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Realities of the Don tourism at the beginning of the 21st century



 © 2005 of T.P. Dolzhenko, S.A. Belorusov

REALITIES of the DON TOURISM at the beginning of the 21st CENTURY

Tourism - an important component of the social and economic sphere of a large number of the countries of the world. For many of them it became a core of economic development, the catalyst of a number of the industries: constructions, transport, communication, agriculture, national crafts, culture, etc.

In Russia in the mid-nineties of the 20th century tourism was recognized as one of priority branches of national economy that is recorded in Article 3 "Principles of State Regulation of Tourist Activity" of the Federal Law "About Bases of Tourist Activity in the Russian Federation" (1996). 9 years the first law on tourism works in the country. For this period at various levels serious efforts on development of a tourist industry are made. But Russia cannot still be carried to group of the states which possess the leading positions in world tourism. So, the number of the international tourist arrivals to our country in 2003 equaled 3152 thousand that makes only 0.44% of the total number of the international tourist arrivals in the world, equal 714,000 thousand [1]. Only 0.02 foreign tourists whereas, for example, in France - 1.35, are the share Spain of one resident of Russia - 1.4, the Republic of Cyprus - about 4 tourists. The number of the Russians who left to foreign countries with the tourist purposes in 2003 made 5679 thousand (about 4% of the population of the country). On this indicator Russia considerably lags behind many economically developed countries of the world.

Close attention in all regions of our country from the western borders to Chukotka and from Taimyr to Altai is paid to tourism development problems now. In it see one of levers of sustainable development of economy of certain territories. So, in Bashkiria the tourist "Golden Ring of Bashkortostan" with hope to make it as popular as "The Golden Ring of Russia" is created. In the Tyumen region the regional target program "Creation of the Tourist Center of Western Siberia on the basis of Historical and Cultural Heritage of the City of Tobolsk" is adopted. Irkutsk is tried to be turned into the center of the formed uniform tourist space of the Bai-kalo-Mongolian Asia, etc.

What place of the Rostov region, one of the largest territorial subjects of the federation, in tourism of modern Russia? Whether there will be it among leaders or to it the role is prepared to remain in group of outsiders of a tourist industry of the country? Let's try to consider this question, having begun with the tourist resource capacity of the area.

Tourist geographical location of the Rostov region. The region tourist geographical location us is understood as its territorial relation to tourist destinations and also to the centers - to the exporters of tourists and transport arteries connecting regions of suppliers of tourists with resort areas of the country. Turistsko-geogra-

fichesky situation has significant effect on development of tourism in the region, on geography of tourist streams.

The Rostov region, being in the south of the European territory of Russia, borders in the West on Ukraine. In the south it adjoins the Krasnodar and Stavropol regions within which the most popular resorts of the country are concentrated. Closest to Rostov-on-Don, the main tourist donor in the area, the resort town of Yeysk on the Sea of Azov, slightly farther, but within 6 - 8-hour transport availability - Anapa, Gelendzhik, Tuapse, Big Sochi on the Black Sea, Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region, the Hot Key, Arkhyz, Teberda - Dombai and others in mountainous areas of the Caucasus is located.

It is obvious that the tourist geographical location of the Rostov region can be estimated as extremely favorable. It promotes visit by residents of Rostov of resorts of the South of Russia, the main health resorts of the country.

Assessment of natural tourist potential. The main natural tourist and recreational resource in the Rostov region is the Don River. It is characterized by a slow current (0.5 - 0.7 m/s), lack of rapids and rifts. Annual high waters are observed only on Central Don in the Upper Don and Sholokhovsky districts. On the Lower Don the high waters are rare and depend on extent of filling by spring waters of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. The period of mass bathings when water is heated-up higher than 20 degrees, begins on average with the first - the second decade of June and comes to an end in the second decade of August (in hot summer - at the beginning of September), i.e. 80 - 90 days last. It is rather short-term period which duration needs to be considered during the planning of stationary rest and creation of recreational constructions of year-round action.

