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Family in the businessman's life: traditions, marriage, children (on material of provinces of Upper Volga the middle of the XIX beginning of the 20th century)

o. A. Kuznetsova


(on material of provinces of Upper Volga the middle of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century)

Work is presented by department of philosophy of the Ivanovo state textile academy.

Article is devoted to the main events in family life of business people. The author gives characteristic and calls the main lines of the related relations among businessmen of Upper Volga of the middle of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th century. Emphasizes value of moral and religious rules, traditions in formation of the family and related relations of industrial and trade estate and also points to new trends during modernization of public and economic life of the Russian province. The numerous historic facts, examples and a personnel opening special and the general in understanding of a role of family in human life are given.

O. Kuznetsova

FAMILY IN A BUSINESSMAN’S LIFE: TRADITIONS, MARRIAGE, CHILDREN (based on the materials of the Upper Volga provinces of the middle 19th - early 20th centuries)

The paper is devoted to the main events in the home life of businessmen. The author characterizes and names the basic features of kinship relationship in the environment of businessmen of the Upper Volga region in the middle 19th - early 20th centuries. The author emphasizes the value of moral and religious rules and traditions in kinship relationship forming in the industrial-merchant class and also specifies the new tendencies during modernization of the social and economic life of the Russian provinces. Numerous historical facts, examples and persons revealing the special and the general in understanding of the family’s role in human life are resulted.

In human life there are major key events: of them its birth on light is starting, having matured, the person marries, makes family and lives in it, death crowns mortal life of the person him.

All these events had the features in the domestic enterprise environment.

Them we will begin characteristic with the birth of the child and the actions accompanying it.

By moral rules which approved in society Russian Orthodox Church children were the main moral justification of marriage, not casually Russian people put a saying: "Who has no children - in a sin lives". By century tradition which main carrier was a peasantry it is necessary

was to bring at least three sons. Was considered that one son anyway will die (child mortality in pre-revolutionary Russia was very high), the second will go to serve to army (at the time of a recruitment he often did not come back to family at all), the third will remain with parents and will support them on an old age of years. But in order that in family there were three sons, it was necessary to give birth, at least, to six children as statistically their half will be girls.

Such instructions of traditional culture had a great influence not only on peasants, but also on enterprise families of merchants and petty bourgeoises in the city. Besides, up to the end of the 19th century at the disposal of people

practically there were no effective remedies for control of birth rate. A large number of children not only in country, but also in petty-bourgeois and merchant families was explained by it. Concrete data on separate enterprise childbirth and families of Upper Volga area fully confirm this rule.

The Shuysky merchant Ivan Fedorovich Popov from marriage with Anna Vasilyevna Kokushki-noy (the manufacturer's daughter from the village of Lezhneva of the Kovrov county of V.A. Kokushkin) had thirteen people of children from whom nine died at infantile age. Only three daughters and one son Ivan who inherited fatherly business remained to live [22, page 73-74]. This fact relating to the first half of the 19th century says that even in wealthy families the medicine at that time could not prevent the real pestilence among children and therefore sons were brought kind of "for emergency". In merchant families considered that many of them can not live up to that time when they have to accept fatherly factory or trade business in the hands. The birth of the daughter was not the same joyful event as the son's birth as she could not be the continuer of a surname and family business, the daughter at a marriage only reduced the patrimonial capital in view of the fact that it needed to allocate a dowry. Meanwhile, not to drop the dignity of enterprise family, the dowry by the size and a variety had to be in direct ratio to richness of this sort.

The same large merchant families were not a rarity and in later time - in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. At the founder of a dynasty of Morozov Savva Vasilyevich, as we know, was five sons: Eliseus, Zakhar, Abram, Ivan and Timofey. In the next two generations the number of children in various families of the Morozovsky sort was maximum: at Vikula Eliseevich - 12, at Ivan Zakharovich - 17 (three survived), at Savva Timofeyevich's sister Anna Timofeevna Karpova - 18 (15 people) [10, page 48 survived]. Family of the merchant F.I. Noskov from

villages the Klyazmensky town of the Kovrov county brought up eight children [15, page 90]. At the same time it is necessary to consider that family of both Morozov, and Noskov belonged to Old Belief, and on canons of "drevly piety" any attempts of control over birth rate were a grave sin.

