The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Administrative activity of M.M. Speransky in the period of his governorship in Penza

nut delegations from clergy, the nobility, from the cities and volosts of the province, thus, it is impossible to satisfy the petition of a thought. The answer of the Minister of Internal Affairs I.N. Durnovo was short: "The satisfaction of the petition of a thought as far as it is obviously possible is desirable". This resolution, certainly, encouraged faithful feelings of the municipal public government. As a result the governor and City Council agreed to increase the structure of delegation up to 10 people. And the structure of delegation is decided to be determined by a lot, the thought found a different way of appointment of deputies inconvenient in a type of the fact that "in patriotic feelings of all vowels there is no doubt, and the deviation of any given of them from honor to be the deputy could be considered as offensive" [19].

The faithful feelings expressed by the Penza city society impressed the heir to the throne favourably, he with gratitude spoke of them even in a confidential conversation with the governor. The second time Nikolay Aleksandrovich visited Penza being already the emperor on June-28, 1904, personally checking the military units which are preparing for sending to the Far East. As well as in the previous visit, the emperor had to spend several hours in the city, at the same time faithful moods of citizens were strong, as usual. Preparation for a visit was traditional: improvement, cleaning and decoration of streets and squares. On memoirs of eyewitnesses, podgotovleniye bore the concentrated character: "Even on suburban streets where the emperor could not come around, there were same preparations, as on central" [20]. Feature of this visit was one of initiatives of city society - to create a continuous chain of a live protection along all transit of the monarch. The protection was created from reliable volunteers, mainly from city elite. Moved volunteers not so much desire to see the tsar, but also desire to protect the sovereign's person from accidents.

Many thousands crowds of people came to have a look at the tsar on a need of the heart.

Thus, at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century city self-government used all provided opportunities for expression of the faithful position and the loyal relation to a political policy. Not less favorable relation was to monarchical persons. The emperor in Russia was an embodiment of the autocratic power, and the provincial public expressed sincere honoring, respect and a worship for this power. Most distinctly it was shown during Nicholas II's visits to the Penza province. Circumstances of preparation of visits show sincerity of feelings and moods of city society. A characteristic example is the refusal of the Penza City Council to reduce the delegation at the emperor's meeting. Many educational and cult institutions were constructed by city society in memory of Alexander II.

list of sources and literature

1. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 658. L.218-about.
2. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 660. L.102-about. - 103.
3. In the same place. L.102.
4. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 660. L.402.
5. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 660. L. 414 - 414-about.
6. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 664. L.43-about.
7. In the same place. L.44-about.
8. In the same place. L.42.
9. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 665. L.68-about.
10. In the same place. L.291.
11. In the same place. L.263.
12. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 689. L.5.
13. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 668. L.206.
14. In the same place. L.180-181.
15. In the same place. L.183-183-about.
16. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 674. L.330-330-about.
17. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 679. L.221-221-about.
18. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 676. L.278-278-about.
19. In the same place. L.294.
20. Penza provincial sheets. 1909. July 2. Page 3.

UDC 63.3(2)

administrative activity of m of m of SPERANSKY in the period of his governorship in PENZA

T.A. Druzhinina

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky Department of national history and technique of teaching history

On the basis of archival documentary sources the activities of the governor M.M. Speransky for improvement of roads, bridges, streets and squares of the cities, villages, villages, the organizations of fire service and to the solution of other economic problems of the Penza province are shown in article.

M.M. Speransky is an outstanding political figure of the 19th century, people with unique and surprising destiny. Having been born in family of the priest of the village of Cher-kutino of the Vladimir province, he made incredibly prompt career, became the closest adviser to the emperor Alexander I and the secretary of the State Council. Speransky had not equal in drawing up art

of manifestos and decrees. Its feather possesses a set of the projects devoted to transformation of Russia. Speransky's career caused envy in the people surrounding it. He got at court the nickname "upstart". In 1812 Speransky was slandered, fell into disgrace and is sent into exile: at first to Nizhny Novgorod, then to Perm. On August 30, 1816 after

the numerous addresses to the emperor he was pardoned and appointed the governor of the Penza province. On this post Speransky was till March 22, 1819 [6].

Being the governor, M.M. Speransky was engaged in the solution of different problems, including economic. However this party of its activity did not receive lighting in literature. In the majority of the works devoted to Speransky he is presented as the room worker who was fond of affairs which assumed abstract reflections. According to V.O. Klyuchevsky, "it was one of those strong, but earned minds which, tirelessly analyzing and abstracting, finish the fact that cease to understand concrete... It hardly was given then understanding of reality, that is history" [7. Page 200]. And by definition of the researcher of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the XX century of A.E. Nolde, activity of the administrator weighed Speransky and from her he sought to take refuge in the capital" [9. Page 266-267]. Moreover, some biographers of Speransky, even claim that he "disdained the position, called it for disabled" and gave attention to affairs a little. Meanwhile, the documents which are contained in State Archive of the Penza Region allow to see Speransky in quality of the administrator-business executive, new to it, and to disprove this very popular belief.