Don is characterized by the big extent of sandy beaches in the floodplain of the river. On Central Don they annually flood at spring high waters therefore creation of tourist complexes in inundated territories appears a difficult task. To build them on high coast far from beaches where are located the village and the farm, it is senseless as rest to Dona is a bathing and beach recreation, and, therefore, means of accommodation of vacationers have to be near beaches.

Natural features of Don are extremely favorable for holding simple water hikes on various types of vessel. The wide experience of their organization is accumulated at the Rostov state university and ROZAO Rostovturist. But its introduction in life, despite widely put advertizing of a tour on Central Don, did not take place. It can be explained with the high cost of a tour commensurable with sea tour and also long term habit of residents of Rostov concerning a way and the venue of annual vacation on located

nearby Black Sea.

Researches of the available tourist infrastructure on the Don River showed its extremely poor development. The Don recreational resources are used only in not numerous places by the enterprises of Volgodonsk, Shakhty, Novocherkassk, Rostov-on-Don which created on river banks the departmental recreation facilities which in the majority do not meet today the increased requirements of citizens to rest conditions.

Other water water area - Taganrog Bay of the Sea of Azov - is not considered by us as the recreational resource having significant value. It is characterized universal extreme shallowness of a wide strip of coastal territories with a muddy bottom, by big pollution of waters, strong development of blue-green and diatomic seaweed during the summer bathing period, i.e. discomfortable conditions for rest.

At the organization of tourist activity it is necessary to consider the mode of weathers. In the Rostov region they are favorable for tourism only in a warm part of year from May to September. Therefore, the Don region belongs to territories of a summer recreation with the bathing period in June - August. The mode of weathers within a year does not give the grounds for making decisions on creation of capital constructions of rest of year-round action to Dona, except sanatorium institutions for which the major medical natural factor is not the climate, but hydromineral base.

The forest lands playing an important role in the organization of rest in a steppe natural zone in which all territory of the Rostov region is located are unattractive for rekreant. The main natural forest associations of area are the inundated woods representing thickets from treelike willows, a black poplar, shrubby willows growing on the sandy deposits created along the Don course. In the depth of an inundated forest strip, the narrow boggy spaces extended on a current with an alder black are widespread in priterrasovy parts of the floodplain. Experts do not carry inundated forest associations to valuable recreational grounds. Most favorable for rest and

treatments at a number of diseases the pine forests in the Rostov region are presented by artificial landings on sandy massifs of its northern part. Their nature protection role is extremely big while it recreational - is insignificant.

In the fall, at the end of September - October, it is possible to carry mushroom grounds of the North of the Rostov region to recreational resources. The popular belief that the Don region is poor in edible fungi, does not answer the truth. Only in pine plantings of Sholokhovsky district the locals prepare annually hundreds of kilograms. Cepe meets in forest plantings and natural oak groves at sufficient moistening at the end of May, but the best conditions for it develop in September - October. The birch mushroom ordinary, an aspen mushroom red, a slippery jack real, chanterelle real is collected since the beginning of summer to the middle of October, a honey agaric real - from the middle of August on November, various species of oyster mushrooms - in the summer and in the fall, etc. [2]. A number of tourist firms of Rostov-on-Don began to organize mushroom tours to forests of the North of the area.

The limiting natural factors of development of tourism. Among major factors it is necessary to call pollution of a surface water, the pollen of a number of plants which is the reason of pollinoz and existence of a large number of blood-sicking insects to Dona during all summer period.

The quality of a surface water of land of the basin of Don on the classification accepted in Roshydromet is characterized by range from "polluted" to "extremely dirty". Water of Central Don corresponds to a class of the "polluted" waters (3a or 3b C.), the site of Don from a dam of the Tsimlyansk hydroelectric power station to the mouth - generally to a class of "dirty waters" (4a or 4b C.). The site from Rostov-on-Don to Azov is most polluted. The average level of content of pollutants in water fluctuates ranging from 2 up to 6 maximum allowable concentrations, maximum reaches 16 maximum allowable concentrations [3].