However in the urban environment in the second half of the 19th century the attitude towards possession of many children became serious to change. It was connected with bourgeois reforms of Alexander II, gradual modernization of the country and changes in mentality of educated society. As researchers note, gradual decrease in level of birth rate was distinctly observed in the middle of the 19th century at the nobility, officials and partly at merchants. At the end of the same century it became noticeable in all social groups of the Russian society [16, page 190]. Women who were before "chronically pregnant" begin to be weighed upon numerous childbirth which sometimes were given them hardly, in addition more or less reliable means of contraception appear.

It is confirmed by the facts which belong already to the second third of the 19th century and by later time. In the 40th of the 19th century in family of the merchant from the city of Rybinsk A. Ryzhkov after his death there were a son Dmitry of 16 years and the daughter Evlampiya of 15 years. Children it was not younger than them, quite perhaps, having got two, the merchant decided to be limited to it [18, page 157-158]. At the native of the country environment Kovrov businessman A.E. Treumov was three children: two daughters - Matrona and Anna and also the son Ivan who became further the famous textile manufacturer [19, page 60]. U F. M. Krasilshchikov, the owner of big cotton-mill in Springs of the Kostroma province, from marriage with Elizabeth Druzhenkova taken them in the wife in Yaroslavl was four children: Nikolay, Anna, Yury and Anton [13, page 84]. The number of children in many merchant families gradually decreased from generation to generation. If the founder has Konovalov' dynasties, Pyotr Kuzmich, sons alone was four, then at the representative of the third generation, Ivan Aleksandrovich,

there was only one son Alexander. In the future he became not only the prominent businessman, but also the politician famous to all Russia [4, page 66].

These facts demonstrate that in the middle of the 19th century in merchant families the conscious restriction of birth rate began to be carried out. As an additional factor of the same process served gradual entry of businessmen into that social group which was called "educated society", and in it it was not "fashionable" to have "lot" of children any more. It is impossible to dismiss also that circumstance that in connection with progress of medicine infantile mortality in rich families which had an opportunity to use the qualified medical care significantly decreased. Therefore now it was not required to bring in large quantities children "for the future" at all, i.e. adjusted for their high mortality.

It is necessary to tell several words about obligatory ceremonies and also about customs and beliefs which accompanied the birth of the baby and belonged to the beginning of his life. In the next few days after the birth of the child bore in church for baptism administering the Sacrament. Except immersion in a font, the assignment for belief kreshchayemy which the godfather and the godmother gave was a necessary part of this major sacrament. These people who were called still by "vospreemni-kam" of the baby, said for him the Creed and further were responsible for teaching him to orthodox Christian belief [26, page 377, 846].

Native mother and the father could not be godmothers. About the one who really became the person, important and spiritually close for the child, funds of senatorial Department of heraldry demonstrate. Here two inventories contain documents which gathered for grant of a rank of the hereditary honourable citizen, generally as applicants on these affairs merchants acted. We in detail studied documents on two families of large textile businessmen from Ivanovo-Voznesensk Gandurinykh - Nikolay and Lavrenti Mikhaylovichey. At the birth of children

the first of them (Nikolay) the aunt Anna Mikhaelovna and the uncle Sergey Mikhaylovich became godfathers. Lavrenti Gandurin godfathers and mothers of his numerous children (Alexander, Mikhail, Elizabeth, Lyubov, Olga, Pyotr, Fedor, Lavrenti and Aleksandra) at first had the grandfather kreshchayemy A.N. Vitov, the uncle Anton Mikhaylovich, the cousin their Natalya Andreevna. Further the senior children of L.M. Gandurin, Alexander, Mikhail and Elizabeth, became vospreemni-ka of the younger brothers and the sister: Pyotr, Fedor, Lavrenti and Aleksandra [20].