In the present article we set as the purpose to show some episodes of economic activity of M.M. Speransky on improvement of the Penza province.

Having become the Penza governor, M.M. Speransky actively undertook the solution of economic problems and improvement of the province. He wrote the leader of the provincial nobility G.D. Stolypin of February 5, 1817 in the letter: "Here I give to all affairs a type of durability" [11. Page 892]. And in the letter to the closest friend A.A. Stolypin of June 5, 1817 he emphasized: I am busy. There is a wish to do as it is possible better" [11. Page 1136]. In the decision economic as however, and other questions Speransky was guided by orders of the central power and executed them with all severity and with all responsibility.

In the first half of the 19th century the tsarist government paid much attention to construction of roads, improvement of the cities and other settlements. About it the decree of the emperor of December 13, 1817 "To roads, villages and the cities" demonstrates. In it importance of road construction for development of Russia was emphasized and concrete instructions on construction and improvement of roads were given. In the decree it was said that "the road has to be equal, hillocks and hillocks are leveled, holes and hollows are buried. Among the road there should not be ledges, ruts. to avoid to be the traveler of a nepriyatstvo overturned". In the decree it was offered "to strengthen the road a cobble-stone, beaten in crushed stone". besides, "roads have to be meant on both sides by the dug ditches for a water drain, directly and in parallel carried out that without need on location not

became excess bends". In the decree it was in detail told about the maintenance of bridges: ".pr bridges and recarts to have posts with crossbeams. Of bridges to make Stilka from hewn broven and to keep them always in an order. To arrange descents of bridges so that the congress was always safe also without damages of crews". It was recommended "to have on all roads milestones on which to mark number of versts from one station to another in large figures. At intersections to have columns with the instruction where the road conducts. Along roads behind ditches to put avenues in two ranks from lindens, aspens, birches, poplars. On organization of everything above marked by all means it is necessary to have active supervision behind it" [1. L.7].

This decree had a direct bearing on the Penza province as there passed the Moscow, Simbirsk, Tambov, Saratov paths [4. L.9]. Therefore together with the decree the governor received the order at which it was supposed to form working teams for the device of roads, to take on staff of each of them: the chief of crew - the major with the annual content of one thousand rubles, company commanders - captains, lieutenants - 5 people with contents on 500 rubles everyone; the sergeant-majors knowing the diploma - 22 persons on 250 rubles, from them 12 people - nadzorshchik; corporals - 32 persons on 200 rubles; carpenters - 60 people on 200 rubles; mostovshchik - 60 people on 200 rubles, masons - 15 people on 180 rubles, for pletyevy work - 20 people on 180 rubles; smiths - 10 people on 200 rubles; Kolesnikov - 10 people on 200 rubles; pioneers of three classes with a total number of 750 people, according to payment on 160, 140, 130 rubles, the doctor with contents - 1000 rubles, subdoctors of-5 people on 400 rubles; paramedics - 20 people on 200 rubles; watchmen - 20 people on 150 rubles. For medicines it was offered to allocate - 5000 rubles, for tools, carts, machines and other-6000 rubles, on emergency, contingencies of-7.5 thousand rubles. In general one such crew cost 1984500 rubles a year [5. L.557]. This huge sum was too expensive for the province therefore the governor assigned performance of the decree to peasants.

Carrying out the decree of the emperor, M.M. Speransky sent to territorial district police officers Saransk, Gorodi-shchensky, Moksha, Chembarsky and other counties of the instruction about need to bring main roads (paths) into accord with requirements of the imperial decree. In it it was said: ".k everything has to be arranged to this spring. for this it is necessary to break all paths into sites. to each site to attribute the settlement in the district lying; to assign not less than 50 versts of the road for work to each settlement; from everyone the district the inspector who will survey the site has to be defined". In the instruction Speransky emphasized that: "width of the road has to be the 30th sazhen. From them the middle, a measure 8-10 sazhen to leave for the road, and on the parties to leave to the 5th sazhen for canals and avenues. Behind avenues to leave the place for a cattle run, without permitting on it

to go. Width of ditches - 2 sazhens and more, depth is 2-4 arshins... To plant trees, receding from edge of a ditch on 0.5 sazhens not too to darken the road and to complicate evaporations after a rain. All bridges have to be arranged in a new way to situation, and those which in serviceability need to be painted only". The instruction of the governor came to an end with words: "These rules are forwarded to their exact execution" [4. L.10, 11, 79].