Researches of the Center of Gossanepidnadzor in the Rostov region in recreation zones to Dona revealed high microbiological pollution of water (tab. 1).

Table 1

Water quality on chemical and microbiological indicators in recreation zones in the Rostov region (number of the tests of water which are not conforming to hygienic requirements, %) Materials of the Center of Gossanepidnadzor in the Rostov region

Year On chemical indicators On microbiological indicators

An average on area Volgodonsk Rostov-on-Don Taganrog An average on area Volgodonsk Rostov-on-Don Taganrog

2001 74.5 0.0 91.7 100.0 41.9 24.0 57.1 46.9
2002 54.8 16.7 80.0 100.0 39.8 8.0 50.2 44.8
2003 40.6 0.0 28.6 56.5 33.6 17.3 31.1 55.8
2004 44.1 0.0 39.8 55.4 30.8 17.2 26.1 40.5

Judging by materials of the Center of Gossanepidnadzor, the cleanest is the water area of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir at Volgodonsk, strong pollution of water is constantly noted in Taganrog Bay of the Sea of Azov at the city beach of Taganrog.

By works on studying a microbiological situation in the Don water it is established that the value of indexes of laktozopolozhitelny colibacillus, kolifag exceeds standards in dozens and even thousands of times, especially below Rostov-on-Don and in Taganrog

gulf. These indicators within the cities of Rostov-on-Don, Azov, Taganrog are highest. Annually in Dona from the Tsimlyansk water-engineering system to its mouth the holeropodobny microflora and virus pollution are found [4].

The serious problem which does not have today any decision is strong blossoming of water in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir, in the Don River, Taganrog Bay, caused by cyanobacteria (blue-green seaweed). Blossoming considerably worsens water quality and limits use of reservoirs for bathing, especially Tsimlyansk Reservoir which surface of gulfs during the separate periods of summer represents kasheobrazny weight from blue-green seaweed.

Considerable chemical and bacterial pollution of a surface water of the Rostov region, blossoming constrain their organized use for rest. The service of Gossanepidnadzor is forced to limit water use on the Don River, especially below Rostov-on-Don and also in Taganrog Bay, on the river the Seversky Donets to prevent developing of infectious and non-communicable diseases among the population.

Other factor limiting development of tourism in the territory of the Rostov region is pollinoz. This seasonal allergic inflammatory disease caused by pollen of plants. Clinically it is shown in the form of allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, sometimes is followed by development of bronchial asthma and other symptoms. Half of linoz - the widespread disease, number of patients with it in different countries makes from 1.6 to 24% and grows from year to year, and residents of the cities suffer more often.

The Rostov region differs in one of the highest rates of population morbidity half of linozom in the North Caucasus. About 70 patients are the share of 1000 of its inhabitants [5]. In Don region the allergy to a wormwood, an orach, a tsiklokhena, hemp and an ambrosia especially often meets. The peak of diseases falls on July - August, for the period of the greatest tourist activity.

During a season of aggravation of a pollinoz the doctors in many cases recommend to the patients to replace a climatic zone - to come out for a while to mountains, to the sea or on the North of Russia and not to appear in places of blossoming of above-mentioned weeds. It means for tourism of area that 10 or even 15% of its population are forced to spend the vacation in other regions of the country.

The midges presented to Dona by generally not malarial and malarial mosquitoes, gadflies and wood lice belong to the factors which are negatively influencing rest. Places of a vyplod of the mosquitoes which are most of all annoying tourists are the temporary, drying-up reservoirs in the floodplain of the river, boggy territories, fish breeding ponds. Two peaks of activity of mosquitoes are during the day noted: in the evening before sunset and in the morning before rising. Only fall of temperature of air is lower & #43;7 to a hail -

owls, wind more than 5 m/s, a rain (i.e. discomfort conditions) reduce or completely stop their activity.

