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Category: History

Moldavians and Russinians: together through mountains and centuries

protoiyery Dimitrii SIDOR


Geography - the most constant factor in life of any people. Geographical conditions brought together Moldavians and Russinians on southeast slopes of the Carpathians. The latitude of Carpathians Mountains, Top Potisye and the Karpato-Dnestrovsky region are already more than one thousand inhabited rusinami1, and the history of their interaction with ancestors of Moldavians of a volokhama and with Moldavians is almost so long. The beginning of their interaction was dramatic.

Ancestors of Russinians of a sklavena in U1-UI of centuries faced on Danube volokha. About it there is a certificate in the first Russian chronicle: "Volkh bo found on Slovenia on a dunayskiya, both sedshy in them and nasilyashchy to them." 2. Returning after "the Danube meeting" to the North, Slavs during the so-called "Carpathian parking" of the end of UI-І could be the X centuries under the influence of volokhov-priests. It is possible for this reason the Slavic priests who moved later from the Tissot-Danube Bowl to Russia also received the name "magicians", and many Russinians remained voloshina.

But not only to a volkhovaniye Slavs in the Carpathians from volokh studied. A little more century passed later 863 years when St. Kirill and Mefodiy preached Christianity in Moravia and Pannoniya, and later and in the Bulgarian kingdom which limits included also the Subcarpathian Russia. The Carpathians became a citadel of east Christianity which in hundred years extended to the East - on lands of Sacred Russia. Russinians the first of Russians received gold fund of the Byzantine spirituality in the compressed, "packed" look - in translation of spiritual and prayer books on Slavic language. In 988 g and later priests Russinians, having enriched the Carpathians with light of Christ's belief, took active part in a baptism of other Russia. Chronicles in Russia mentions us as Russinians of the Bulgarian citizenship and then and as it Russia-is new-ugrinov, i.e. inhabitants Ugrian (Carpathian) gor3.

So orthodox and Christian religious and philosophical ethical bases were acquired by Carpatho-Russian consciousness already in the Slavic language through kirillo-mefodiyevsky heritage, having received them in the clean chosen look. The fact that Christian and orthodox culture was brought by Church Slavonic language without Latin and Greek (from it

pagan antique and philosophical heritage), presented to Russinians an opportunity to be created from scratch, having accepted from Kirill and Mefodiy's hands cleaned spiritual brillianty4. But this circumstance enriched also orthodox Moldavians who to HUS used centuries Church Slavonic language as Romans and Germans Latin.

In the West, according to Arnold Toynbee, fathers gained "invariable victories in power duels between Grigory VII and Henry IV or between Innokenti IV and Frederick II" 5. This phenomenon, a papotsezarizm, it seems, laid the foundation of spiritual freedom of the West. However the idea of the theocratic state, spiritual totalitarianism of the Roman church, the spiritual police standing on service of the state (inquisition) were just unknown Byzantium, the Carpathian Russinians, all Rusi6 and Moldova. They also put east orthodox civilization. That is why we with gratitude remember Dimitrii Kantemir as the governor of Byzantine and orthodox spirit who played an important role in the history of the Moldavian state.

The annalistic legend of emergence of the Moldavian state furnishes the clue to understanding of early Moldavian ethnogenesis as process in - loshsko-Carpatho-Russian spiritual and orthodox synthesis. The voivode Dragosh, the head of group of the maramoroshsky hunters pursuing a tour probably came from a Carpatho-Russian sort Dragosha, from that Christian earth where legs of Kirill equal to the apostles and Mefodiy and their pupils went. The people knowing the prarusinsky-Slavic language (which became later to Church Slavonic) came here. So history, destinies and spirituality of our people intertwined.

It is possible that the character of a legend - the historic figure existing in fact. In Carpatho-Russian Transcarpathia - both only there - and until now Carpatho-Russian surnames Dragosh, Dregosh, Dolgosh remain, there is even a settlement of Dragovo on today's Carpatho-Russian Maramoroshe-Sigeta. It is impossible to exclude, as an ethnonym "Moldavians" - derivative of the Carpatho-Russian word "mladavchuk-moldavchuk" as and today in Transcarpathia the surprising Carpatho-Russian surname the Moldavian, Moldavchuk, especially around mountain Yasin often meets.