The family Gandurinykh in this regard was not an exception. Frontal viewing another matters with merchant genealogical documents (Ivanovo-voznesensky manufacturers Marakushev, Kovrov - Derbenyov, shuysky - Kokushkina) is only confirmed by the observations made by us that the closest relatives of babies became godfathers and mothers, as a rule, and the age difference did not play a role: both the grandfather kreshchayemy, and his elder brother who did not be so far above teenage age could become the godfather. Judging by documents, presence of both godfathers was at that time optional, frequent the child had only a godmother or only the godfather [21].

Very interesting some local beliefs which belonged to childbirth, a baptism and infantile age are represented. Beliefs were collected by the famous Ivanovo-voznesensky textile manufacturer and not less famous historian-local historian Yakov Petrovich Garelin, they were published in the local periodical press. They belong to life of so-called "kapita-listy", i.e. prosperous peasants of the Shuysky County and also rich citizens of Shuya and Voznesensky of the posad and concern the first half and the middle of the 19th century. In particular, Ya.P. Garelin demonstrated that during difficult childbirth near a house icon case lit a wedding candle of the woman in labor in order that everything passed successfully. During the baptism the priest cut off a lock of hair at the child and gave to the godfather who threw them into a font. If hair uto-

chick-pea, that the child will long not live if float on a surface, life of the been born person will be long [8].

Rather infantile age there were beliefs. In other publication of Ya.P. Garelin it is said that when to the child year was executed, it was called godoviky, at the same time put on the fur coat outspread on a floor and cut hair that further they grew more densely, and dithat was healthy. Also when at the child teeth were cut, under a bed to him put herbs: plakun in order that he did not cry, and a sleepiness in order that he well slept. If the child long did not start walking, and it disturbed parents, then it was accepted to order a big wax candle which was usually carried before icons during the religious processions [9].

the Major event in life of any person is marriage. Two the main and its purposes which are closely connected with each other - reproduction and transfer by inheritance that business which practiced in this family from generation to generation. For the peasants or petty bourgeoises who were engaged in any craft it was maintenance and whenever possible development of the small economy. The conclusion of favorable marriage for families of businessmen was especially important. In case of a celibacy and suppression of a sort the fate of the capital which is saved up by ancestors became problematic. It was inherited by other branches of the same business clan or in the worst option became vacant. Therefore for families of businessmen it was very important to marry successors and to make it as it is possible more successfully from the material point of view.

Most of enterprise clans XIX - the beginnings of the 20th century were natives of country estate and inherited from it religious and ethical ideas of obligation and sanctity of marriage. A marriage, and then acquisition by children were considered as execution of a holy Christian duty. It is characteristic that even the wedding ceremony by tradition was called as "God's court".

In the enterprise environment the choice of the groom or bride was originally carried out

not the young man or girl, and his family, parents. Therefore reasons of sentimental character (love or just mutual tendency) were not considered at all. At the same time it is necessary to make a reservation that further in process of growth of feeling of identity and own dignity of youth these motives began to be taken nevertheless into account at marriage, but not always as main.

It is possible to assume that the main reasons of family in matrimonial affairs of the younger generation were purely economic, i.e. the aspiration to choose the partner from more prosperous family when there was an opportunity to receive a considerable dowry or even to unite the capitals of two business clans. Really, such reasons always played very important role, and in the enterprise environment understandably they were expressed much more boldly, than in other social groups.

For this reason among merchants the majority of marriages consisted in the circle. Most often chose "half" of well-known families for the young man or the girl (from distant relatives or cousins-in-laws) and also from old and reliable commercial partners. Therefore to marry off the bride sometimes went to other city or even to other province if suitable (on concepts of parents) was not near to party.

By the author and also some local historians on pages of two issues of the almanac "Teykova Istoriya V Litsakh" big material about peculiar (through marriage) communications of several large families of industrialists of the Vladimir province was collected. In particular, Yasyuninskiye's manufacturers from Kokhma of the Shuysky County became related with Kiselyov (Shui), Polushi-nymi, Borisov, Garelinymi (Ivanovo-Voznesensk), Karetnikov (Teykovo) [27, page 18].

