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NEW MATERIALS TO the HISTORY of HOUSING CONSTRUCTION of the FIRST HALF of the 18th century. In TOBOLSK



vestnik of archeology, anthropology and ethnography. 2010. No. 2 (13)

NEW MATERIALS TO the HISTORY of HOUSING CONSTRUCTION of the FIRST HALF of the 18th century. In TOBOLSK

P.G. Danilov

During reconstruction of a roadbed on S. Remezov Avenue in Tobolsk the part of the city estate dated the end of XVII — the first half of the 18th century is revealed. Partially entered inhabited construction with an outer entrance hall an excavation and the western fencing of the estate. From West side from the estate the part of the city street is investigated. As a result of archaeological researches the new material on the history of the Siberian housing construction of the first half of the 18th century giving an idea of the equipment and ways of construction in the conditions of domination of the wooden housing estate which basis was formed by the estate is received.

History of housing construction, Western Siberia, 18th century, estate, dwelling, furnace.

The estate of the West Siberian city of HUN-HUSH of centuries represented a complex of inhabited and farm buildings, including the yard and a kitchen garden. Outside there were residential and economic buildings, and on a kitchen garden — a well, a bath, sheds and barns. The question of the dwelling is one of nodal in the history of life of the Russian people, its culture. Studying the dwelling promotes the solution of problems of history of the people — its origin and the nature of economy, spiritual culture. At the same time the dwelling of averages and lower urban and country people is of the greatest interest.

It is possible to call time of development by Russians of Siberia with confidence the period of intensive housing construction when centuries-old traditions of woodworking and construction of inhabited and farm buildings were fully shown. These processes are described rather in detail in ethnographic literature: in V.A. Lipinskaya and A.V. Safyanova's works [1974], A .Yu. Maynicheva [1997], I.A. Nikiforova and D.V. Sorokoumov [2004]. Their main shortcoming is that materials belong at best to the end of the XVIII—XIX century, and the Siberian housing construction of XVII — the beginning of the 18th century was studied only on the basis of written sources. We find confirmation of deep traditions of the Russian wooden housing construction of the ethnographic present in numerous results of archaeological researches of monuments of the Russian development of Siberia. Now the considerable array of information on the history of housing construction of the XVII—XVIII centuries from excavation of Mangazei for scientific use [Belov, etc., 1981] in the north of Western Siberia, the Bergamaksky jail on average Priirtyshje [Tataurova, 2000], the Alazeya and Stadukhinsky jails in Yakutia is introduced [Alekseev, 1996].

In the last decade archaeological studying the Kremlin and posad of Tobolsk, a long time which was the capital of Siberia was actively conducted. During reconstruction of a roadbed on Semyon Remezov Avenue under asphalt the part of the city estate dated the end of XVII — the first half of the 18th century, coming the West side to the city street was revealed. The complex of copper coins in the chronological range from time of the reign of Peter I to 40th of the 18th century (fig. 4, 1-3) formed a basis for such dating. The estate representing inhabited construction with an outer entrance hall, perhaps a porch, was included into excavation borders partially, as well as its western fencing focused on the line the North — the South with a small deviation on the southwest. From West side from the estate the part of the city street (fig. 1) was investigated.

The felling of the house (fig. 1, 2) remained on one wreath, is difficult from pine logs with a diameter of 31-33 cm in the koml and 22-30 cm are closer to top. Faces of logs of a felling of a rublena the axe, there are no traces of a saw. The house is cut down "in oblo", the longitudinal groove is chosen from a bottom side of the top log. Such way of the cabin of a groove appeared in the 17th century in Pomorze [the Russian North..., 2004, page 204] from where extended across Siberia. The sizes of the revealed part of the house are: length of 590 cm, width of 380 cm. The felling is focused parallel to the city street which is to the west at distance of 320 cm from the house. The felling of the dwelling was put on the small layer consisting of wood spill with power no more than 10 cm. This fact demonstrates that the felling became on the place of future house at once, but was not brought from outside. Under northwest and

southwest corners of a felling revealed the linings lying parallel to the western wall of a felling. Such constructive method is noted in materials of the settlement of Izyuk [Tataurova, 2004, page 413], Novgorod [Zasurtsev, 1959, page 265], the Nutlet [Kildyushevsky, 1972, page 85] and remained up to the ethnographic present in the territory of Central Priirtyshje [Nikiforova, Sorokoumov, 2004, page 396]. According to informants from Bolsherechensky district of the Omsk region, sometimes instead of the base under the house dug a ditch which was filled with wood garbage or sand that created some kind of subbase pillow. It became for improvement of a drainage of the soil at a drain of spring waters and also in order that "did not drive the house".

Fig. 1. The plan of the dug-out part of the estate with the street

It is floored perpendicularly in relation to the western wall of a felling, seven executioner's blocks in a northern half of the house survived. Sexual a log it was cut into a northern wall of the lower wreath of a felling in which the groove chopped in "larkspur" remained. The way of fastening of a floor did not manage to be found out from the western wall of the house, it was inserted or into a groove between wreaths, or into specially chosen groove in a log of the second wreath of a felling. As signs of a doorway were not recorded, it is possible to assume that it was floored "on the course" that is also well fixed in Mangazey [Vizgalov, 2004, page 21], Novgorod [Zasurtsev, 1959, page 269], Ladoga [Kirpichnikov, 1985, page 14], Prikamye [Sokolova, 2001, page 123].