The main historical and cultural resources in the Rostov region which are of keen interest to the population of the region are concentrated in several cities and rural settlements: Rostov-on-Don (museums, town planning monuments), Taganrog (the places connected with A.P. Chekhov's life the museums), Azov (museums), Novocherkassk (museums and architecture), Volgodonsk (Volgodonsk nuclear power plant, the Tsimlyansk hydroelectric power station), Aksay (museums) and villages Old Cherkassk (the Old Cherkassk historical and architectural memorial estate), Veshenskoy (State memorial estate of M.A. Sholokhov), Nedvi-govke (archaeological memorial estate "Tanais").

To carry out the assessment of historical and cultural resources for tourism, to be exact as objects for creation of excursions, - a task not from simple. It is necessary to define truly their excursion value (excursion attraktivnost) and not to confuse it with purely historical. Without having made it, you will not understand why archaeological memorial estate "Tanais", the well-known monument of ancient history to experts having the status of republican is a little attractive to the people who visited the countries with outstanding archaeological values of Greece, Italy or the Western Turkey. Participants of excursions are attracted first of all by sights of good safety, the memorial museums of great people, but the cultural figures not long ago forgotten, sciences and arts, spectacular subjects to display, but not expressionless (not attractive) memorable places on which there were any given historical events.

From positions of excursion business all historical and cultural resources need to be divided into three groups - the international, federal and regional (local) importance. According to authors, in the Rostov region M.A. Sholokhov's memorial estate in Veshenskaya, Taganrog with A.P. Chekhov's museums and the Old Cherkassk memorial estate devoted to the Don Cossacks can apply for the international status, and that only thanks to the world glory of our fellow countrymen. Neither the architecture, nor a city sculpture are motivation for visit of excursions in the specified settlements.

Despite the international status of the above-mentioned places, tours for acquaintance to them which would attract to the Rostov region at least a small, but constant flow of tourists from Russian regions and the abroad are still not created.

The Don historical and cultural monuments and also museum collections matter generally regional (local). On their basis the excursion activity focused first of all on the population of the area is formed.

Means of accommodation of tourists represent the most important component of a tourist industry. Their existence promotes, and absence

constrains development of tourism in the region. The tourist centers of the Rostov region do not lack means of placement. In Rostov-on-Don, Taganrog, Novocherkassk, Azov there are 10 category hotels (1 - 3 stars) and a number of not category. According to the Rostov regional committee on statistics, the efficiency of cash places is for 2 - 3-star hotels 0.44 - 0.45, one-star and not category - 0.29.

The analysis of efficiency of cash places in hotels shows that now at the correct advance planning of tourist streams if those arise, means of placement will not become a deterrent of development of tourism in the region.

For fuller picture it should be noted that for the last 15 years in the area any large hotel complex is not built. There is a creation only of small private hotels with the high level of service.

The face of modern Don tourism is a result of activity of the tourist firms which replaced at the end of 80 - the beginning of 90 of the 20th century in a tourist field tourist and excursion production association Rostovturist, BMMT "Satellite", VAO "Intourist". From the moment of emergence in the late eighties of of the 20th century of the first tourist cooperatives "Kruiz", "Turist" at an autocamp site Don, "Globe" at a camp site Rostov-Don, "Rest" at BMMT "Satellite" the number of tourist firms repeatedly grew and in 2003 reached 184. Results of their work are given in the tab. 2 made on materials of annual certification of tourist firms of area, which is carried out by the Ministry of physical education, sport and tourism of the Rostov region.

Table 2

The number of the tourists served by tourist firms of the Rostov region in 2001 - 2003 [6]

Indicator 2001 2002 2003

Quantity served

tourists (people), including 233368 255386 237600

on tourism:

internal 221382 241092 210799

entrance 3643 3025 3855

exit 8343 11271 22946

Before starting the analysis of these tab. 2, it is necessary to make the following remark. The concept "domestic tourism" does not give ideas of tourist streams within the Rostov region, as well as any other territorial subject of the Russian Federation. For the purpose of clarification of it "domestic tourism" it is necessary to subdivide into three of its components: "domestic regional tourism" (travel within area), "internal exit" (travel to other Russian regions), "internal entrance" (travel to the Rostov region from other Russian regions). If not to make it, then the volumes served turi-

of st on domestic tourism can be taken mistakenly for number of travelers across the Rostov region, and it is at all not so [7].