The fact that in Moldova similar surnames with the root "— Having Given the Pier" vstechatsya - is very indicative as two people, Russinians and Moldavians, keeping the ethnic group, accepted surnames by name the ethnic group. So, in Moldova there are surnames confirming the ethnic group, and Russinians still more kept themselves, Dai to themselves a surname the Russinian (most widespread), Rusnak, Rusinko, Rusanyuk, Rusinovich, Carpatho-Russian, Rusnyak, Rusinovsky, etc.

That circumstance that in the 14-15th centuries the Moldavians were really young, only formed people which separated from in-loshsky ethnic group can be the plausible version of origin of the new young people. So, in comparison with Moldavians really Russinians, Hungarians, volokh, Tatars were "more senior" than those at-sheltsev-moldavchukov, the Carpathians occupying east slopes. Therefore it is possible to assume that the name "Moldavians" not accidental. It, except a root "young-moldavchuk", bears in itself and the rejuvenating spiritual and mystical value promising them the spiritual future.

Really, in the history Moldavians were lucky more, than to Russinians. Unlike Moldavians, to Russinians did not allow to create the certain state as a part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. But at the same time they had the legal status of autonomy as a part of Hungary of 1918 (according to the Hungarian law No. 10), 27 years had the autonomy, the Subcarpathian Russia, as a part of Czechoslovakia (from 1918 to 1946), the Carpatho-Russian schools (430 schools), the government of autonomy, the anthem, the coat of arms, a flag. All this is recorded in detailed general history of Russinians of "the Encyclopedia of the Subcarpathian Russia" (there was already the second edition), of "The Carpatho-Russian pedagogical encyclopedia", "the History of the Subcarpathian Russia", "the History of the Carpathian Russia". The Carpatho-Russian ethnocultural originality is disclosed in "Grammar of Carpatho-Russian language", Carpatho-Russian dictionaries. Around the world Russinians are recognized, except Ukraine.

Russinians and Moldavians are united not by(with) just ethnocultural tolerance, but mutual genetic sympathy. In the annals of the Moldavian principality, in works of the Moldavian chroniclers and classic writers it is not recorded any case of the Moldavian-Carpatho-Russian interethnic conflicts. The Romanian historiography tried to invent such conflicts rather. Knew Nicolae Jörg that to the east of the Carpathians Dragosh met the Russian bee-keeper Yatsko (today such surname often meets at Russinians), nevertheless, without having given any facts of collisions of Moldavians with Russinians, said that the "Romanian" colonization of Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands faced the Russian (Carpatho-Russian) colonization. Recognizing presence of Russians among the nobility of Moldova and having introduced even the idea that voivodes of an initial stage of the Moldavian history were Russians (Carpatho-Russian) on proiskhozhdeniyu7, did not mention residence in the Moldavian principality of a great number of Russians, that is Russinians peasants, is even much later, at the end of the 17th century, making as the Moldavian chroniclers testified, a third of its population. Stefan Ciobanu, arriving in the spirit of the anti-Russian environment, expressed opinion that the approval of the Moldavian statehood in the 14th century, allegedly, faced attempts rusko-

go (Carpatho-Russian) prince Yury Koryatovich (1374) to create the "slavyano-Carpatho-Russian" state in a northeast corner of Moldavii8.

The third eminent Romanian expert on the Moldavian history, Alexander Boldur, provided in the works the list of the Russian cities existing in Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands before formation of the Moldavian state, the document of 1395 in which the Moldavian state is named by Rossovlakhiya, and data that in songs of Galitsky Russia the Moldova was named by Moldoslaviya taken from the Lavrentyevsky chronicle. But after N. Iorgoy he claimed that these messages were published in chronicles owing to "Slavic influence on Romanians of Moldova". Having noted that in Kiliye and Belgorod official language even before formation of the Moldavian state was Russian, he, nevertheless, dared to claim that these cities already then, one centuries prior to emergence of this ethnonym, it seems, were inhabited by the most part "Romanians" 9. Proceeding from the current political needs of Romania of the 30th, the historian tried to prove even voloshsky origin of tiverets and catch.

