealed spaces without liquid of voluminous medicines and corpses (Embalming)//the Russian doctor. 1903; It. To a question of use of table salt for preservation of corpses and anatomic medicines (Preliminary message)//the Siberian doctor. 1915. On Oct. 18 No. 41 and 42. Page 303-304.
8. Yu.M. Lopukhin. Disease, death and embalming

V.I. Lenina: Truth and myths. M, 1997.

9. S.V. Vergilesov. To morphology of the beginning of a chest channel and its expansion at mammals//ITU. 1909. Prince 35 [pagin. the 3rd]. 32 pages
10. V.G. Shipachev. To a question of supply with blood vessels of peripheral nerves//the Russian doctor. 1910. No. 16.
11. V.A. Chernova, L.G. Shchitova. The chronicle of the anatomic museum TMI//Materials to history of medicine and health care of Siberia / Under the editorship of D.I. Goldberg, N.P. Fedotov. Tomsk, 1960.
12. Professors of the Tomsk university: Biographic dictionary / Page F. Fominykh, S.A. Not Krylov, L.L. Bertsun, A.V. Litvinov. Tomsk, 1998. T. 2.
13. Not Krylov S.A., I.S. Malinovskaya, S.V. Malinovsky, S.V. Logvinov. Outstanding Soviet morphologist, founder of school of limfolog, professor, academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences Dimitrii Arkadyevich Zhdanov (1908-1971): To the 100 anniversary since birth//the Siberian medical magazine. 2008. T. 23. No. 4 (issue 2).
14. L.V. Savelyeva. Department of human anatomy//Pages of history of medical (medical) faculty of the Siberian state medical university (1888-2008)/under the editorship of C. B. of Logvinove, I.S. Malinovskaya, S.A. Not Krylov. Tomsk, 2008.

Work is performed with assistance of RGNF: project No. 08-03-6430 and/T

Andrew Hunt
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