Karetnikova, owning cotton-mill in Teykov of the same Shuysky County, had peculiar communications with Garelinymi (Ivanovo-Voznesensk), Igumnov (Shui), Khlebnikov (Rostov Yaroslavl), Kres-

tovnikovy (Moscow), Kokushkina's industrialists from Lezhnev - with Ivanov, Borisov and Popov (Shui), the same Popov - with Kokushkinymi (Lezhnevo), Kaluga and Posylinymi (Shui), Karetnikov (Teykovo) [14].

The favorable marriage sometimes led to significant progress of affairs of any given businessman. In family Burylinykh (Ivanovo-Voznesensk) after the section of small patrimonial factory between brothers Dmitry and Nikolay the situation of the last was very not very well. However the marriage on Nadezhda Ku-vayevoy, the only heir of large manufactory business, made him the important person in industrial Ivanovo-Voznesensk. Thanks to the energy he managed to turn the Kuvayevsky manufactory into one of the largest textile enterprises of the Vladimir province with stable and high annual income over time [39, page 160].

In families where there were no successors in the male line, specially in advance looked after for daughters of grooms who could take further in hand family business. The marriage of the rich successor for the unfamiliar and unreliable person, especially, from the alien social environment, could threaten with dispersion of the capital and business on which consolidation not one generation of industrialists or dealers worked. The large Ivanovo-voznesensky textile manufacturer Z.L. Kokushkin was lucky: he managed to find the suitable son-in-law quietly to leave it in inheritance the acquired good. The owner of weaving mill K.I. Marakushev became the husband of the only daughter Kokushkin. As a result of association of two merchant capitals Trading house

H. Kokushkin and K. Marakushev became one of the major textile companies in the Russian Manchester [1, page 9].

For business people most often material reasons prevailed over motives of a prestigious order. Therefore quite often there were cases when the merchant family accepted the rich daughter-in-law or the wealthy son-in-law from country estate which stood much below on a social ladder.

For example, the founder of a family of Kovrov manufacturers, the peasant A.E. Treumov married the daughter of the merchant M.I. Bolshakov Lukerye. Further it, despite the acquired wealth, and remained to death in the same estate [19, page 60]. In the city of Vyazniki of the Vladimir province, neighboring to Kovrov, the local merchant son from rather poor enterprise sort V.D. Khromov in 1890 took in the wife the daughter of the rich peasant from the village of Holshcheva M.I. Bakanova [6].

However it would be incorrect to consider marriage in enterprise families only the economic transaction. At marriage also other reasons were considered: prestigious, psychological, esthetic. Desire of parents to receive in family the girl with good temper, appeasable character, pretty was quite lawful (beauty was some kind of capital too!), come of good kin, and whenever possible, of the estate which had higher social status.

Despite just given facts about interclass marriages of merchant and country offsprings, prestige reasons nevertheless played a significant role at the device of private life of young businessmen. Therefore the relations between the nobility and merchants from the matrimonial point of view are of great interest. Long since between these estates there was a high status barrier which seriously interfered with establishment of peculiar communications between representatives of these estates.

The observations made on the basis of personal experience by the famous Moscow businessman are in this regard very characteristic

N. P. Vishnyakov: "The merchants attitude towards the nobility as to estate ruling, exclusive, closed in itself and interested in prosecution only of the uzkososlovny purposes, naturally, it was full of mistrust, envy and not goodwill. To meet the nobleman or the noblewoman in the merchant environment was the same rarity as the merchant or the tradeswoman in noble. If it occurred, then excited general zhivey-

a neck and besides sarcastic curiosity on the relation of those who broke customs of the castes. Ordinary explained it with mercenary calculations. If the merchant accepted noblemen, it meant: tries to obtain the contract, an award or a medal, the daughter strives to give out for "noble". And if what God forbid, the nobleman was going to marry the merchant daughter, the fate of the last was mourned in advance: what as not to rob unfortunate and to throw could the nobleman in mind have other? Only very rich merchant families possessing sufficient means "to buy" the decent nobleman could make an exception, but it was a rarity. Also, if the merchant marries the noblewoman, about him were sorry. The noblewoman did not need to marry the merchant differently in any way as without having a skirt behind soul. The Akaky wellbeing could be expected under such circumstances? Known business: will rob the husband, will present the family, will get a polyubovnik them "" and will leave the husband. Moreover will begin to laugh: bypassed such fool" [5, page 39].