In number of the served citizens on domestic tourism the main share (up to 90%) is made by the tourists spending a free time outside the Rostov region. It is connected with the fact that, according to requirements of Goskomstat, general information on domestic tourism joins the residents of Rostov having a rest according to permits of tourist firms on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus in mountains of the North Caucasus, the tourist groups sent to Moscow, St. Petersburg on Golden Ring and in other regions of Russia.

The 2nd volumes of domestic tourism specified in the tab. are not the final size characterizing all internal outbound tourism flow at all. Here the residents of the Rostov region who had a rest on departmental tourist centers in the holiday houses and boarding houses constructed by many enterprises, institutions and the organizations of area on the Black Sea coast and in the mountains of the Caucasus did not enter. Besides, the big flow of the residents of Rostov who are independently organizing the rest and going mainly to the Black Sea resorts is noted in the summer. So far nobody deeply investigated this considerable tourist stream. By data about passenger traffic on the railway and road transport in Rostov-on-Don, it can surpass statistically considered tourists by two-three times. The difference between number of passengers and was conditionally taken in the summer for the size of the summer unorganized stream directed to the South in the winter. Therefore, it is possible to consider with confidence that the total volume of domestic organized and unorganized tourism is exceeded by 0.5 million people. It makes more than 10% of residents of the Rostov region. This size is correlated with the average Russian indicators. It is considered that in the Russian Federation 10 - 15% of its population can use tourist services at the expense of the family budget [8].

The number of vacationers on internal regional routes is extremely insignificant. The reasons are in low popularity among citizens of area of the intraregional centers of rest in comparison with sea and mountain resorts.

The sharp prevalence of number of the tourists spending the vacation in Russia, over number going abroad attracts attention. So, in 2003 the volumes of outbound international tourism were only 9% of all number of the tourists served by tourist firms. Residents of Rostov make extremely small percent from all Russians affording rest in foreign resorts. Judging by data of the Ministry of physical education, sport and tourism of RO, abroad as tourists only 0.5% of citizens of area visited. This indicator is 8 times less, than across Russia. Even if to recognize that the ministry considered no more than a half of tourists because of imperfection statistical tourist

the reporting in the country, and then the number of vacationers abroad will make small size.

However it is necessary to recognize that the international exit sector of tourism in the Rostov region is developed quite well. The tourist firms working mainly through authoritative Moscow and St. Petersburg tour operators and also directly with the countries of the simplified visa regime, can meet practically any desire of the Don clients.

The bulk of the Rostov tourists, with firmness adhering to the spending vacation form, most widespread in the world, - "sea-sun-beach", choose abroad the beach directions - Turkey, Egypt, the UAE, in the winter - Thailand. Already a row of years remains the main tourist destination Turkey. So, in 2003 in its resorts a quarter of all tourists from the Rostov region who visited abroad has a rest.

Entrance tourism is presented to Dona extremely poorly, as well as internal regional. The Rostov region in 2001 - 2003 was annually visited by a little more than 3 thousand citizens from foreign countries. Among them about 70% come to Don with the business and professional purposes, i.e. belong to the category sent, 20% arrive on the personal purposes and only 10% - for the purpose of rest as by them it was written down in the registration hotel document. Thus, the entrance stream with the tourist purposes makes size in 300 - 400 people a year.

Some tourist firms making a maximum of efforts manage to invite in separate years to Don groups from abroad. But it did not become the rule yet, constant tourist streams were not created.

Domestic entrance tourism is more representative in the Rostov region, than entrance international. During the summer period of a camp site of "Tea" (Tsimlyansk), "Sun" (Semikarakorsk), the Veshen-sky tourist's complex, holiday houses in Neklinovsky district located on the coast of the Sea of Azov accept groups from Arkhangelsk, Murmansk, Norilsk, Elista, a number of the cities of the Urals, etc. In 2002 on ROZAO camp sites Rostovturist more than 34 thousand people have a rest [9]. But in statistical reports the data on them were included into the column "Domestic tourism". Thereby the fact of reception of considerable number of tourists to Dona was not shown for what and it is necessary to subdivide domestic tourism into the parts making it.