In a northwest corner of a felling the furnace which was a lens of blue clay with a small beaten brick and wood ashes is revealed. From the western and southern parties as border of the furnace served the wooden design representing the felling put from halves of logs in oblo with a diameter of 10 cm. Two logs remained. Presumable sizes of the furnace of 160x170 cm. The furnace was located over the sexual beam serving by it a support, besides, near east edge of the southern log of this design the column serving as a support for a southeast corner of the furnace is revealed. This design, probably, is an opechok over which the pise-walled furnace was built. After clearing, a sketch and fixing an opechka it was sorted and under it the squared brick design the sizes of 132x170 cm consisting of two rows of a laying (fig. 3) is cleared away. The top number of a laying is laid out on an outer edge of a design with a space on 14-16 cm, forming internal space the sizes of 78x114 cm. Sizes of a brick of 29x14.5-15.5x6-7.5 cm. The found brick design is, probably, then the brick furnace existing earlier, than pise-walled. The furnace was put on a wooden floor. The cellar under the furnace is not revealed.

From West side of the house along all wall the extension which was an outer entrance hall is recorded. Its sizes of 408x270 cm. Partially the lower wreath of an extension forming a northwest corner chopped in oblo remained. Apparently, only the lower part of an extension had a srubny design as in one of logs there is a groove for vertically standing support, and the extension was board. The extension closely adjoins the paling which was the western border of the estate.

Fig. 2. Inhabited construction in the territory of the estate

The fencing is built in the form of a paling, and on different sites its device differs. From South side from a house felling it is put in one row, poles closely to each other, the lower end is pointed. Along the pointed ends of poles both from the outer side of a paling, and from internal the scraps of poles laid for alignment of a paling and its deduction in vertical position are revealed. Along the house and its extension three rows of a paling occurring at different times are noted. East row ended on the third horizon. The ends of stakes of a zatesana under a cone, along an extension to a felling are delivered on longitudinal to a log — a pole. North of an extension the paling is established on the earth. The western number of a paling is established on the earth, along it poles, from outer side in one row, with internal on both sides are laid — in four rows. The lower pole the end leaves under an extension felling. This paling is continuation found south of the house. The average paling is established on an internal number of longitudinal poles of an extreme western paling, is later construction.

The device of palings throughout H-HUI of centuries did not undergo special changes. Researches in Moscow [Rabinovich, 1949, page 37], Novgorod [Zasurtsev, 1959, page 297], Pskov [Ovsyannikov, Tsarkova, 1983, page 128], Verkhoturye [Korchagin, 1999, page 147] recorded tynovy palings of the same design. At the same time a number of researchers note such device of a paling as characteristic feature of Russian population [Krasnov, Kakhovsky, 1978, page 63]. In pis-

mine sources across Western Siberia the researchers pay attention that the directly yard of the estate most often had a fencing in a look a patch, mainly protected with a paling kitchen gardens. In sources examples when both the yard, and a kitchen garden were taken away "in patches" meet. As a rule, it were estates of prosperous citizens [Lyutsidarskaya, 1991, page 43]. In our case all territory of the estate was protected with a tynovy paling, however it cannot characterize degree of prosperity of its owner.

In a complex of material finds from the territory of the estate and the street various objects are presented: bone crests and hairbrushes (fig. 4, 5, 6), birch bark birch-bark boxes, including a fragment of a birch bark product with an imprinted ornament in the form of the trapezes put in a certain sequence (fig. 4, 8). Products from glass are presented by fragments of shtofs and pieces of a windowpane. From the whole forms the small bubble (fig. 4, 7) is found. The fragment of a faience figurine of an animal defined as a muzzle of a monkey (fig. 4, 4) also was found in the dwelling.

Fig. 3. The basis of the brick furnace in construction

In an excavation the part of the city street focused on the line the North — the South with a small deviation to the southwest is investigated. The street began from the Kremlin and had the direction towards the stone Church of the Saviour constructed at the beginning of the 18th century. Street width in the dug-out its part of 5 m. From a street pavement three boards lying along the street on one line remained. Probably, the street had a wooden covering, however it is not possible to judge its device on the basis of the available data.

Fig. 4. Finds from the territory of the estate:

1-3 — coins (copper); 4 — a mask of a monkey (faience); 5 — a hairbrush (bone);
6 — a crest (bone); 7 — a glass bubble; 8 — birch bark with an ornament

As a result of archaeological researches in Tobolsk the new material on the history of the Siberian housing construction of the first half of the 18th century giving an idea of the equipment and ways of construction in the conditions of domination of the wooden housing estate which basis was formed by the estate is received.

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Tobolsk state historical and architectural memorial estate

danilovpg@mail.ru

During a reconstruction of a roadbed in S. Remezov&s Avenue in Tobolsk they found a part of a town dwelling house dating back to late XVII — early half of XVIII century. It represents a dwelling construction with an entrance passage, fitting just partially the excavations& boundaries, together with a part of its western fence. To the west of the dwelling house, subject to investigation being a part of a town street. The archaeological investigations resulted in getting new data on the history of Siberian house building in the first half of XVIII century, allowing to develop an idea on technique and methods of construction under domination of wooden dwelling buiding which basis was made by complex of dwelling and household structures.

History of house building, West Siberia, XVIII century, complex of dwelling and household structures, lodging, oven.

Micheal King
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