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Language and culture in historical and relevant processes of internal migration and transformation in the multinational state of Russia

the issledovaniye of cultural contacts of ethnic groups by means of synergetic approach was offered to M.I. Sa-fiullina. For her this approach to studying cultural contacts is the general scientific method adjoining a dialectic way of knowledge of the world around and also uniform tools in clarification of the nature of any given processes of a sociocultural order [4, page 126]. The author of article sees development of culture of ethnic group as process of interaction of own cultural achievements and elements of culture acquired from the next people. At the same time at an acquaintance stage the cultural contacts happen accidentally, and any given parties of culture of neighbors are perceived unconsciously, and here the subsequent comparison personal and others' cultures carries out to conscious perception of their achievements. Therefore, draws M.I. Safiul-lin's conclusion, development and functioning of culture proceeds continuously, passing from chaos to an order and back, and it is already the subject of the theory about self-organization of open nonlinear self-organizing systems which the culture of ethnic group is [4, page 123].

Cultural contacts of ethnic group with neighbors have no rigid determinancy. However cultural development of ethnic group on the basis of interaction of personal and others' cultural achievements goes to the uniform purpose - strengthening of the culture in the world. This aspiration of culture of ethnic group to M.I. Safiullin's stability calls an attractor, i.e. the fact that it attracts to itself a set of "trajectories" of the movement of culture in the future. Any loan causes a choice problem - to adopt or not to accept an element of culture of the next people because accidents can direct cultural development of ethnic group to points of branching of opportunities (bifurcation) is made on other way, than that which was expected. But thanks to chaos of cultural contacts between the people there is a vykristallization of culture of ethnic group [4, page 124]. Thus, it is possible to assume that even small influence at cultural contact results in essential result therefore loan of cultural achievements sose-


Tay is capable to be led, in turn, to basic changes of culture of any given people.

A synergetic mirovideniye of culture of ethnic group when its unstable state contains a way to stability, and in stability possibilities of its transition to an unstable state when accidents (fluctuation) can predetermine the direction of further evolution of culture of ethnic group are put, guided M.I. Safiullina at a thought that cultural contacts quite often act as small fluctuations. Accidental external cultural contacts can turn into internal need until in it there are accidental phenomena leading already to other need. At the same time it is necessary to consider that emergence of the most internal structure in self-organization of culture of ethnic group definitely not so much external circumstances and how many internal properties of the culture as systems. External influence in this case performs function trigger the mechanism in cultural development of ethnic group in a certain direction from several possible ways [4, page 125-126].

Appears from the aforesaid: first, accidents of cultural contacts perform function of the mechanism which brings the culture of ethnic group to an attractor of the own organization, to trends of the internal development; secondly, the trigger mechanism of a start of motion of culture of ethnic group not always is in the development in this culture, sometimes it is the external cultural contact; thirdly, the special part is assigned to cultural contact in this process [4, page 126].

Thus, the analysis of works of domestic philosophers and culturologists which is carried out by us showed an evristichnost of system and synergetic methodology by consideration of nomadic culture as self-organizing system, at the same time cultural contacts act as the attractors promoting developments of both ethnic group, and its culture.

1. Abayev, N.V. The ecological culture of the people of Central Asia in the context of paleoantropologichesky researches / N.V. Abayev, L.K. Arak-chaa, V.R. Feldman. - Kyzyl: Publishing house of TyvGU, 2005.
2. Kagan, M.S. Filosofiya of culture. - SPb., 199b.
3. Kagan, M.S. Sinergetika and cultural science//Synergetrics and methods of science. - SPb., 1998.
4. Safiullina, M.I. Synergetic approach to studying cultural contacts in ethnogenesis//Methodology of humanitarian knowledge in the long term the 21st century: to the 80 anniversary of professor Moisey Samoylovich Kagan: materials of the international scientific conference (on May 18, 2001 St. Petersburg). - Symposium series. - SPb., 2001. - Issue 12.
5. Feldman, V.R. Traditional society of the people of Central Asia: space-time characteristics, mechanisms of the organization and self-organization. - Kyzyl: Publishing house of TyvGU, 2008.