Though Vishnyakov's reasonings had the biased character having on itself a print of class egoism, the reality quite often confirmed the worst fears and with that and on the other hand (i.e. from noble and merchant relatives). For example, after a marriage of the young nobleman Nikolay Oshanin on the daughter of the shuysky merchant Anna Posylina, the destiny caused both only constant regrets in their relatives. The financial position of young couple was unenviable. So, Oshanin obviously not from good life was forced to be employed as the house teacher to children of the Ivanovo manufacturers of of areliny and kokhomsky industrialists Scherbakov. According to their relatives, Nikolay and Anna's acquaintances were obviously reprehensible, they in the second half of the 50th of the 19th century communicated in Ivanov with famous writer populist F.D. Nefedov, sisters Nadezhda and Apollinariya Suslovymi who shocked local society with the emansipation, and even with S.G. Nechayev (!) [2, page 4].

In the second half of the 19th century the situation with interclass marriages began gradually

to change. It can be tracked on the example of generation painting of branched, durable and quite numerous family of textile manufacturers of Karetnikovykh from Teykov. The facts about marriages of their representatives in the merchant environment were already given above. In the second half of century they began to admit to the family and representatives of nobility. Alessandro Vasiglievn Karetnikov married I.S. Schmidt who was the leader of the nobility of the Shuysky County subsequently. One more merchant daughter, Yuli Ivanovn Karetnikov, became the wife of A.M. Nevyadomsky coming from ancient Polish shlyakhetsky

sorts [28, page 6-7].

At the beginning of the 20th century the marriages between representatives of these two estates became even more frequent. In scientific literature it is noted that merchants approached in the welfare plan the nobility more and more, and to the girl from grown poor (and not only from grown poor) the noble family at all was not considered shameful to marry the wealthy merchant any more [11, page 125].

The granddaughter of the famous Russian admiral Molchanov, Maria Yakovlevna coming from noblemen of the Shuysky County first marriage married the major general Szymanowski. Having become a widow/widower, the general's wife did not consider shameful to enter second marriage already with the merchant A.G. Bie genome. She lodged with the husband in Ivanovo-Voznesensk, but still contained the entail noble property in the village of Talitsy [23, page 207].

Such cases represented rather an exception, than the rule, among little-known provincial businessmen, such as Begena. However they became more and more frequent at businessmen known, rich and won to themselves a big name in the business world and public work. In particular, the largest textile manufacturers Morozov originally preferred to become related with equal to on estate, on Wednesday their cousins-in-laws nearly all color of the Moscow merchants, at first from Old Believers, and then and from Orthodox Christians got. It is characteristic that Timofey Savvich Morozov from -

kazyvatsya to pass into nobility though opportunities for this purpose were given it [24, page 48-50]. However among his descendants already very many became related with the taking priority estate of the empire. The most part of his grandchildren was not merchants any more, and "noble". Such known noble childbirth as Kri-vosheina, Likhachev, Nenarokova, Smolya-ninova, Golovnina, a background of Mecca, Nazarova, etc. was connected with Morozov by conjugal ties [10, page 50].

For Morozov the relationship with the known noble surnames was not only prestigious, but also useful to their professional activity especially as officials of the highest rank, for example, A.V. Krivoshein who was the head of Head department of land management and agriculture in 1908-1915 occurred among noble relatives. Especially important and prestigious were peculiar communications for the provincial businessmen not accepted in capital offices and salons of high society. These communications promoted vertical social mobility of businessmen, i.e. advance of their descendants up. Marriage with the nobleman or the noblewoman in this situation served as the social elevator which moved concluding the alliance and its descendants is to a degree higher on a social ladder. So, the younger line of Kovrov merchants Shaganov became related with noblemen three times, and descendants them in the female line reached considerable heights in military and civil career. For example, P.F. Shaganova and A.P. Kryukovsky's son, Pyotr Kryukovsky, became the colonel of the Tula infantry regiment, one more Shaganova and P.D. Kislinsky's son, Mikhail Kislinsky, served to a rank of the privy councilor and worked in office on adoption of the applications directed to the highest name [25, page 25].

