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Results of a research of the settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9


A.V. Matveev, O.M. Anoshko, O.S. Agisheva

Issues of genesis and the historical fate of any archaeological culture are the most difficult in the course of creation of its historical and cultural model. This situation considerably becomes complicated at a research of features of folding of cultural formation of the initial stage of an era of iron when, according to V.A. Mogilnikov [1992. Page 274-311], for a short period occurs intensive transformation of traditional lines of ornamental composition of ceramic complexes of the final stage of a bronze age. As a result of it criteria of definition of degree of relationship of any given cultures become very indistinct.

The problem of origin of baitovsky culture of the initial stage of the early Iron Age in the forest-steppe Trans-Ural region was repeatedly discussed in literature. Right after allocation of its monuments in Tobolo-Ishimye the idea about genetic continuity of representatives of the considered culture with local community of an era of late bronze was stated [Stoyanov, 1975]. Nevertheless the insufficient amount of the late bronze materials which are saved up by then did not allow to install the cultural component which played the main role in formation of baitovsky complexes. Subsequently, as a result of discovery of barkhatovsky culture of an era of late bronze of the forest-steppe Trans-Ural region, solutions of the put problem [Korochkova, were planned 1987; Korochkova, Stefanov, 1991; Matveev,

1988, 1999]. Coincidence of areas of baitovsky culture of an era of iron and preceding it barkhatovsky and also manifestation of barkhatovsky ornamental ceramic and house-building elements in baitovsky antiquities allowed N.P. Matveeva to introduce the idea of their genetic linkage [1987. Page 11;
1989. Page 97-98]. Besides, researchers consider that folding of baitovsky culture happened with the participation of the suzgunsky component which determined the considerable specific weight of patching patterns on baitovsky ceramics [Koryakova, 1991; Matveeva, 1994. Page 11]. However the basis of baitovsky style, according to them, is made by barkhatovsky component. At the same time transitional barkhatovo-baitovsky complexes are not known yet and only their detection can confirm this hypothesis.

Within discussion of the put problem the publication of materials of the settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9 at which there is a ceramics combining lines of potter's traditions of the barkhatovsky and baitovsky population is relevant.

The settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9 is included into a complex of the archaeological objects of wide chronological range (from the Neolithic till the early Iron Age) located on the left coast of the river Uk, inflow of Tobol. Except this settlement three more monuments with barkhatovsky materials — Zavodoukovskoye 10, Uk 1 and 3 are concentrated here. The settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 10 — at the moment one of the most fully studied monuments of barkhatovsky culture [Sergeyev, is distinguished 1991 from them. Page 55-58]. From the settlement Uk 3 there is not numerous keramka carried by authors of excavation to the final stage of a late bronze age [Koryakova, etc., 1991. Page 33-34]. This complex shows, in our opinion, the latest chronological cut of barkhatovsky culture [Matveev, etc., 2003. Page 30].

The considered monument is in the central part of an uksky archaeological complex, in 2 km to the southwest from Zavodoukovsk, on the nadpoymenny terrace of the river (fig. 1) which grew with a pinery. It is opened in 1985 by prospecting group of the Ural archaeological expedition led by A.S. Sergeyev which recorded three housing zapadina on the area of settlement [Archaeological heritage..., 1995. Page

53]. At survey of the settlement in 2002 we revealed two more zapadina located in southeast and southwest parts of a monument. On one of them, southeast, the excavation which area was 131 sq.m was also put. In a relief of a zapadin sizes 9x11 0.9 m in depth had the oval form and it was focused on the line the northeast — the southwest (fig. 2). As a result of its research the remains of two constructions deepened in soil — neolytic (a construction 1) and late bronze were opened (a construction 2) and materials of three cultural and chronological periods (fig. 3) are found.

Fig. 1. Location of the settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9

The construction 1 sizes of 4.0-5.5*6.5-7.0 m had in the plan subrectangular outlines and a ledge in a northwest part (see fig. 3, A). The ditch of construction is focused on the line the northeast — the southwest and is profound to the continent to 0.65 m. The layer of brown sandy loam which is partially destroyed by a construction 2 and distinctly fixed beyond its limits is connected with its top horizons (see fig. 3, B). Primary filling of the early dwelling was presented by layers of gray and light gray sandy loams with power up to 0.6 m (see fig. 3, B) from which there is a series of objects from flint — otshchepa and nozhevidny plates and also the ceramics of koshkinsky type decorated in the otstupayushche-drawn style. In certain cases as dividing corbels patching vdavleniye are used. The most frequent elements of an ornament of koshkinsky ware are wavy, horizontal and vertical lines.