Article came to edition 9.03.10

UDC 008.009:39

O.R. Zayakin, dots. BPGU of V.M. Shukshin, Biysk, E-mail:;

S.N. Samozhenov, dots. NGLU of N.A. Dobrolyubov, Nizhny Novgorod, E-mail:


Article is devoted to language questions, speakers as means of intercultural communication, in the multinational state. Authors carry out historical digression, complementing it with the modern analysis of a situation of cohabitation of the numerous people in the huge territory of the Russian Federation. The main idea consists in the consolidating historical role of Russian.

Modern Russia is the multinational state which on the national-state structure has no analogs in the world. So, the population for which Russian is not native makes 20% of all population, but about 120 ethnic groups include representatives. Among 83 territorial subjects of the federation 26 have the status national and territorial for which "radical" or "title", about 40 ethnic groups act.

During an era of globalization of economy there is also a cultural globalization. The last, first of all, is connected with powerful development of an information field which allows to make contact between various much quicker

people and their cultures. It is not about deleting of specific differences between the nations and nationalities, and about interpenetration on the principle of tolerance. This thought is not exclusive and new. At the beginning of the 20th century famous Russian teacher P.F. Kapterev expressed the following opinion:

"Nationality-... it is not eternal not only because the people one by one quit the historical stage, but also because eventually the international distinctions and sides are erased and softened, the people become similar at each other, borrow one another more, enter more frequent intercourses. The people more and more gravitate to

to mutual rapprochement and association, they seek to merge, but not to be separated.... Nowadays national peculiarities are still very noticeable, national interests are often opposite, there is a lot more race hatred; but business goes to a pacification and combination of nationalities, but not to their division. Between the cultural people there is a lot of general that truly cultural people make one society to what nation they would not belong, and an ideal of cultural aspirations - amicable, uniform mankind, but not isolated nationalities. Yes the herd will be uniform and the pastor is uniform" [1, page 566 - 567].

When we speak about identity of the people, first of all we mean its culture and language as its integral part. Within many centuries Russian was a state language. Such situation was in the Russian Empire, is later in the Soviet Union and then in Post-Soviet Russia. The history of the Soviet Union in the field of education of ethnic minorities is noted by rough blossoming of schools with teaching all or parts of objects in the native language. These schools "were considered as an element of construction of socialism. The official Soviet doctrine proceeded from ideas of the future merge of the nations and of homogeneity of future classless society" [2, page 645]. This idea to a certain extent expressed also famous erudite S.I. Gessen.

He is confident that the native language of pupils has to serve as the necessary tool at initial training, however indisputable for it is also the fact that the state language has to be a training subject. All teaching in the native language has to happen, according to him, only in case it does not suffer for itself damage to quality of teaching, "for that purpose which is set to itself by education, - the purposes of familiarizing of pupils with world universal culture". He resolutely opposes total teaching in the native language if it "is capable only, to lower quality of teaching behind not clarity of language, lack of literature and educated teaching and to vosstavit barriers to familiarizing of pupils with a stream of modern culture" [3, page 356 - 357].

Throughout rather long time Russian was also for Russians a peculiar accumulator of world culture which got into our culture by means of the translations of numerous works not only foreign writers, but also those who lived in the territory under the name the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union and who wrote in the native languages. Kyrgyz Chinghiz Aitmatov, Dagestani Rasoul Gamzatov, Georgian Shota Rustaveli and many, many others can be such examples. Through Russian all people inhabiting Russia got acquainted with their works.

At Peter I peculiar "window" in world culture was German, at Catherine II it was replaced by French. And it was not a craze, "it was the dire necessity because then French opened access not only to magnificent French culture, but also to science what was especially important during an era when Latin gradually lost the provision of universal language of world science" [4]. And Russian, since the second half of the 19th century, becomes the accumulator of world culture for the people of Russia. A similar role in other countries was played and languages play French, Portuguese, Spanish and, at last, English.