A. Boldur contrary to any logic explained that circumstance that in Moldova Russian was official not with residence in the principality of the ruskogo-Carpatho-Russian population, and is exclusive influence of Galitsky and Kiev metropolitanates on the Moldavian orthodox church. But also influence of the Moldavian bishops on spiritual life of the Carpathian Russia took place. Contrary to all to historic facts known already at that time and, we will repeat, using the ethnonym invented only at the beginning of the 19th century he claimed that in Bessarabia at the end of the XVI century "Romanians" 10 prevailed. The facts given by the Romanian historians, their attempts to ignore the historical information about Russinians which is already introduced for scientific use, pseudoscientific speculation on insufficiently studied moments of ethnic history it is necessary to regard as additional recognition of the fact of centuries-old Carpatho-Russian presence in the Moldavian principality.

Antinational, even anti-Ukrainian position alien to science is taken on Russinians of Moldova by the Ukrainian historiography. In defiance of the standard principle of historicism in the scientific world calling Ukrainians of monks of the Southern Russia nearly since Adam and Eve, it purposely suppresses existence of Russinians in Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands during the domongolsky period and unsubstantially refuses to recognize their residence in the Moldavian principality.

Carelessly, only one line reported about invasion of Cossacks and Tatars into Moldova in 1650 and its "cruel devastation" the Lviv-Austrian professor, and then the Soviet academician M.S. Grushevsky

(1866-1934)11. Really it did not know what more than a third of the population of this earth at that time make same, how in Podolia, Galitsky and Subcarpathian Russia, Bukovina, other western Old Russian lands, Russia-kiye people, Russinians? Apparently the content of its work "History of Ukraine-Russia" and other works, knew about Russinians, but...! A stroke to the academician's portrait: knew - and purposely did not begin to explain even the obvious approval to the robbery made in Moldova. It had a task set by Poles and the Austrians - to think up-fabricate the history of Russia-Ukraine only for Ukrainians.

The course towards ignoring of residence in medieval Moldova of the Russian (Carpatho-Russian) population was continued also by the Ukrainian historiography of Soviet period. Russinians were avoided to call by name, they were vaguely called "the East Slavic population". To them, in the spirit of Grushevsky, treated even as alien, hostile "Ukrainians" narodu12. During a campaign of army of Bogdan Khmelnytsky to Moldova in 1650 13 (we will look at this event in the generalizing work again) the capital of the Principality of Yassa was taken by Cossacks without striking a blow, the Moldavian regiments collected by the Turkish protege Vasile Lupu, a part ran up, and a part joined the Cossack army. However any explanations of the reasons of so unusual behavior of the Moldavian soldiers by the author not dano14. Not therefore whether what all of them were orthodox, and many and Russinians, and in principle did not wish to be at war against the Russian people of whom Bogdan's army consisted?

Avoided to mention existence in Moldova Russinians and the Ukrainian historians emigrants. It is groundless, in defiance of the principle of historicism, calling Russinians Ukrainians, Orestes Subtelny noted a priority of resettlement of Russinians only for Bukovine15. Seeking to invent, like the Romanian historians, fight between Russinians and Moldavians, Natalia Polonskaya-Vasilenko writes about fight "Ukrainian" (it is necessary to understand - Russian, Carpatho-Russian) boyars for the power in Moldova at the end of the XIV century, allegedly ended victory of the "Romanian" dynasty Mushatinov, and without the slightest grounds defines the principality as "national unmarked" the state. Moldavian gospodarya Stefan the Great it, without providing proofs, declares the patron of the "Ukrainian" culture, and describing a campaign of Zaporozhetses against Turks and Tatars in 1609, recognizes that at the same time "Kiliya, Ismail and Akkerman were plundered". However that most of residents of these cities was made by orthodox Russinians and Moldavians, but not Muslims not skazano16, - it is obvious not to cast a shadow on "kozatska" valor. In essence, recognizing ethnocultural identity of Russinians of Moldova, special, other than the low-Russian, did not mention existence of Russinians in the Middle Ages in the Moldavian knya-

a zhestvo, and their descendants - in the Moldavian Soviet Republic authors ethnological rabot17. Suppressing, like the Romanian historiography, existence of Russinians in Moldova, the Ukrainian historiography gives the ethnocultural estrangement from Carpatho-Russian ethnos.

But how Russinians and Moldavians in fact interacted? Judging by the Moldavian legend and data of archeology, in the middle of the 14th century the voloshsko-Carpatho-Russian refugees from Maramorosh headed by the voivode Bogdan met descendants of the Old Russian population of these lands who still called themselves Russinians on east slopes of the Carpathians. At a turn of the XVI century they as L.L. Poleva's historian showed, made 40% of the population Moldavian knyazhestva18. In 1490 the Russinians and Moldavians under Andrey Boruli's guidance by nickname Mukha19 excited in common a rebellion which covered the Shchepinetsky earth and Pokutye20. "A certain Mucha from Moldova, - the bishop Peremychlia Yan from Torgovisk reports, - in a short space of time gathered crowd of army from rural people in 9000 people. He intruded in that part of the Russian land where Snyatin lies. The city was taken and destroyed. Then it occupied many cities and villages up to Galich and subordinated to itself(himself)" 21.