Excursion business. The Rostov excursion school held deserved authority in the Soviet Union. Working with modest on the external qualities, not capable to bring into sincere awe touristic sites of the Rostov region, the Don guides were forced to compensate a lack of visual impressions high-quality figurative stories in the literary relation. The large number of new subjects of excursions was developed, excursion cycles were created. Excursions in the Soviet Russia were demanded as they were considered as an effective remedy of promotion of achievements

socialism. The ideological organizations introduced them in schools, higher educational institutions, on the enterprises. To labor unions about 70% of cost of excursions were allowed to subsidize, but they often paid their full price, doing visit of excursions free for citizens [10].

As a result, during blossoming of excursion matter in the country in 1985 more than 900 travel agencies and excursions of the Soviet Union served 209 million tourists [11]. In the same time over 2 million citizens participated in the tours conducted by the organizations of the Rostov regional council for tourism and excursions a year [12].

With disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, new social and economic realities of Russia, loss by the country of ideological reference points of an excursion as the educational tool and formations were any more necessary to the state. Excursion business lost any state and trade-union support. As a result of it the prices of participation in excursions sharply grew, and they became inaccessible to most of the population of the country.

12 Rostovturist ROZAO tourist bureaus located practically in all large cities of the Rostov region can offer dozens of various excursion routes today, but demand for them is small. In 2002 all tourist bureaus served about 19 thousand tourists [9]. Volumes of the provided excursion services decreased more than by 100 times in comparison with the end of the 80th of the 20th century. Excursion business endures deep crisis in the Rostov region.

Educational process of younger generation most of all suffered from elimination of widely put excursion work. During training at school studying are simply obliged to visit wonderful places of the edge, to bow to its shrines, to feel the historical thread binding different generations. And the best means for this purpose are excursions which turn into exclusive, expensive tourist services today.

Sports tourism represents one of the most available and democratic types of tourism. It attracts with romanticism of travel, spirit of collective creativity. This effective means of physical, moral, patriotic training. It is not a budget forming factor in the area, but its great social value does not demand proofs.

The foundation is laid for the Don sports tourism in the first years of the XX century when tourists cyclists of Rostov-on-Don, members of the Russian society of tourists, passed a route on the highway going along the coast of the Black Sea from Novorossiysk to Tuapse. The following mastered a difficult route through Greater Caucasus Range on the Georgian Military Road from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis (Tbilisi) and back.

Active growth of sports tourism in the Rostov region is noted by the end 50 - to the beginning of the 60th. At this time numerous tourist sections in the organizations and institutions, clubs turi-were created

st, city and regional structures on management of tourism.

The feature of natural resources of Don region and proximity of the Caucasus defined orientation and geography of sports tourism. The main tourist ground for residents of Rostov of steel of Mount Greater Caucasus, giving chance to make campaigns of any category of complexity therefore to fulfill any digit requirements. In the Rostov region, campaigns only of initial, first category of complexity and that only on water, pedestrian and bicycle tourism can be made. Therefore regions of tourist interests of athletes of area are the territories of the country differing in difficult natural obstacles, but not the Rostov region.

Depressive processes in the country of the 90th fully concerned also the Don sports tourism. By 1995 its volumes (number of the tourists making campaigns) in comparison with 1987 decreased approximately by 10 times. The second half of the 90th is characterized by slow return of the lost positions. And in 2004, according to data of the Regional route and qualification commission, more than 70 groups went to sports campaigns of 1-6 categories of complexity. 80% from them made trips in the mountains of the Caucasus, the others - in Karelia, Altai, Northeast Siberia, Turkey. There is a slow revival of the Don sports tourism holding deserved authority in the tourist world of the Soviet Union.

Trips for participation in meetings, the congresses, conferences, fairs and other office trips unite under the general name business tourism. Its share in the international tourist exchange, by some estimates, makes from 10 to 20% [13]. In Rostov-on-Don which became the capital of the Southern Federal District, business tourism is presented very representatively about what, in particular, it is possible to judge by the number of the sent citizens living in hotels of the Rostov region.