Not the last role in marriage was played by esthetic reasons, i.e. appearance of the groom and bride. Of course, for marrying they were much more important, than for the immediate family, but the last took them into account too. In the merchant environment there was the ideal of female beauty,

which in the concentrated look we can observe in B.M. Kustodiyev's pictures representing tradeswomen. The statement that the wonderful artist found type of this beauty will not be exaggeration including in the Kineshma County of the Kostroma province which he for the first time visited in 1900 and further regularly happened here till 1915 Kustodiyev wrote the local rural teacher I.A. Adelfinsky: "I lived in those places ten years and I consider these years some of the best in the life. All these places... which I drew and which entered to me on pictures as material. To the district I knew all this like the back of the hand" [3, page 381]. And in the industrial county surrounding it it, from our point of view, found such ideal of female beauty which was especially close to the representative of the prosperous urban environment in merchant Kineshma: blond, radiating with health, with celestial-blue eyes.

the Ideal represented in Kustodiyev's pictures in many respects is confirmed by the sources of personal origin relating to the beginning of the 20th century. In particular, it is the diary of the young man Leonid Gribov which belonged to rather poor enterprise family in the city of Ivanovo-Voznesensk. The image of the ideal girlfriend and bride seems to it such: "Perhaps, I will present imaginary characteristic of the unknown "it": It still almost the child (16 years) - the brunette, carries a small braid; growth, being conformed over the years, high; its face is white, sometimes quickens a bright flush; brown eyes friendly and quickly look from under dense eyelashes; black dense eyebrows dexterously frame these brown eyes and even more give them gloss; it has the correct tiny nose; the crimson sponges similar to a coral probably created only for a kiss, and behind them a number of white teeth complete beauty of this pretty girl" [12].

The love match originally was very rare. Estimating this phenomenon, it is necessary to take into account and religious views dominating in the merchant environment and also among peasants and petty bourgeoises. In these social groups there was a resistant prejudice against church connection

two people on passion which was considered as something sinful and unworthy religious sacraments to which number the marriage belonged.

Therefore in the first half of the 19th century the parents seldom considered mutual tendencies of children and were guided first of all by material and also other reasons mentioned above. Seniors arrived according to the known Russian saying: "Love comes with habit", but, unfortunately, the popular wisdom was fair not always. At the same time in the history of provincial enterprise families quite often happened that in the course of family life, acquisition by children and their education there were a mutual respect, care about each other, mutual aid of the husband and wife in difficult circumstances. All this quite often formed a basis for emergence of feeling of love after marriage.

One of examples of such happy joint life was Timofey Savvich and Maria Fiodorovna Morozov' family. Parents married Timofey in 1846 to the daughter of the Moscow merchant of the 2nd guild F.S. Simonov. One by one in family children began to appear. Maria Fiodorovna was not just mother of family, the husband regularly devoted her in the affairs, acquainted with business steam -

tner. Gradually young spouses not only got used, but fell in love with each other. Therefore Timofey Savvich's death became for his wife the big tragedy. After the death of the husband Maria Fiodorovna lived the last two decades of the life the inconsolable widow, diligently praying for the peace of soul of the spouse and donating in memory his considerable funds for charitable affairs [17, page 77].

The same relations connected other enterprise couple - Stepan Ivanovich and Aleksandra Dmitriyevna Karetnikovykh. In the letters to the wife S.I. Karetnikov addressed her precisely "dear my friend, Sashenka". The composition of the pair custom portraits representing these two people is symbolical, they sit kind of at one table, with sympathy looking at each other [7].

Capitalist modernization, bourgeois reforms of the 60-70th of the 19th century in Russia had a great influence not only on economy and the state institutes, but also on private life, especially it concerned city estates. In new conditions even in conservative merchant families the youth began to demand more and more loudly from parents to consider their tendencies when choosing the partner in life. Love matches in this social environment gradually stopped being a rarity.


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Justin Goodman
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