It seems, it is clearly told: places where are located Snyatin and Galich, is a part of the Russian land. Mucha, the Moldavian historian recognizes

N.A. Mokhov, sources are called "волошин", "ruskiya"; the basis for its name voloshinom22, the scientist reasonably notes further, his origin from the village living by the volosh-sky right or that is indicative till this day in Transcarpathia could serve the villager in whom it is compact, small groups there lived volokh. Other reason for that, we will add, there could be that circumstance that Mucha was the Moldavian citizen, and Moldova in Russia and in Poland was often called by "Earth the Voloshsky". Another is surprising: fixation on concealment of Carpatho-Russian identity of the leader of a revolt worked and in this case. Even so objective scientist as N.A. Mokhov allowed derogation from the principle of historicism and called Mucha for some reason the Ukrainian.

About any fight of the Moldavian boyars or the authorities of the Moldavian principality against Mucha's revolt of data is not present; obviously, the Orthodox Christian gospodar Stefan Weliki sympathized with them. Insurgents Russinians and Moldavians were broken by army of the Catholic king near Ro-gatin, only Mucha with a handful of colleagues went to Moldova, to rusky Belgorod. By order of gospodarya they were imprisoned in a dungeon - in order to avoid diplomatic collisions or simply covered from the Polish prosecutions. In a year they were released from prison, and they excited a rebellion again and repeated a campaign to Lviv. Campaign of 1491

also ended with defeat. Andrey Borulya was grabbed, brought to Hotin and there is beheaded. His colleagues were dumped from fortress walls.

In 1492 - here it, unrestrained spirit of Russinians! - the revolt in the Shchepe-nitsky earth and Galitsky Russia was resumed. His new head accepted a nice name of Mucha. Shlyakhticham was succeeded to track down him and to grab near Galich. It was sent to Krakow where he was tortured in prison. But the memory of Mucha remained in the people. In Red and Galitsky Russia, the Russian historian of the XIX EL Zubritsky noted, wishing to emphasize someone's courage, for a long time said: "Jac Kozak Mucha" 23. Whether the Russian people could speak about that with whom they did not feel ethnocultural relationship so? The Russian origin of the leader of a revolt was recognized also by medieval Polish historians. From Mucha's revolt, in 60 years prior to the basis of Zaporizhia Sechi, they began history kazachestva24. Russinians of Moldova have the right to consider Hotin the holy site of Carpatho-Russian history, and Mucha - "voloshin" and the rusky person - one of Carpatho-Russian national heroes.

The Saint Stefan Weliki who laid the spiritual-national foundation of the Moldavian state is closely connected with Carpatho-Russian history. It is known that he is mentioned in the Russian chronicles as "Stefan, the voivode of voloskiya". Stefan he is named by the Moldavian chroniclers, starting with Grigory Ureke. Except Moldavians and Romanians, till this day a name Stefan in shape Stefan is available only for Russinians. To find out business of historians who from whom borrowed this form of a name. We will note that its community once again confirms ancient contacts of the Carpathian Russinians with founders of Moldova. It is well-known that Stefan Weliki knew Old Russian (Carpatho-Russian) language and probably talked on it in family. His second wife Eudoxia was a sister of the Kiev prince Dimitrii Olelkovich, and data that she knew the Moldavian language, is not present.

In primordially Carpatho-Russian region, on Bukovina, Stefan Weliki found spiritual support and the armed support after fight, tragic for Moldavians, with Turks in the White valley in 1476. In days when in the field of fight the winners erected pyramids from the heads of the killed Moldavians when a part of the Moldavian boyars changed Stefan and came over to the side of Ottomans, in the north of the principality formed of Russinians gospodar new army. This army broke the war course, appear, already won by Muslims. The support given by Russinians to Stefan at the critical moment demonstrates their firmness and loyalty to the orthodox Moldavian state. Therefore the assumption about kind and respect of Stefan Weliki for Russinians, for their language and culture, absolutely naturally.


knew it also outside Moldova In those days. St. Stefan's tomb in the monastery Putna was consecrated by 64 orthodox hierarches from Moldova, Galicia, Walachia and Kiev. Participation of svyashchenni-kov-Russinians in this ceremony gives the grounds and to us, to modern Russinians to consider Stefan and our Saint whose life - a role model not only for Moldavians, but also for today's Russinians and Russians. Strategic orientation to Moscow, the idea of orthodox integralism, so, and friendship of Moldavians with Russinians of the Moldavian principality, put by it in consciousness of the Moldavian people, remains in force and today, centuries later.

