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Private and public initiative in the organization of libraries (on the example of the St. Petersburg province)

BIBLIOSFERA, 2010, No. 4, page 9-11

Library science

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© E.V. Mokshanova, 2010

St. Petersburg State University of culture and arts 191186, St. Petersburg, Dvortsovaya Embankment, 2

Features of formation of the library environment of the St. Petersburg province are shown. Private and public initiatives in the organization of libraries of the region are described.

The peculiarities of the library environment formation in the St. Petersburg Province are shown. Private and public initiatives in the organization of libraries in this province are described.

The organization of libraries throughout long centuries had private character. The first libraries were only result of initiatives of governors of the states or other outstanding figures. Since 18th century, libraries began to be created also on a public initiative, that is efforts of professional, charitable, scientific and other organizations, unions, associations, etc., such as, of Guardianship about national sobriety in Russia. The state initiatives in the organization of libraries are connected, generally with the beginning of a capitalist era when there was a requirement of expansion of education and education of the population for formation of the worker of other formation - competent, qualified, capable to work on modern capitalist production. It is possible to speak about a certain sequence, a ratio and the incentive reasons of initiatives in the organization of libraries.

During this period in the Russian Empire global changes which concerned all spheres of life began. It was caused, first of all, by acceleration of scientific and technical progress and activization of bourgeois reforms. Rapid development of capitalism led to creation in Russia of the new, independent direction of domestic culture and the new industry of national education, so-called out-of-school or cultural and educational business which included mass organization of libraries, people's houses, the museums, folk theaters of various educational societies. All this speaks about high-quality changes in sociocultural development of pre-revolutionary Russia which core was a process of democratization of education, science and culture.

We will consider cases of private and public initiatives in Russia at a boundary of X1X-XX of centuries when they gained rather widespread character and, in principle, laid the foundation for future decisions of the Soviet state on creation of network of mass libraries. On the example of the St. Petersburg province it is possible to show some features of this process.

The St. Petersburg province was founded on the territory of the former Ingermanlandsky province in 1708 and by 1860 consisted of 8 counties: Gdov, Luga, New Ladoga, Peterhof, St. Petersburg, Tsarskoye Selo, Shlisselburg and Yamburg. The population of the province at the end of the 19th century totaled about 1121 thousand people. 60% of the population lived in St. Petersburg, 15% of the total number of inhabitants - in the district cities of the province and 25% - the country people made. The counties which are brought closer to St. Petersburg were most inhabited: Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo.

By the beginning of the 19th century more than 55% of the population were competent. The province ranked second in the Russian Empire after the Moscow province by the number of the competent population. In the cities the literacy reached 72% [1].

Considerably the national structure of the population influenced cultural development of the province. So, except Russians, in the territory of the province 10% of the Finnish population, 7% of est and 5% of Germans lived. The fact that an indispensable condition for the conclusion of church marriage is interesting


among this part of the population there was a literacy - ability to read, write and know religious texts. Thanks to it the level of education of gentiles reached up to 99% on some sources.

Development of national education and education by the end of the 19th century went quite intensively. It is necessary to emphasize that not only representatives democratically and revolutionary sections of society, but very often wealthy people were active participants of this process. In the province worked hard public libraries which were open thanks to private initiatives of prosperous citizens. Throughout all century it was almost only way of the organization of libraries.

Many merchants, manufacturers and manufacturers, military gained in the province broad popularity not so much thanks to the activity how many as active creators of cultural life of local community. Usually any individual or a group of persons acted as initiators of creation of library and undertook obligations for its financing and management. As a rule, such libraries were paid that considerably complicated their use by poor population groups. According to reports of district militia managements for 1871, only private paid libraries worked in the province. So, in Tsarskoye Selo there were two private paid libraries. One of them belonged to the wife of the merchant Vasily Gassel, another - the colonel's widow Anna Lvova. In Pavlovsk on May 1, 1867 the library for reading which owner was a Tsarskoye Selo merchant of the second guild Alexander Kakovishin solemnly opened. In the Yamburg County acted as the cultural center Narva. Here the first library for reading appeared in 1867 and belonged to the burgher Porshan. In 1876 the bookstore belonging to the merchant Verder opened here. Residents could take books on the security for several days [1].

The Putilovsky national library in the Shlisselburg County opened on February 26, 1895 was one of the first free national libraries in the village. Fixed assets for reading room - 150 rubles - are offered by the St. Petersburg merchant Yakov Yakovlevich Ignashkin. Means and other institutions offered: from the Putilovsky volost of 75 rubles, parish guardianship - 25 rubles. In this case there was a merge of private and public initiatives in the organization of library for the poorest population of the county.

In 1901 according to the will of the retired major general G.G. Doppelmayer 17,400 rubles [2] were spent for the device and contents in the province of national reading rooms

In 1910-1911. The department of national education directed to the trustee of the St. Petersburg educational district the order of the Ministry of national education about opening of libraries to the means bequeathed by the retired colonel, publisher D.D. Poluboyarinov. It left the special capital on opening of libraries in all provinces of the Russian Empire. In the St. Petersburg educational district he bequeathed to open 20 national libraries of D.D. Paul-boyarinova. So on the basis of the rules established on February 28, 1906 about 600 rubles Besides, were allocated for the structure of each library the ministry disposed to open libraries in those places where mainly orthodox population lives, and is exclusive at ministerial national schools. It is established that at the expense of the publisher the following libraries were open:

• in the Peterhof County - library at Koporsky two-great ministerial school;

• The Yamburg County - at Yastrebinsky two-great school;

• The Tsarskoye Selo county - at Krasnoselsky and Mariinsky and Vladimir and Tsarskoslavyansky two-great schools [3].