The construction 2 which partially blocked and destroyed earlier koshkinsky construction represented the subrectangular semi-dugout the sizes of 5.0*5.75 m focused on the line the northeast — the southwest (see fig. 3, A). In a southwest part of construction the ledge with the rounded-off corners which was perhaps playing a role of an entrance to the dwelling was tracked. The sizes of this object were 2.5 * 1.0 m. The construction was deepened in continental sand on 0.2-0.5 m. A ditch bottom rather equal, with some lowering of the level to the central part of construction where two punctures of land type are recorded. As filling of a construction served the layer of the dark brown sandy loam lying directly under a cespitose and humus layer (see fig. 3, B, B). It contained rather representative series of artifacts among which the ceramics of barkhatovsky culture dominates. It is possible to carry two fragments of the sinkers with the crossing fillets found in vessel disorder to individual finds, and a single whole loaded, the clay coil of a cylindrical form with the flattened ends and also several not attributed clay products (fig. 4, 2, 3, 5, 6). Besides, in filling of a construction 2 four fragments of ceramics with a cross ornament were revealed.

and to m l

Horizontals are carried out through 0.1 m

About 1 2 m

■ * ‘

Fig. 2. Settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9. Nivelirovochny plan of an excavation

In general ceramic material of a late bronze age of the settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9 is fragmentary and not numerous though several disorders and the large fragments of ceramics which are coming from filling of a construction 2 and allowed to establish a form of vessels and the scheme of their ornamental composition (fig. 4, 1, 4, 7-10) are fixed. At the same time the analysis of morphological and ornamental features of ceramics of barkhatovsky shape allowed to establish its internal heterogeneity.

A part of ceramics of this complex finds strong similarity to ceramic materials of the Krasnogorsk stage of barkhatovsky culture. It is found in the top and lower horizons of filling of a construction 2 in the form of disorders of vessels and separate fragments (24 necks and 36 walls) (fig. 4, 1, 7-10; 5, 1-12, 16, 20). These are slaboprofilirovanny pots with the flat bottom and low necks unbent outside. Nimbus cut priostrenny and roundish, in most cases priostrenny.

Fig. 3. Settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9. Plan (A) and cuts (B and C) excavation:

1 — a cespitose and humus layer; 2 — light brown sandy loam; 3 — sandy loam of mustard color; 4 — brown sandy loam; 5 — dark brown sandy loam; 6 — light gray sandy loam;
7 — gray sandy loam; 8 — a Neolithic era puncture; 9 — a puncture of a bronze age.

The ornament covers a neck and the top third of a trunk of vessels, a benthonic part is not ornamented. It is recorded several bottoms decorated by "brackets" and notches. The equipment of figuration generally carved — 72.4%, vdavleniye make 22.4%, shnurovy a stamp — a little more than one percent. In the top zone of a neck ranks of inclined lines most often meet, is more rare — a vertical zigzag, single-row and multirow horizontal zigzags, a grid. The middle part of a neck is ornamented with pearls, patching and tear-shaped vdavleniye. In two cases on mouths of vessels the line breaking down the ornamental field is noted. The transitional zone from a neck to a trunk is issued generally by ranks of inclined lines in combination with pearls or patching vdavleniye. Here also horizontal lines and a forming thickening of type of the roller are fixed. In general the ornamental composition of necks is characterized by a considerable share of ranks of inclined lines (67%), a vertical zigzag (46%), a grid (37.5%), a zhemchuzhnik (46%) and tear-shaped vdavleniye (25%). On walls of vessels, as well as on mouths, inclined lines (36.1%), belts of patching vdavleniye (14%), a vertical zigzag (25%) often meet, but the specific weight of geometrical motives increases - it is single-row and multirow horizontal zigzags (19.5%), the shaded triangles (17%), triangles with poles and notches (8.3%).

Fig. 4. Settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9. Stock and ceramics of barkhatovsky culture.