One more merit in distribution of Orthodoxy in Russia we have the right to charge to Russinians. As it is already noted, in the X century the subcarpathian Russinians of the Bulgarian citizenship helped to christen other Russia, bearing all Russian prarusinsky Slavic language and spiritual literature, and with it and a quintessence of the Byzantine Orthodoxy of times of its blossoming. Gustav Spet, the Westerner standing on a position of superiority of the western culture the evil complains: it is a pity that "we were christened in Greek, and language we were given Bulgarian... Solunsky brothers played for Russia a fatal role" 25. But history confirmed fidelity of the spiritual choice of Russinians. It was saving. Otherwise also all historical Russian natsiya26 which spiritual core is Orthodoxy, Kirill and Mefodiy's language, ancient sacred Russianness would not be created.

Russinians with gratitude remember the Podolsk Russian prince who with suite arrived in the Carpatho-Russian region as the peace guest. In the 14th century the Podolsk prince Fedor of Koryatovich27 with numerous suite, escaping from prosecution of the Polish king, settles in the center of the Carpatho-Russian earth in Mukachevskaya's dominiya. It supports with Promyslitelno there both Orthodoxy, and Carpatho-Russian (rusky) spirit as at that time the Hungarians who became Catholics entered new belief and on Wednesday the subject Russinians. But they could make it, i.e. spiritually break a part of Carpatho-Russian priests (60 of 1000), only in 1646, having entered the union and in Uzhhorod. The Uzhhorod union, only in 50 years after the Polish and Brest union of 1596 entered at means of levers of the state violence, compelled a part of local Russinians to submission of Rimu28. But indispensable a submission condition Russinians delivered to Rome preservation of east orthodox ceremony and Church Slavonic language (very close to Carpatho-Russian) as church service language. Thereby they and among uniats kept the rusky identity.

In that time, vague for Russia, it is come to the rescue also by healthy Carpatho-Russian forces of Moldova. In the XVII century Russinians of Moldav-

sky principality of a distance of Sacred Russia, Moldova and all world culture of such educators, as metropolitan Kiev Peter Mogila29 and founder of all-Russian Pamva (Pavel) Berynda. It it in 1637 published the well-known "Slavic-and-Russian dictionary", having put thereby also one of the most important bases of the all-Russian state and political unity. And our subcarpathian Russinian Yury Venelin-Gutsu (1802-1839)30 compared Pyotr Mogilu on the importance of education of Russia to the tsar Peter I 150 years ago. "I gave only a parallel between prince Pyotr Mogiloyu and Peter the Great, - he writes, - but I will hesitate to prefer as someone from them concerning line of education of Russia." 31. Already then society highly appreciated the metropolitan Pyotr Mogilu. And today we remember our predecessors who were truly serving Sacred Russia. But for us, Russinians, it is indicative that appreciation to Pyotr Mogile was given by the Russinian Venelin at whom and a prefix to a surname the Moldavian -


As well as Russinians, Moldavians sincerely adhered to opinion idea that Moscow (more precisely all Russia) - Third Rim33, and to them, as well as all Orthodox Christians, it is necessary to be in citizenship of the orthodox Moscow sovereign where the belief of their fathers remains sacredly. In 150 years after Stefan Weliki's death, in the middle of the 17th century, its course towards transition of Moldova to the Russian citizenship was continued gospodar by Georgy Stefan. But whether who dares to claim today that ruskiye-Russinians, according to the Moldavian chroniclers, the population of the Moldavian principality making in those days a third, did not participate actively in formation of this pro-Russian course? Certainly, they carried out the mission adequately what are called for and today.