In the separate direction it is necessary to allocate the initiatives of church in opening of libraries which began in 1861 that is connected with the policy of the government which obliged spiritual department to contribute to the development of national education and opening of parish schools. In the Yamburg County six such libraries in villages appeared: Volnovsky, Korchansky, Kotlovsky, Krakolsky, Raykovsky, Chirkovitsky. On June 7, 1893 Alexander III gives authority to the honourable citizen Ivan Mitropolov on the device in the capital and the provincial cities and villages of the diocese at monasteries, churches, chapels and cemeteries of free street libraries for spiritual and moral reading the coming people. Thanks to I. Mitropolov's activity the library at the Voronovsky monastery of the New Ladoga County was open [4]. In 1894 the uchilishchny council at the Sacred Synod also laid the foundation for the organization of libraries. Council distributed from the book warehouse on dioceses sets of books for three thousand arrivals. By the beginning of the 1900th in the St. Petersburg province there were 100 national parish libraries which were located at churches and parish schools. Usually churches had to care for the libraries and acquire books on the means. As a rule, these means were slender, donations of parishioners generally arrived on the maintenance of the temple, but not library.

The most active position in this question was taken by evangelic and Lutheran parishes. By 1896 14 Finnish libraries were open.

Speaking about public initiatives of creation of libraries, it is worth including in their number and the related activity of zemstvoes as the local government is not a government form, and represents self-organization of citizens for the solution of questions of local value in the territory of accommodation. Therefore, decisions of local government should be considered public wills.

In 1864 in the St. Petersburg province, as well as in other provinces of Russia, local governments - zemstvoes began to be created. Among a set of activities of zemstvoes a specific place was held by work in the field of out-of-school education of the people, including creation of national libraries. At the first stage of zemstvo opened or transformed school and uchilishchny libraries. By 1905 in 23% of schools national libraries were open. Most of all such libraries at schools of various levels were open in the Yamburg, then Luga and Tsarskoye Selo Counties. The fund of similar library, on average, consisted of 450 books.

the Next stage of activity of zemstvoes. But it occurred for 10-20 years later as independent national libraries demanded allocation and the maintenance of certain rooms, the regular librarian. The first territorial national libraries were organized in the village of Rozhdestveno of the Tsarskoye Selo county and in Sestroretsk in 1896. By 1907 in the territory of the province 69 territorial libraries worked, in their 1909 were 143, by 1916 there were 205. Since 1903 on creation of independent territorial library about 5000 rubles were assigned

In 1900 after the death of the famous publisher F.F. Pavlenkov, according to his will, zemstvoes got support in business of the organization of national libraries. On the left F.F. Pavlenkovym capital in Russia 2000 libraries for the sum of 50 rubles everyone had to open. So, only in the Yamburg County at the expense of the publisher with assistance of the leader of the district nobility, professor N.E. Sivers, was

E.V. Mokshanova, 2010, No. 4, page 9-11

21 libraries are founded. Their general fund made 14,977 volumes [5].

The important role in development of libraries in Russia was played by Guardianship about national sobriety. Only in the Yamburg County it founded 25 libraries.

Besides, in the village specialized libraries, for example, libraries of agricultural knowledge opened. So, at the Tosnensky agronomical site in 1913 four agricultural libraries were open.

Thus, as initiators of creation of libraries in the St. Petersburg province individuals, church, public organizations, local governments acted. Thanks to realization of private and public initiatives by the beginning of the 20th century the library environment of this territory including began to be formed:

• network of library institutions of different types and types (public, free national, school, parish, specialized territorial and other libraries);

• the library personnel consisting, mainly, of school teachers, rural clerks, priests, just competent inhabitants;

• rather large number of readers (pupils, teachers, territorial employees, handicraftsmen, servants, competent peasants, etc.);

• governing bodies of libraries (governor, city's mayors, inspectors of educational districts, trustees of different departments and public organizations, etc.).

List of references

1. Memorable books of the St. Petersburg province for 1905 - SPb., 1905. - 652 pages
2. CGIA. T. 792. Op. 21. Unit hr. 67.
3. CGIA. T. 139. Op. 1. Unit hr. 12122.
4. CGIA. T. 1883. Op. 28. Unit hr. 30.
5. CGIA. T. 1780. Op. 1. Unit hr. 1758.
6. L.K. Blyudova. Libraries [Electronic resource]//Culture of the Leningrad Region: encyclopedia: inform. - sprav. portal. - URL: http://www.enclo. object=1803553998, free. - Zagl. about a title. screen.
7. Historical and statistical data on the St. Petersburg diocese [Electronic resource]. - URL: - Zagl. about a title. screen.

Material came to edition of 23.08.2010

Information about the author: Ekaterina Vladimirovna Mokshanova is the senior teacher of department of library science and the theory of reading, the deputy dean of library and information faculty, ph.: (812) 314-29-81, e-mail:

Matthew Anthony Lewis
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