In hotels of category 1-3 stars and in not category in 2001 were placed by 251 thousand people, in 2004 - 254 thousand people (materials of the Rostov regional committee on statistics). About 70% from them indicated that they arrived to Don with the professional purposes (i.e. were sent), and, therefore, corresponded to the status of business tourists. Thus, the Rostov region in the first years of the 21st century was visited by 170-180 thousand business tourists from Russia and the countries of the abroad. This size is commensurable with volumes of the tourists served by tourist firms of the Rostov region in a year.

The carried-out analysis of a condition of tourist resources of the Rostov region, the existing tourist industry, statistical data on tourist migrations allows to draw the following conclusions:

1. The explored region belongs to territories of the country with the environment allowing to organize only summer recreational activity. It imposes specific requirements to

to engineering features of means of accommodation of tourists and also the solution of a question of their use during not tourist season lasting in Don region from October to April.

2. The Rostov region represents the peripheral region of the southern European tourist destination of Russia which center are Big Sochi. Value properties of recreational resources of Don region are lower, than the Black Sea and mountain territories of a destination that has to be considered when forming final cost of the Don tourist product. It has to be lower, than in the main resort centers of the South of Russia. Only in this case the Rostov product can have a chance to be competitive in the consumer market of tourist services.
3. The Rostov region, despite the southern location where the main Russian tourist traffic is aimed, treats territorial subjects of the Russian Federation with pronounced domestic outbound and international outbound tourism. The reasons lie as recreational resources of the Rostov region, its proximity to popular Russian resorts, historically developed tradition at citizens of Don region to spend the vacation on the Black Sea. Therefore, it is necessary to form a tourist industry of area taking into account, as further its inhabitants will have a rest outside Don region. A form of their rest in the territory of the Rostov region in the majority are weekend.

the Area could become at a certain organization of recreational activity and marketing policy a tourist destination for the residents of Far North and the Siberian regions having acute shortage in the sun, fruit and vegetables. The vegetables and fruit which are grown up to Dona should be considered as an important natural and anthropogenic recreational resource in the Rostov region on the basis of which there is an opportunity to create vitamin tours for residents of the region of the Far North and the territories equated to it occupying nearly 3/4 countries.

4. In the Rostov region there is no complex tourist product, competitive on Russian and, especially, the world market. Bus excursions across Rostov-on-Don, to Taganrog, Novocherkassk, village Old Cherkassk, Azov, Tanais, the village of Veshenskaya organized by tourist firms it is impossible to recognize as attractive offers. The number of tourists to Don only on the excursion program is unpromising to hope for arrival considerable.

A tour to Don first of all has to include interesting rest on the river to which the excursion program would accompany. It follows also from the researches conducted by department of the general geography, study of local lore and tourism of RGU among clients of tourist firms of the Rostov region in 2003. They showed that now at vacationers interest in acquaintance to cultural and historical values in comparison with Soviet period sharply fell. Main motives of acquisition of tours

improvement, rest, communication, acquaintance to new people are. Rest of Russians, as well as most of tourists of the planet, more and more gains hedonistic character that has to be considered when developing programs of tours.

5. Excursion matter in the Rostov region is in a depression. There is no center for excursion work, a methodical office, preparation and retraining of guides as it was in Soviet period is not conducted. In Rostov-on-Don the prevailing number of professional guides reached a retirement age. More and more school students for the objective reasons cannot become participants of qualitative excursions across Rostov-on-Don and area.

Is able to change current situation and to keep excursion business to Dona only municipal authorities, having created either the specialized municipal excursion enterprise, or department of city excursions in the Rostov regional museum of study of local lore. But at the same time it is necessary to make excursions inexpensive, having found a possibility of their subsidizing as the important actions having great educational value.

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11. The national economy of the USSR in 1985 of M., 1986.

12. Dolzhenk?

Bergqvist Sebastian
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