The embassy of the metropolitan Gideon laid the foundation for the whole series of similar missions of Moldavians to Moscow. A specific place in the Moldavian-Russian interaction is held also by Dmitry Kantemir. The resolute attempt of Moldova to be exempted from two-centuries dependence on Turks and to carry out Stefan Weliki and Georgy Stefan's ancient project about association with orthodox Russia is connected with his name. On April 13, 1711 the voivode Dimitrii signed the Lutsk contract which provided accession of Moldova to Russia on the confederative beginnings with Peter I. The events which followed after that are interesting also that they revealed existence in Moldova of mass Moldavian-Carpatho-Russian bilingualism.

Dmitry Kantemir since childhood knew Slavic language, the Russian book language of that time. But, probably, not only book. In the extensive descriptions of the Prutian campaign given by the Moldavian chroniclers Nikolay Kostin and Ioann Nekulche, words it is not told about

any difficulties in communication not only gospodarya and the Moldavian boyars with the tsar Peter I, his ministers and generals, but also ordinary Moldavians with the Russian soldiers. It were not required for them perevodchiki34 because classic Carpatho-Russian language was clear to both Moldavians, and Russians.

The Prutian campaign of Peter terminated in failure, but for Moldavians it became an inspiring prolog of release. Partly it became Dmitry Kantemir's merit. Many researchers come to a conclusion that as the Reverend "Alexander Nevsky made the choice comparable on the importance with the choice of belief at St. Vladimir" 35, and Dmitry Kantemir, making the decision on the fate of Moldova, sacrificed himself, having devoted the life to service to the Moldavian people. Having gone to Russia, he continued to help Moldova the scientific works and advised the Russian emperor concerning east policy.

However in Moldova fanariota, Greek governors were approved. They destroyed the fertile Moldavian-Carpatho-Russian two-language environment. Assimilation of Russinians amplified. But the native language was lost also by the Moldavian nobility. By the end of century the Moldavian boyars even preferred to make the addresses to governors of Russia in Greek. But they remained Orthodox Christians and acted as Orthodox Christians and on behalf of Moldavians. Stay of Moldova under the Russian management during wars with the Ottoman Empire (in 1739, 1768-1773, 1787-1791 and in 18061812) strengthened confidence in Moldavians that accession of Moldova to the Russian Empire is possible and saving. In 1812 they managed to carry out the ancient geopolitical project: the part of the Moldavian principality called Bessarabia was a part of Dews -


The fate of the part of the principality which is compactly inhabited by Russinians was more difficult. In 1774 Bukovina was torn off from Moldova and transferred to the Catholic Austrian empire. Communication of Moldavians and Russinians was interrupted. Russinians of Bukovina, appear, were doomed to national assimilation by the European Catholicism. In this sense the Mohammedan dominion over Moldova was a lesser evil even. Having laid Moldova under tribute, Muslims did not touch belief of Orthodox Christians. Magometanstvo rendered to Orthodoxy and Slavic peoples "unconscious service [...] having protected the first from a latinstvo pressure, having saved the second from absorption by its romano-germanstvo" 37. In other words, it protected the Balkans and Moldova from the destroying influence of the western civilization which was cruelly destroying the small people of Euro-py38, including Russinians.

It was the dangerous period of Carpatho-Russian history. Rome lost monopoly for spiritual violence long ago. But in the 16th century Luther with was

a caesaropapism, and then with tsezarizmom39. Europe, in many respects because of the Lutheran principle si) highway of regyu, ejus ге^ю, "whose power, that and belief", became also a grave for other beliefs, so, and the people. Maintaining orthodox belief as spiritual core provided to both Moldavians, and Russinians the continuity of spiritual tradition and cultural originality even in rabstve40. In the Western Russia there were other examples. Contacts of the prince Daniil Galitsky with Vatican undermined internal unity of the Galitsko-Volynsky principality, washed away the state consciousness of its ruling class. As G. Vernadsky noted, dramatizing a situation a little, "all of his (Daniil) Otchin of all in half a century was completely taken, catholicized, all traces of Russian (Carpatho-Russian) and orthodox are erased" 41. Having kept Orthodoxy, Russinians of Bukovina kept the Russianness.