1, 4-10 — clay; 3 — a stone

Fig. 5. Settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9. Ceramics of barkhatovsky culture

Together with ware of barkhatovsky shape the complex of ceramics on which along with barkhatovsky signs the lines inherent in potter's traditions of carriers of baitovsky culture of the early Iron Age (36 necks and 13 walls) are fixed (fig. 4, 4 is found; 5, 13-15, 17-19, 21). Vessels are also presented by well pro-thinned out pots, with the low vertical or slightly unbent outside necks. A nimbus cut in most cases roundish, in two cases priostrenny and in three flat. In the test impurity of sand and chamotte are noticeable. In figuration the share of the carved equipment is reduced — to 48% and the percent of various vdavleniye (poles, tear-shaped vdavleniye) — 45.2% and quantity of the elements of a decor executed by an edge stamp — 5.5% increase. Nimbus cut figuration ranks of inclined lines, very characteristic of baitovsky ware is peculiar to these vessels. It should be noted one more important feature of this complex of ceramics. Its decorative compositions in many respects repeat the ornamental scheme typical for ware of barkhatovsky culture, however with some simplification and impoverishment of figuration and also negligent drawing elements of a decor. The most widespread rapports are ranks of inclined lines (43%), horizontal lines (33%), the zhemchuzhnik (33%), poles and large tear-shaped vdavleniye (41%), is considerably reduced a share of vertical and horizontal zigzags (6.1 and 14.3% respectively) and such pattern characteristic of vessels of barkhatovsky image of the considered settlement as triangles does not meet. In general this ceramics on above-mentioned signs approaches ware of the early Iron Age and finds the greatest similarity to ceramics of baitovsky culture. The combination on it new elements and traditional lines at domination of the last shows the mechanism of evolution of a decor of barkhatovsky culture. In this plan it can be considered as transitional.

Fig. 6. Settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9. Ceramics of baitovsky culture

In a ceramic collection of the settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9 ware of baitovsky culture of the initial stage of the early Iron Age is distinctly allocated typologically. The analysis of spatial distribution of its fragments allowed to establish that it corresponds to the topmost horizons of a cultural layer (cespitose and humus layer and sandy loam of mustard color) and is not connected with one of the studied archaeological objects. The sample of this group of ceramics made 25 large fragments of necks (many of them with adjacent walls) and 20 walls (fig. 6). Baitovsky ware is presented by pots with rather high vertical necks, to flat cuts of a nimbus. The form of a bottom did not manage to be established due to the lack of the corresponding parts of vessels. On the analyzed ceramics the considerable share is made by the decor elements executed by the equipment of vdavleniye (pole) — 48% and an edge stamp — 45.2%, and the specific weight of the carved equipment is 6.8%. The ornament was applied on a nimbus cut, a neck and a trunk. Decorative compositions of this group of ceramics most often following. Ranks of inclined lines are applied on a cut of a nimbus, the middle part of a neck is ornamented with also inclined lines in combination with corbels of poles or pearls, these elements of a decor are characteristic also of a transitional zone from a neck to a trunk and the top part of a trunk. On a trunk also horizontal lines and a single-row horizontal zigzag meet. Existence of baitovsky ceramics in the top layers of a cultural layer of the settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9 is explained by settling of the territory of an uksky archaeological complex by representatives of baitovsky culture the initial stage of the early Iron Age.

the closest analogy to a ceramic complex of late bronze time of the studied monument are not numerous materials of the settlement Uk 3 coming from an excavation 2 [Koryakova, etc., 1991. Page 33-34]. On them it is also possible to track a tendency to impoverishment and simplification of figuration of vessels. This circumstance demonstrates, in our opinion, origin in ceramic complexes of the settlements of Zavodoukovskoye 9 and Uk of 3 new lines which were widespread on ware of the early Iron Age that allows to define their later chronological position in relation to other monuments of barkhatovsky culture. In this case the point of view about legitimacy of allocation in development of barkhatovsky culture, except shchetkovsky and Krasnogorsk [Matveev, Anoshko is confirmed,

2001. Page 32], one more stage which main maintenance was gradual transformation of this culture in baitovsky, belonging to the beginning of the Iron Age. Besides, the comparative analysis of barkhatovsky ceramics and the baitovsky ware recorded on one settlement, but well dismembered in the planigrafichesky and stratigraphic relation allowed to make sure of continuity of potter's traditions of carriers of barkhatovsky and baitovsky cultures once again. Thus, the research of the settlement of Zavodoukovskoye 9 brought the actual proofs of a hypothesis of a genetic linkage of the called cultures.


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The given article cites the investigation results with regard to Zavodoukovsk 9 habitation site containing complexes of three cultural-and-chronological periods: Neolithic, Late Bronze Age, and the beginning of the Early Iron Age. The material enables us to comment on the traditions of Barkhatovo culture to transform into the Early Iron Age Baitovo culture, reconstructing the historical situation in the forest-steppe Transurals in the early 1000 BC.

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