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Category: History

Yangazhinsky datsan as object of cultural heritage of Russia

darima of ZhAMSUEVA, ButitZhALSANOVA


Article is devoted to the history of formation and development of Yangazhinsky datsan and modern relationship of the state and Buddhist faith.

The article is devoted to the history of formation and development of Yangajinsk datsan and to the modern relationships between the state and Buddhist religion.

Buddhism, datsan, state, antireligious policy, Pama; Buddhism, datsan, antireligious policy, lama.

Darima Sanzhiyevna ZHAMSUYEVA — to. and. N, associate professor; senior research associate of Institute of a mongolovedeniye, buddologiya and tibetologiya of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science


Tsydypmunkuyevna — to. and. N, deputy director of National archive of the Republic of Buryatia, Ulan-Ude

In the mid-fifties the building of Yangazhinsky datsan (Buddhist monastery) — one of the most beautiful cult constructions in the territory of ethnic Buryatia — was blown up. Now Hambo-lama (title of the head of spiritual management of Buddhists of Buryatia) the Dam Ayusheev, the public of Buryatia bring up a question of need of restoration of the temple complex as object of cultural heritage of Russia.

History of a construction and development of Yangazhinsky datsan is connected with the aspiration of representatives of six dobaykalsky Selenga childbirth to found the "patrimonial" datsan. From 1745 to 1784 they made church services in the Atsaysky datsan founded in 1743 by representatives of the Mongolian sort Atagan. As a result of resettlement and increase in number six dobaykalsky childbirth in 1769 separated from Atsaysky datsan, having founded Zagustaysky datsan which, in turn, in 1811 Iroysky and in 1830 — Yangazhinsky separated datsans.

The first building of Yangazhinsky datsan was felt. The stationary wooden building was built in 1831 on the left coast of the river Orongoy, in the natural boundary Yangazhin. On its construction more than 15 thousand rubles, 1,500 logs and 800 boards were collected. According to official documents, the stationary building of Yangazhinsky datsan was entered in the register of the list of the Buryat datsans by the decree of the Irkutsk provincial board on February 5, 1831 for No. 4631.

During this period the construction boom was observed. Total number of datsans across all territory of resettlement the Buryat increased, there were significant changes in their shape. Actually during this period most the Buryat datsans were newly reconstructed and reconstructed, buildings tsokchen dugan (cathedral temples) are replaced new, despite restrictive articles "Regulations on Lamaistsky Clergy..." and special circulars. The construction boom demonstrated strengthening of material resources of datsans, development of the cult system of the Buryat Lamaism and growth of influence of Buddhist church and clergy in life of the Buryat society. In 1868 the old building of Yangazhinsky datsan with the permission of the governor general was completely repaired: the roof is replaced, walls from the outer side are sheathed by a yew and painted.

Thorough reconstruction of architectural appearance of Yangazhinsky datsan happened by the end of the first quarter of the 20th century. To the main building tsokchen Dougan the extension of an office part of datsan was made, and the old building began to serve as a bema.

Architecture of the first wooden building of Yangazhinsky datsan,

1 SPb EVE RAHN, t. 44, op. 1, 133, l. 16 (about).
2 01 0& 11

built by means of the Russian carpenters and masters, differed in undoubted influence of traditions of the Russian church architecture. If to judge by the plans and drawings certified by the signature of the provincial architect of April 30, 1854, then the building of Yangazhinsky datsan was designed as five-domed Russian popovsky hrama1.

In 1911 Hambo-lama Ch. Iroltuyev on the way to horinsky kochevya visited Yangazhins-ky datsan, shiretuy (prior) of which at that time was D. Itygilov. Leaving, he stated a wish about construction of new stone datsan as present has no appropriate form because of similarity to the Russian church. Carrying out this wish, shiretuy Tsyren Ayushev in 1913 constructed on donations of lamas and parishioners three-storyed stone tsokchen datsan (all-parish temple).

Originally all-parish temples, except tsokchen datsan, were sou-me (small Buddhist temples) of Dokshit, Ayusha, Gunrik, Shakyamuni built in 1831 — 32. In 1902 all small temples of Yangazhinsky datsan were completely reconstructed and are considerably expanded. By Sume Shakyamuni not only it is increased in sizes, but also transformed to 2-storey philosophical school tsannit2 in which classes began in 1889. In total in a complex of Yangazhinsky datsan around the central stone cathedral temple was 8 wooden sume: Gunrik, Dokshit, Duynkhor, Arya-balo, Dara-ekhe, Maydari, Abida and Lkhamo.

Devazhin sume (sume Gunrik) for molebstviye about regeneration in paradise Devazhin was constructed in 1904 originally as the residence of Dalai Lama of XIII who arrived to USU the same year. His plenipotentiary, Buryat Agvan Dorzhiyev promised to bring him to Russia, on the road he had to stop in Yangazhinsky datsan. In 1907 the yangazhinets got,

1 CVRK IMBT Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, G.N. Natsov's fund, op. 3, 7 "About Yangazhinsky datsan of Selenginsky aimag".
2 Own theological schools in the Buryat datsans arose in the middle of the 19th century. The greatest popularity schools tsanni-that (called a choyra) in Tsugolskom (1850), enjoyed Aninsk (1858). Agin, Gusinoozersky

(1861) datsans. Tsugolsky lamas philosophers were founders of schools of a choyr in the Buryat datsans, but at the same time many lamas, including yangazhin-sky, went to study to Tibet.

having written out from Beijing, devazhin worth 700 rub, having transformed this building in sume Devazhin.