According to the instruction of the governor, each village and the village received certain sections of the road which needed to be put in order. For example, the village of Lopatino (133 souls) received 15.5 versts, Pokrovsk (360 souls) - 33.5 versts, the Slob (250 souls) - 35.5 versts, Nechayevka (131 souls) of-7 versts. As a result in the village of the Leningrad Region-patino about 0.11 versts of the road, in the village Pokrovsk - 0.09, the Slob - 0.17, Nechayevka - 0.05 were the share of one person [10. L.128, 145, 214]. Similar distribution of versts was connected with local position of roads, degree of difficulty of their processing. Peasants were dissatisfied with introduction of a new duty. Speransky monthly received official reports from territorial district police officers, chiefs of police, district leaders of territorial courts in which it was told about unwillingness of peasants to carry out this duty, about difficulties of repair of roads, about the shortage of money, etc. [4. L.241] Unfortunately, we did not manage to establish amount of completed work in the period of Speransky's governorship.

In the decree of the emperor of December 13, 1817 it was told not only about construction of roads, but also about improvement of the cities, villages, villages: streets in settlements have to have 10-15 sazhen in width. The continuous structure of houses was not permitted. In villages there have to be squares in which churches are located. Streets need to be kept clean. They have to be dry, for this purpose it is necessary to lay channels. Each host is obliged to be responsible for a condition of the street against the house; "to clean it as at itself in a log hut". In the cities to establish boxes for night watchmen. To watch a condition of houses, to repair the deteriorated places and the fallen-off plaster immediately; to paint houses only with white, pale yellow, light gray, light pink, yellow-gray paint. To keep public gardens clean. The duty to monitor observance of an order [1 was imputed to police. L.8.9].

Being engaged in improvement of the cities, settlements, villages, Speransky sent to governors of a town, a town thought, the chief of police, the vice governor a number of orders, including the order the governor of a town from

18 March, 1818 in which "it was forbidden to pile up streets and on them to put something" [3. l.5]. In the instruction of the Penza town police from
19 March, 1818 it was said that fences should be painted in yellow color, to put wells in order, over them to paint a roof in red color, in front of houses to demolish palisades, to make cross bridges in all width of streets, to paint paint, and on the sides of the bridge to make pile. further send a game -

kretny instructions on certain city streets. So, for example, to put the market square in order, on Troitskaya Street to the landowner Kriosina to demolish wooden buildings, to the petty bourgeois Meshannikov immediately to demolish the closet built not according to the plan, on Moskovskaya Street to correct a fence, to paint it with yellow paint, to replace columns to gate of the merchant Alferov with stone [2. L.9.10].

In M.M. Speransky's note the Penza vice governor Voytsekhovich of July 10, 1818 was told to make the order about cleaning of city squares of everything to them unusual. From the lower city square to transfer the wooden barns serving as wine and salt shops on another decent and from fire the safe place [2. l.28]. In the address to the Town thought of July 18, 1818 Speransky asks to allocate from city income 150 rubles for clarification and planning of Dvoryanskaya Street [2. L.37].

It should be noted that Speransky brought order to fire service. Following the decree of the emperor of January 10, 1818, he demanded from town police to define the number of quarters and according to them the fire brigades necessary for each city and also the number of the fire tool, horses, Furmanov. According to the order of the governor each fire brigade has to have the house with extensions for tools, horses and Furmanov. In each city at police there has to be a fire captain [1. L.16].

Speransky was persistent and strict in the requirements. On October 6, 1818 he addresses the Penza town police again: "I order to a .posla of repeated verbal instructions last time. to end the following corrections: from a lebedev of the bridge of the building on the road lying to break and to clean off the road so that the street to Penzensky Bridge going was open. On descent to a lebedev to the bridge from a thought to arrange to vyrovnit a firm handrail and the road on the steepness of the coast! The area near church by all means to clean and vyrovnit. To correct a well (on Average Pedestrian) and to cover a pavement with crushed stone; Tambov and Saratov are expensive, as well as bridges, by all means to arrange according to plans and to deliver on them versts [2. L.38]. All these addresses demonstrate that the governor actively put into practice decisions of the central power and responsibly treated the duties. Same he demanded also from local officials of all ranks. Its activity promoted improvement of quality of roads, bridges, purity of streets and squares, fire safety of settlements. M.M. Speransky quite often himself took the initiative: On July 7, 1817 he presented to the Ministry of Internal Affairs the estimate and plans for construction in Penza of the prison state lock [2. L.323]. In 1818 he suggested provincial board to put the English molotilny cars into practice and asked to distribute the description to their those landowners who are engaged or want to be engaged for "the and general advantage in such parts of economy" [12. Page 312].