A fine slogan about equality of all people, about need of representation to all people of the right for self-determination including in the language sphere, faces objective realities of our life which force many people to come to bilingualism. But by thorough examination of this problem it is not obligatory and not always involves assimilation of any given people, its language and culture, but in most cases saves it from a cultural segregation.

The geopolitical interests of the state, since 16th century, brought the missionary movement similar to what was in colonies of the western states to life. "Collecting" of the empire by violent annexation of territories could not bring due result as it is attached -

the ny people in this case could turn very quickly from the external enemy into the enemy internal. Proceeding from it, tactics and strategy for the non-russian people was calculated, first of all, on their gradual and voluntary integration into the Russian Empire and into the Russian culture. To achieve desirable result, it was necessary to show care of school education which, according to many, has to include, first of all, teaching in the native language. Training of educated national elite would allow then to create necessary prerequisites for Christianization of the non-russian population and for cultivation of the atmosphere of strong Russian Empire. Especially successfully similar educational activity took place in the Volga region and in Siberia. However process of expansion of the empire took place far not cloudlessly. So, for example, the North Caucasus, Central Asia, Poland were annexed by gain. Therefore "many people of Russia were influenced not only by beneficial influence of the Russian culture, but also violent Christianization and russification" [5, page 75]. In restless regions it was staked on distribution of secular education and expansion of scope of Russian and, respectively, to replace geopolitical orientation in favor of Russia.

Thus, Russia accumulated centuries the unique historical experience of forming of a complex system of the interethnic and interfaith relations which was objectively promoting neutralization of potential and real separatism educational means. As a result of implementation of the educational policy based on use of the native language, accounting of ethnopsychological and social features of the people, the Russian Empire could strengthen the positions in new regions. It occurred in many respects thanks to the fact that orthodox missionary work had considerable impact on formation at the non-russian population of a positive image of the Russian state [5, page 75].

However some statesmen were afraid that the liberal policy of the state for national education can be thrown also on the political sphere that will cause threat of territorial integrity and to spiritual unity of the Russian Empire.

After establishment in Russia in 1917 of the Soviet power the new government of the country began to talk about teaching at school of all or the majority of objects in the native language. Such educational policy of the 20th years of the last century faced a number of the objective reasons among which, first of all, it is necessary to call lack of writing at many small people inhabiting the territory of the country.

The educational and cultural policy taking into account the native language of the people could be considered as continuation of royal policy. However by more thorough examination comes to light that, first, Christian, religious, the beginning which gradually got into consciousness of the non-russian people was replaced with ideology of Bolsheviks which did not find due reflection there. Secondly, the concept of supranational education was contrary to political slogans about national consciousness and national identification.

Formation of the USSR in 1922 and the subsequent its expansion happened practically in borders of the former Russian Empire. The Soviet government faced the same problems of the multinational state which faced tsar's authorities. Russian began to be considered as means of international communication. Approaching this concept it is formal, it is possible to consider, thus, Russian as tools for performance of simple communicative functions as it can be concerning English if on it, for example, the Spaniard and the Swede communicate. But such approach to a role of Russian would reduce it to "household" level. Actually Russian (at all political and ideological costs) played and continues to play more significant role in life of such multinational state as Russia.

The internal culture of indigenous peoples adequately remained in royal time that generally was

connected with their settled, compact accommodation. But, the involved in the cultural revolution of the end of the 20th years, many nationalities could not overcome forcedly that boundary which divided the people with patriarchal way and the people which are already involved in industrialization process. Development of the socialist state in the direction of industrialization and collectivization of agriculture, that is those components of life of society which objectively depend on the educational level of the population led to the fact that in the late thirties Russian becomes obligatory for study.