With accession of Bessarabia to Russia the Moldavians and Russinians inhabiting the North of this area, especially Hotinsky County appeared as a part of one administrative unit again. Their ethnocultural interaction received continuation, but ethnic development went in various directions. Moldavians kept the name, and here the new administration for foreign policy reasons preferred to call Russinians malorusami42. Few intellectuals from local Russinians remained at positions of the all-Russian integralism and called themselves just Russian. Galitsko-russkiye and the Bukovina intellectuals became on the same positions under the threat on-silstvennoy a polonization and germanization. It was not written any book on stories of Russinians of Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands. As a result when the Moldavian people which underwent an Ottoman yoke were consolidated in the nation, and the number of Moldavians in hundred years of development of Bessarabia as a part of the Russian Empire increased six times, the Russinians who got under oppression of Avstrii43 began to forget the ancient self-name. Assimilation of Russinians and in Bessarabia amplified. At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century Russinians, especially in the Balti and Soroksky Counties where lived chrespolosno with Moldavians, began to pass with masses to Moldavian ethnic samoidentifikatsii44.

A heavy blow was struck to a galitsky and Bessarabia rusinstvo by world war of 1914-1918 45. Under the guise of fight against the "moskvofilsky" movement the Austro-Hungarian authorities physically destroyed the most part of galitsko-Russian intelligentsia and also having Carpatho-Russian consciousness of the intellectuals of Bukoviny46. Nevertheless, during revolutionary shocks of 1917-1920 the Russinians made a number of attempts of the state construction. In Galichina the People's republic (ZUNR), and in the Subcarpathian Russia was proclaimed (for couple of days)

>- Russian (Carpatho-Russian) autonomy of "Rusk Krayn"; in 1918 reshe-

niy a peace Saint-Zhermensky conference (near Paris) the Subcarpathian Russia was a part of the Czechoslovak Republic as wide autonomy. On February 5, 1919 even the Carpatho-Russian Huzul Republic with the center in the village Yasinya47 was proclaimed.

The Hotinsky rebellion excited by them in the north of Bessarabia became the most graphic evidence of brotherly unity of Russinians and Moldavians. With an attack on the Romanian post on the night of January 19, 1919 a revolt there began the group of the Moldavian guerrillas under G.I. Barbutsa's team. Russinians and Moldavians supported him, the revolt extended to the Hotinsky County and the North of Soroksky and Balti Counties. In Hotin the insurgents created the government - the Directory. However the petlyurovsky Directory applying for the power over Ukraine, counting on protection of France, England and other allies of Romania and therefore it that the revolt happened under the slogans of reunion of Bessarabia to Russia, took the part of interventionists. It was treachery. It helped the Romanian troops to suppress vosstaniye48. Then the Romanian troops occupied a part of the Subcarpathian Russia and Maramorosh-Siget, including the historic Carpatho-Russian town of Siget49. The territory of ZUNR after short time was liquidated Polish voyskami50.

Formation of the Ukrainian Soviet statehood did not leave to the leadership of the USSR of the choice. It was headed for formation of the Ukrainian socialist nation. The policy of an Ukrainization and the Belarusian-sizatsii which was carried out in the 20-30th was aimed at elimination of the low-Russian and Belarusian identity. Malorusa and also Belarusians were deprived of the right to be called as a part of the Russian people. And it when as the wonderful Russian philosopher, the native of the Vitebsk region Nikolay Lossky noted: "All history and Belarusians is their continuous fight for the Russianness"! In 1925 by the decision of Komintern it was headed for renaming into Ukrainians also of Russinians of Subcarpathian Rusi51.

In Bessarabia the Romanian authorities, on the one hand, like Bolsheviks, imposed to Russinians and malorossa the Ukrainian national self-identification, and with another, counteracting the idea of the all-Russian unity, in every possible way emphasized the differences existing between Russinians, Huzuls with malorusa, Ukrainians, members of the party Great Russia. In questionnaires of 1930 the whole fan of ethnonyms was offered Russinians: routines, Ukrainian, malorus, Rusnak, Huzul. As a result many Russinians, without knowing as to identify itself, chose the state identity - rumynskuyu52. The main goal of invaders - rumanisation of most of the Russinians who are under their power - appear, was achieved. Were in similar situation also a pier-davane53. They also had to protect from rumanisation policy the

national consciousness, name of the language, feature Moldavian kultury54.

