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The III Vsebashkirsky Constituent congress and its decisions on the land question



138

section HISTORY

UDC 94 (470.57)

BBK 63.3(2 of Dews. Bash)

The III VSEBASHKIRSKY CONSTITUENT CONGRESS AND ITS DECISIONS ON the LAND QUESTION of G.S. Khusainov

Article is devoted by one of hot topics in the history of Bashkortostan — to the land question in the Bashkir national movement. In it the resolution on the earth adopted by the Constituent congress of the Bashkir people is analyzed and the corresponding conclusions are drawn.

At the beginning of the 20th century in Bashkortostan, as well as across all Russia, the question of the earth was particularly acute. The government continued the course begun since the Orenburg expedition, consisting in withdrawal of the Bashkir lands in favor of noblemen, manufacturers, treasury, landowners. By the beginning of the 20th century the Bashkirs lost % of the former patrimonial land possession (in comparison with the 16th century) [1].

After the February revolution the decisive turn to democratization of society was made. The big scope acquires the all-Muslim movement in Russia. Advanced representatives of Muslim clergy and the Bashkir intellectuals showed the greatest activity and national consciousness.

In May, 1917 in Moscow there began the work the I All-Russian Muslim congress. The congress adopted the resolution on the earth which said: "All lands (state kabinetsky, monastic, and also the lands which are in private possession) have to pass to the people; a private property on the earth has to be it is cancelled, purchase and sale of the earth is forbidden" [2]. Implementation of this paragraph of the resolution would lead to automatic elimination of the patrimonial right of Bashkirs. The Bashkir delegation did not agree with it and left the conference hall. Seeking to resolve the land question differently, the Bashkir delegates thought of convocation of a congress in the territory of Bashkortostan, having called the land question "specific", relevant only for Bashkirs.

Thus, the land question became one of bases of formation of the independent Bashkir national movement.

As a result of active preparatory work of leaders of the Bashkir national movement in Bashkiria three congresses were convened, last of which became history as Constituent kurultai of the Bashkir people.

It opened on December 8, 1917 in Orenburg in the building of the Caravanserai. 194 delegates with decisive, 29 participated in work of a congress - with an advisory vote. The vast majority of delegates was from Bashkirs, 44 delegates represented Russian

the population, on one delegate Chuvashs, Tatars and Maris directed to a congress. The social composition of kurultai was quite motley, but the majority belonged to representatives of the Bashkir intellectuals, clergy and wealthy peasants. At the same time among delegates of a congress there were soldiers-veterans, workers. The agenda included the following circle of questions: 1. Borders of autonomous Bashkortostan; 2. Internal management of Bashkortostan; 3. Land question; 4. Economic problem; 5. National education; 6. Management of spiritual affairs; 7. Financial questions; 8. Organization of armed forces and militia; 9. Organization by the highest and local authorities of the supreme legislative body of Bashkortostan [3].

The chairman of Constituent kurultai of Bashkirs it was elected And. - Z. Validov.

One of the most important questions which drew exclusive attention of society and which, undoubtedly, became a subject of the hottest debate in the Constituent assembly was land. It is quite clear as all future of the people, that is his welfare and life was connected with this question.

By consideration of this problem the delegates of a congress recognized that the land question is one of central in all history of the Bashkir people and remains to that during construction of national statehood.

The constituent kurultai in a final version adopted the resolution on the earth which was a subject of disputes during work of the I and II vsebashkir-sky congresses.

In the decision of kurultai on the land question three principles were combined: "the earth, forests, subsoil belong to the Bashkir people; unfairly selected lands during an era of "plunder of the Bashkir lands" have to be returned to the people; lands have to be distributed between peasants of Bashkortostan irrespective of a sex, age, nationality and religion" [4].

The adopted resolution consisted of eight sections. Let's consider the key moments:

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"1. All lands in the borders of autonomous Bashkortostan determined by kurultai are the integral property of all its labor population and in a private property cannot be alienated" [5]. That is, the earth under the new resolution is property not only the Bashkir people as it was decided at the I congress, and all labor population of Bashkortostan.

"2. All factories, the plants, estates, farms, gardens, kitchen gardens, resorts, mills, kumysolechebny institutions of individuals (landowners) and various societies with all enterprises belonging to them, with all real estate pass into Head department of agriculture of Bashkur-distan which assumes protection them and control over them. Income from these enterprises comes to public fund of Bashkiria" [6].

Land was distributed so: "First, among the landless and land-poor population on a certain norm, without distinction as to sex, age, nationality and religion". The remained lands (surplus) came to zapasny land fund of Bashkiria. "Norms of land providing for each certain area will be defined according to local, physiographic, natural-historical, economic and household and cultural conditions. These norms have to be developed and established by collecting and studying reliable statistical material on land tenure in Bashkiria and also after detailed inspection of soil, economic and climatic conditions of certain areas and a way of life, life and cultural level of separate nationalities. Note: repartition of haying grounds is left to the discretion of separate societies" [7].

Apparently from the section of the resolution "Management of Agriculture and Property of Bashkortostan" "... all cases on agriculture, land use and land management concentrate in Head department of agriculture and imushchestvo of Bashkortostan" and,

"according to the functions it is divided into the following departments: agriculture, land management, forest, engineering and meliorative, mountain and fishing" [8]. Their internal device and definition of the staff of employees are transferred to the managing director of agriculture who has to submit the project on these questions for approval of parliament.

Thus, the resolution on the land question adopted at the Constituent congress represented the accurate program of the land relations of Bashkirs which should be realized still.

Drawing the general conclusion, it should be noted, first, expansion of national base at distribution of land: the right investment with the earth each citizen of Bashkortostan without distinction as to sex, age and nationality - both aboriginals, and pripushchennik used. Secondly, norms of land providing were defined. Thirdly, the public public foundation, and body where passed all cases on agriculture, land use and land management - Head department of agriculture and imushchestvo of Bashkortostan was created. The proclaimed Bashkir autonomy and the adopted resolution on the earth needed to be approved in Moscow that caused great difficulties in the Bashkir leaders. It was connected with the fact that the "Decree about the earth" adopted by Bolsheviks on October 26, 1917 automatically liquidated the patrimonial right of Bashkirs for the earth as on its basis all earth was subject to nationalization.

On the basis of this decree in the region the Soviet land management began that brought in a result to the next colonization of the Bashkir lands, but under the Bolshevist management. This circumstance in the subsequent became one of the reasons of transition of a part of the Bashkir movement to the camp of opponents of the Soviet power.

LITERATURE

1. A.I. Akmanov. The Bashkir lands in XIX - the beginning of the 20th century//Current problems of regional history (Bashkortostan in XVI - HHv. century), Ufa, 2005. Page 48.
2. M.M. Kulsharipov. Bashkir national movement (1917-1921). Ufa, 2000. Page 93.
3. National-state construction of Bashkortostan (the 1917-1925th.). Documents and materials in four volumes / Bus - sost. B.H. Yuldashbayev.T.1. Ufa, 2002.C. 200.
4. M.M. Kulsharipov. Decree. soch. Page 129.
5. National-state construction of Bashkortostan (the 1917-1925th.). Page 233.
6. In the same place.
7. In the same place. Page 234
8. In the same place. Page 236.

Came to edition of 07.11.06

Carlos Henry
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