Growth of the industry sets process of an urbanization in motion. However to the middle of the 50th years the main population of the country continues to live in rural areas. Since this time, the population of the country has an opportunity of more free movement. Gradually led outflow of representatives of the small people from the diasporas to the fact that they lost touch with the primordial culture and language and were objectively forced "to join" the Russian culture, to master Russian. At the same time representatives of the Russian people migrated to the republics of the Soviet Union where they lived then within four decades.

Disintegration of the Soviet Union brought many problems which seemed simple only in fine dreams to life. Gaining independence and at the same time statehood, the new countries became before the political and national and ideological choice - what language to consider state? It would be logical to argue that language of title nationality has to become that language. In most cases it was the first decision. However the life realities based on historical events and processes introduce the amendments. Centuries-old general history of all people living a row rather brightly shows those difficulties which the country in the field of national education met.

Depending on existence of national territorial entities among ethnic groups distinguish several types now:

1) the groups having the national territorial entities, but living out of their limits (for example, Tatars in Bashkiria, Chuvashs in next with areas Chuvashia, etc.);
2) the groups having the statehood outside the Russian Federation (Germans, Greeks, Jews) and also ethnic groups of the former republics of the Soviet Union (Ukrainians, Belarusians, Georgians, Armenians and others);
3) the groups which do not have the statehood, but having numerous diaspora outside the Russian Federation (for example, Kurds, Roma, Eskimos);
4) the groups which do not have the statehood and concentrated mainly in the territory of the Russian Federation (Veps, the Siberian Tatars, etc.) [6, page 635].


The nationalities living in Russia, Bashkirs, Chuvashs, etc. avoided two extremes - assimilation and a segregation. Russian is not for them a factor of "irritation" that can be observed on the example of the former republics of the Soviet Union.

The groups which do not have the statehood differently "reacted" to Russian and the Russian culture. Some of them freely coexist in bilingvialny space, keeping the original culture, others in the vast majority underwent almost total assimilation.

On the example of the Russian Germans it is possible to track process of partial or total loss of national (national) culture which quickly enough happened in the second half of the 20th century. Since the end of the 17th century, Germans began to arrive in Russia and to be settled, first of all, in its central part. At Catherine II, in the second half of the 17th century, there are German colonies already in the Volga region and in Novorossiya, in the 19th century in the Caucasus and then in South Ural, Altai and in general in Siberia. Having left the historical homeland, immigrants continue to keep the language and the traditions. However after the beginning of war, in August, 1941, under the decree of the government the Germans are deported to Kazakhstan and to Western Siberia. Thereby the compactness of their accommodation is broken. Objective and subjective factors make the negative contribution to destruction of traditions and to "zabyvaniye" of the native language. Mass departure of the Russian Germans on the historical homeland in the 90th years of the last century is shown that the generation which was born in the 40th - practically lost the 50th years the internal culture and the native language. Russian-speaking culture and Russian as the spokesman of this culture came to their place. And as a result to it is change of mentality of those who rank themselves as the German nationality. Owners of this cultural mentality they arrive in the country in which for them everything is alien, beginning from language and stopping celebrating traditions holidays. There is an unhistorical question: what would be with the German colonies if there was no their mass deportation? Perhaps, they would keep language of the ancestors which speak only in separate parts of Germany now; perhaps, they gradually would "be dissolved" in Russian-speaking culture that, for example, happened to residents of the Bohemian village in Berlin.

Migration processes are connected with many factors among which language and culture play an important role. The majority made it of 11 million people who drove to Russia during the period from 1989 to 2002 because of danger to be segregated in the territory of their former accommodation at first in the sphere of language and then, as a result, in other spheres of public life.

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2. Kuzmin, M.N. Etnopedagogika//Russian pedagogical encyclopedia; under the editorship of V.V. Davydov. - Moscow: Big Russian encyclopedia, 1998.
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4. Mironov, Yu.V. Russian. В:, 2002.
5. Grachev, S.V. Education of the non-russian people of the Russian Empire in a geopolitical context//the Soviet pedagogics. - 2002. - No. 7.
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Article came to edition 16.04.10

Lora Claribel
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