Further the Moldavian and Carpatho-Russian originality had various destinies. In 1940 the Moldavians found statehood as a part of the USSR. After the Great Patriotic War the Moldavian national consciousness, the Moldavian culture, the Moldavian language got the state support. At the same time the Carpatho-Russian identity was ignored. Russinians and their descendants forcibly wrote down as Ukrainians. Introducing training at Ukrainian in Carpatho-Russian villages, they not only were limited in the right to education in Russian which, we will remind, was not great Russian, but all-Russian, but also "Russinians" tabooed an ethnonym. Only in the late fifties the ethnocultural violence at means of school which is carried out under a specious excuse providing to citizens of the right to education in the native language in Moldova was stopped.

The subcarpathian Russia renamed into Transcarpathia was deprived of autonomy and included in structure not of Russia as Russinians wished, and the Soviet Ukraine. Russinians, without asking their consent, the Ukrainian authorities were written down as Ukrainians. In Pryashevsky Russia left as a part of Czechoslovakia, the attempt of an Ukrainization provoked Russinians to other choice: the majority announced them itself slovakami55. Whether it was necessary for Ukraine?

At a boundary of the 90th years of the 20th century of Transcarpathia, in historical Carpathian Russia, Russinians and their descendants opposed violent ethnocultural transformation of Carpatho-Russian ethnos, oblivion of its roots. None of Russinians talk about full ethnocultural identity of Russinians, Belarusians, Ukrainians and members of the party Great Russia and the more so about absorption by some others today. But we consider necessary restoration of historically reasonable three-level design of national consciousness of branches of the ancient spiritual and historical concept "Russian people": Belarusians - Russians - Slavs; members of the party Great Russia - Russians - Slavs, ruskiye-Slavic Ukrainians, etc. Russinians have this model almost two-level: Russinians (as ancient Russia-kiye) and Slavs. The spirit of the Carpatho-Russian national anthem kept this condition:

"Desire rusky leader (leaders),

Rusky yes lives the people.

We ask God vyshnyago,

Yes will support


Also will give ages of the best".

In the 90th of XX and at the very beginning of the 21st century the foundation is laid for revival of Carpatho-Russian ethnos, his historical memory also in Moldova,

Romania, Hungary, Slovakia to Poland. The governments of these countries and also the USA and Canada where there are Carpatho-Russian diasporas, recognize Carpatho-Russian ethnicity. It cannot be told about the government of Ukraine which - the only thing in the world - does not recognize Russinians as ethnic group.

Again called into question and national identity of the Moldavian people, by local supporters of rumanisation this time. Moldavians were deprived of the traditional Cyrillic writing, them try to deprive of a lingvonim "the Moldavian language". However Moldavians continue to consider themselves Moldavians. It is possible to judge that how highly appreciates the geopolitical course developed and which is carried out by the Moldavian people since the time of Stefan Weliki, the modern Moldavian public upon:

2003 was announced in Moldova year of Dmitry Kantemir, and 2004 - year of Stefan Weliki. In the village of Ulit-cinema situated near Moscow where there is St. Mary Magdalene's church built in 1748 by efforts of Mary, Dmitry Kantemir's daughter the remarkable ceremony was held. The famous Moldavian writer Ion Drutse in cooperation with Embassy of Moldova in the Russian Federation organized fund raising on reconstruction of the temple. The chairman of the Moldavian parliament Evgenia Ostapchuk who visited the temple in the head of the delegation on behalf of parliament transferred money to reconstruction of church. The memory of Dimitrii Kantemir, of historical roots of the Moldavian-Russian partnership promotes strengthening and expansion of friendship, cultural and spiritual bonds between the Russian and Moldavian people also today.

As for Russia, globalization and the process of settling by its other people gaining scope can weaken the Russian national consciousness, undermine Russianness of Russians. Besides, there is still a danger assimilation of Russians the West. It is probable destiny and other orthodox people: Russinians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Moldavians, Romanians, Serbians, Bulgarians, Slovenes, Croats, Greeks. Where that today's spiritual Palestine capable to awaken the Russian Third Rome that it remembered Russinians? It is indisputable that it to be in borders of ancient Russian lands, and the beginning of a new wave of revival of Russianness, perhaps, will be necessary on the outskirts of Russia, in the Carpathians, and to the south - in Moldova. The impulse to revival the Saint of Russia can come from the Carpathians where clean celestial Sacred Russia which the North of Moldova adjoins remained.

Moldavians remain coreligion to the Russian Russinians, Belarusians, Ukrainians also today and represent a part of an orthodox civilization. Among us, Russinians of Transcarpathia, and today live ethnic volokhi56. They are worthy special study. Ukrainians puta-

whether them with Roma, but Russinians of room?

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