According to other data, Devazhin sume was constructed in 1905 in memory of soldiers, the dead during the war and Yangazhinsky's soldiers-alms-givers datsana3. In 1911 the building as a result of the fire burned down, was restored the same year at the expense of the prior D.-D. Itygilov and parishioners.

Dara-ekhe sume it was constructed in 1918 at the expense of the population of the Oriole.

Duynkhor sume was constructed by

in 1918 on means shiretuya datsan of Ninbu Marakelov and parishioners for carrying out the hural of the same name devoted to memory of a legendary event when Buddha Shakyamuni for the first time began to preach the tantriysky doctrine. In Yangazhinsky datsan also Tsam Duynkhor (religious mystery) was annually carried out.

The Manba sume it was constructed in 1917 under the leadership of Emchi-lamy Dorzhi Amurov and intended for studying the Indo-Tibetan medicine.

For worship of future fifth Buddha Maydari Maydari sume was erected, constructed at the expense of Itygilov's D.-D. in 1920 a 16-meter statue the famous sculptor, a lama of Yangazhinsky datsan Sanzhi Tsybikov made, and jewelry, an external and internal decor of the building was made by the artist Bazar Budayev.

Jude sume was built in 1923 at the expense of parishioners of datsan and all condition of the died prior Ninbu Marakelov.

By the beginning of the 20th century the Yangazhinsky datsan represented a big monastic complex with ritual, educational, office, economic buildings, printing house around which over 200 lamsky houses were located. Around the monastery were built about (cult places). According to estimated data of August 16, 1926, 8 structures of Yangazhinsky datsan were estimated at 18,728 rub. At datsan 111 lamas lived.

On November 9, 1937 the resolution of presidium of the Selenga aymispolkom it was decided to close Yangazhinsky datsan of the Orongoysky sum. The basis on -

3 CVRK IMBT Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, t. G.N. Natsova, op. 3, 7 "About Yangazhinsky datsan of Selenginsky aimag".

resolutions of general meetings of the population of the Orongoysky sum which refused the further maintenance of datsan and made the petition for its immediate closing and use of the room for needs of collective farm served. Decisions of general meetings were confirmed with personal signatures of 597 citizens. In the resolution it was noted that in "datsan of liturgical ceremonies it is not carried out since 1934, cultural attendants (lamas) in it there were only 5 — 9 people, at present the datsan is brought to a thriftless state, is not provided with protection".

On January 13, 1938 the decision of presidium of the Selenga AIKa on closing of Yangazhinsky datsan was approved. Use of the premises of datsan with all extensions was provided to Council of People's Commissars of BMASSR, Narkomfin and the Antireligious museum. BMASSR was entrusted to carry out elimination of property datsana1.

The antireligious museum BMASSR suggested to preserve Yangazhinsky datsan of the Orongoysky sum of Selenginsky aimag as the branch with all its contents, including the lamsky house located in a fencing of datsan, to petition before Committee of protection of monuments of Academy of Sciences of the USSR for registration of Yangazhinsky datsan as ancient monument. The museum proved the petition by the fact that the Yangazhinsky datsan is located in only 50 km from Ulan-Ude, in an immediate vicinity with the Kyakhta path. "This circumstance together with the first in quality road considerably facilitates as constant observation of datsan, carrying out in it research work, the management of it both branch of the museum, and the organization in it of excursions and individual visits from the city... The place taken by datsan has no particular interest in terms of a possibility of the organization of the resort (naked steppe) or other especially economic prospects.

і NARB, t. R-475, op. 2, 158.

Datsan — one of the most remained and the least plundered. All 5 temples of Yangazhinsky datsan having various specialties are concentrated close from each other and enclosed with a strong common stone wall. It gives the chance to carry out reliable and inexpensive protection of a monument and at once to show to the visitor all main functions of datsan". In the letter of the museum there is a mention that Maydari's statue Yangazhinsky datsan — the only statue made by local masters.

The telegram from Committee of protection of monuments of VTsIK signed by Ilyin to Council of People's Commissars of BMASSR of 27.01.1938 about need to keep Yangazhinsky datsan as a monument is of interest, having provided it to the Antireligious museum. The director of the Central antireligious museum of Moscow Kuzmin in the letter asks the chairman of Council of People's Commissars of BMASSR to preserve Yangazhinsky datsan as a monument and to take under protection of the state. In case of impossibility of preservation of datsan as monument, he asks to postpone liquidation of datsan until summer the Central antireligious museum had an opportunity to take part in analysis of the exhibits necessary for replenishment of collections of the museum on Lamaism.

On July 12, 1940 at a meeting of Council of People's Commissars of BMASSR the question of transfer of civil constructions and dugan of the former Yangazhinsky datsan under office and premises of an aymcentre was considered. The Yangazhinsky datsan was closed in 1938 and the ASSR of July 12, 1940 is liquidated by the decision of a meeting of Council of People's Commissars Buryat. All premises were transferred to the order of Ivolginsky executive committee.

Thus, need of restoration of the temple complex of Yangazhinsky datsan is dictated not only by need of return to believers of the place of traditional worship, restoration of an object of cultural heritage of Russia, but also historical justice.

Sharlene Helen
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