Speransky regularly wrote reports on the activity, and it was highly appreciated at court. In the letter of the chairman of department of the State Council V.P. Kochubey of October 18, 1818 it was said to Speransky: "You connect practice to the theory and we have nobody who could satisfy in this expectation its majesty" [10. Page 57]. On the organization of drinkable sale and also restoration of state Brilovsky distillery and for trade on wine delivery Speransky received the award very important in circumstances of that time for a number of successful orders. On January 23, 1818 to it it was granted "in requital of excellent works" - 5000 tithes of the earth in the Saratov province [8. Page 140]. This favor very much pleased it as was the first after its political revival.

Thus, summing up the results of everything above to told, it is necessary to emphasize that even those not numerous facts given above testify to Speransky as the personality many-sided. His talent was shown not only in drawing up the state papers, but also in administrative activity. He took up the position of the governor zealously and made for the Penza province much.

list of sources and literature

1. State Archive of the Penza Region (SAPR). F.5. Op.1. 624.
2. GAPO. F.5. Op.1. 625.
3. GAPO. F.5. Op.1. 630.
4. GAPO. F.5. Op.1. 631.
5. GAPO. F.6. Op.1. 477.
6. See: History of the state Russian: Biographies. The first half of the 19th century / Sost. M.A. Opalinskaya, S.N. Sinegubov, A.V. Shvetsov. M.: Book chamber, 1997. Page 48-71; L.M. Lysenko. Generals and governor generals of the Russian Empire. M.: MGPU publishing house, 2001. Page 66-79; Russian former figures: 12 portraits with biographic essays. SPb: Type. Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1878. Other Page 69-91; O. Savin. Emperors and governors. Penza, 2006. Page 114-134; Chi-biryaev S.A. Great Russian reformer: Life and activity, political views of M.M. Speransky. M.: Journalese association "Sunday", 1993. 238 pages; Yuzhakov S.N. Speransky. His life and public work. Biographic essay//Dashkov. Suvorov. Vorontsova. Speransky. Kankrin. Biographic narrations / Sost. M.F. Boldyreva. Chelyabinsk: Ural publishing house, 1995. Page 309-398, etc.
7. V.O. Klyuchevsky. Course of the Russian history: SOBR. soch.: In the 9th TM, 1989. T. 5. 563 pages
8. M.A. Korf. Life of the count Speransky: In 2 t. SPb: Printing house of Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1861. T. 2. 378 pages
9. A.E. Nolde. Count M.M. Speransky. Characteristic experience. M. Rayev's publication//New magazine. 1989. Prince 175. Page 248-269.
10. The Russian old times - the monthly edition. SPb: Type. "Public advantage", 1902. T. 111. Page 53-59.
11. The Russian Archive - the historico-literary collection devoted to studying our Fatherland in the 18-19th centuries 1870. Prod. 1871. Page 892-1140.
12. V.A. Tomsipov. Star of the Russian bureaucracy. Historical portrait of M.M. Speransky. M.: Young Guard, 1991. 336 pages

UDC 629.113/115 (09)

the missed chance of the empire: to a question of discrepancy of development of the Russian automotive industry till 1917


Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky Department of the contemporary history of Russia and study of local lore

In article the problems of development of domestic automotive industry during the pre-revolutionary period are considered. According to the author, quality characteristics of the Russian cars of that time corresponded to the leading world analogs that visually showed a number of motor rallies. However further small-scale release, business did not go. The state preferred to buy the equipment abroad.

In post-Perestroika years there is common a thesis about rapid modernization of the Russian economy. On the economic potential the country surely took the fifth place in the world. As for automotive industry, it is not necessary to tell about any significant progress here while in the Western European countries the production of cars becomes more and more profitable and promising undertaking. Henry Ford's enterprises in the USA for a season of 1908-1909 brought release of cars to 10607 pieces [1]. And it several years prior to use of the conveyor! "The mobile assembly way" was introduced at the Ford plants only in April, 1913

[2]. After introduction of the conveyor the mass release of cars was estimated already in tens of thousands a year.

What there was a situation in Russia? During the same period several plants undertook production of cars at us. Here some of them: firm "To a mill and To", Lessner, Aksay, Dux, I.P. Puzyrev's plant. The Russian-Baltic car-building plant in Riga became the most known and, perhaps, to the most successful in development of domestic automotive industry. JSC RBVZ founded in 1874 had material and technical resources, good for the time, and had reputation of the reliable partner in the market of mechanical products. A range released

Milo David Edmund
Other scientific works: