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Complexes of eras of the Neolithic of an early bronze age of the settlement of Plotinnoye



KOMPLEX of ERAS of the NEOLITHIC — the EARLY BRONZE AGE of the SETTLEMENT of PLOTINNOYE

A.A. Tkachyov, E.N. Volkov

The early construction horizons of the multilayered settlement of Plotinnoye localized in the system of the Duvan River are considered. Complexes belong to eras of the Neolithic, the eneolit and the beginning of a bronze age (kozlovsky, boborykinsky, koshkinsky, sosnovoostrovsky, poludensky, bayryksko-lybayevsky, andreevsky cultures and imbiryaysky type of monuments). The data characterizing development of bayryksko-lybayevsky eneolitichesky antiquities are most informative. It is established that carriers of culture developed this territory not less than two times, during an era of the early and late eneolit. The complex of materials from holes 12-16 excavations 1 which were perhaps cult or funeral objects and probably a collection of an excavation 4 is connected with the initial stage of the copper Stone Age (the end of IV — the beginning of the III millennium BC), but the main part bayryksko-ly-bayevskogo a complex is dated the first third of the III millennium BC

The Neolithic, eneolit, an early bronze age, the andreevsky culture, the bayryksko-lybayevsky culture, imbiryaysky type of monuments, the stone industry, a source of raw materials, figuration, a long edge stamp, a short edge stamp, the otstupayushche-nakolchaty equipment, a tip of an arrow of kelteminarsky type, a pilchaty retouch.

The settlement of Plotinnoye is located in the floodplain of the Duvan River, in 6 km to the northwest from the village of Mullashi of the Tyumen district of the Tyumen Region, on ostanets about 30,000 sq.m. On the eminence three hillocks-vskholmleniya are tracked. The area of a monument was investigated by four excavations. At excavation it is established that hillocks-vskholmleniya are not barrows, but have artificial origin. Having arisen in transitional time from a bronze era by the Iron Age, they reconstructed in the early Iron Age and the Middle Ages.

Ostanets accustomed in the Neolithic era — the Middle Ages. In article of an okharakteristizovana materials of the earliest stages of development of the inhabited platform: the Neolithic — an early bronze age. Because of vigorous activity of the itkulsky and sargatsky population the "early" deposits are strongly destroyed. Eneolitichesky constructions are found in the southern part of an excavation 1 and in an excavation 4. The most ancient (Neolithic era) is the dwelling 6 which is partially explored in an excavation 4. The studied part of construction of 2.5x1.5 m had the rectangular or oval shape. The ditch is profound to the continent on 0.5 m. Near a southeast corner a "koridoro-shaped" exit is revealed. In filling of a ditch the ceramics of koshkinsky culture lay.

In the southern part of an excavation 1 the deepenings (holes 12-16) dated eneolitichesky time (fig. 1) are studied. From their filling there was bayryksko-lybayevsky ware (holes 12, 13 and 15), nukleus from a sealing wax-green jasper (a hole 12), a congestion of nozhevidny plates (a hole 12), an arrow tip (a hole 14), separate plates (holes 13, 14, 15), lamellar otshchepa (a hole 16), a trailer scraper (a hole 13), pebbles (a hole 15), a horn fragment of an elk (a hole 15).

Most massively the ceramics is represented in a collection. The ware finding analogies in Kozlowski' materials, koshkinsky, boborykinsky, sosnovoostrovsky and poludensky antiquities is connected with the Neolithic.

The sample of kozlovsky culture (fig. 2, 1-6) is presented by four nimbuses and three walls of vessels (an excavation 1). On an internal part of nimbuses the flat flow (fig. 2, 1-3) is fixed. The ornament was put in drawn, otstupayushche-nakolchaty (fig. 2, 2) and edge styles (fig. 2, 3, 4, 6). The nimbus decorated with a cord (fig. 2, 1) is interesting. Basic elements of a decor: horizontal lines, a "wavy" zigzag and the "walking" comb. Along with not typicality of the rope equipment, edge decors are unusual to a kozlovsky twiddle.

Ware of koshkinsky culture (fig. 2, 10-13) — three nimbuses and five walls, from excavations 2 and 4. On one nimbus the massive flow (fig. 2, 11) is tracked. The main part of a series is ornamented in otstupayushche-nakolchaty style (fig. 2, 10, 11, 13), one product — in the drawn equipment. Two walls ornamented with a cord (fig. 2, 12) are interesting. Basic elements of a pattern: horizontal lines, wave and zigzag.

Settlement of Plotinnoye. The plan of an excavation at the level of the continent

Fig. 1. The plan of an excavation 1 on the settlement of Plotinnoye

Boborykinsky ceramics (fig. 2, 14-19), excavations 1 and 4. The main part of sample is connected with an excavation 1. Compositions were put in otstupayushche-nakolchaty (fig. 2, 14, 19) and drawn (6 copies) (fig. 2, 15, 17, 18) to the equipment. On two vessels patching heats (fig. 2, 17) are noted, two products are not ornamented (fig. 2, 16), one nimbus is decorated by prints of an edge stamp. Two vessels with the deep patching vdavleniye forming on inside "zhemchuzhnik" (fig. 2, 15, 16) are interesting. Basic elements of a decor: a zigzag (fig. 2, 14, 17, 19) and the shaded triangles (fig. 2, 14, 15, 18).

Sosnovoostrovsky ware (fig. 2, 6, 8, 9), excavations 1 and 4. Presented by a nimbus and six walls. The ornament was put in an edge manner. Horizontal ranks of the "walking" comb (fig. 2, 6, 8, 9) are most widespread. One vessel is decorated with wavy ranks of the "dragged" comb. Other elements: zigzag, "flag" decor, direct and wavy lines. The complex is most comparable to Pine Ostrov's materials [Viktorova, 1968] and Gilevo 8 [Dryabina, Parkhimovich, 1991].

With eneolity collections of bayryksko-lybayevsky and andreevsky cultures are connected.

Fig. 2. Neolytic ceramics of the settlement of Plotinnoye:

1-6 — ware of kozlovsky culture (1-4 — an excavation 1); 5, 7 — ceramics of poludensky culture (5 — an excavation 3;
7 — an excavation 4); 6-9 — ceramics of sosnovoostrovsky type (6, 8 — an excavation 1; 9 — an excavation 2);
10-13 — ceramics of koshkinsky culture (an excavation 4); 14-19 — boborykinsky ware (an excavation 1)

Ware of bayryksko-lybayevsky shape is met in all excavations. The most mass sample is connected with an excavation 1 (22 nimbuses and 60 walls). In it three main technical and stylistic groups are presented: "korotkogrebenchaty" — (46.3%), "otstupayushche-nakolchaty" (37.8%) and "dlinnogrebenchaty" (15.8%) (tab. 1, 2).

For "korotkogrebenchaty" ware (fig. 3, 1-9) weak use "zhuchkovo-go" — 5.3% (fig. 3, 7) and a "ramchaty" stamp — 2.6%, wide circulation of otstupayushche-nakolchaty decors — 23.7% (tab. 1) is noted. At the majority of vessels — 92.8% under a nimbus are tracked horizontal ranks of poles (fig. 3, 1-6, 8-10, 14, 17). Patching ranks on a trunk are presented poorly — 10.5% (fig. 3, 11.17). Were most often used: short prints of an edge stamp with an inclination to the right — 68.4% (fig. 3, 2-4, 6, 8, 9) and direct short prints of "comb" — 42.1% (fig. 3, 5, 6). Geometrical elements are presented by a zigzag — 13.1% (fig. 3, 2, 4, 7), alternation of the shaded and not shaded rhombuses — 2.6%, the shaded triangles — 2.6% (tab. 2).

1

Hereinafter if it does not make a reservation especially, the percent from the total number of vessels is given in group.

2

For this sign only authentically recorded facts are hereinafter specified. The real percent of a patching decor on a trunk of ware can be a little higher. Due to the fragmentation of a ceramic complex the separate cases of a "patching" twiddle could be noted.

Fig. 3. Settlement of Plotinnoye. Bayryksko-lybayevsky ceramics of an excavation 1:

1-7 — "korotkogrebenchaty" ware; 8-13 — "otstupayushche-nakolchaty" ceramics;
14-19 — "dlinnogrebenchaty" vessels

For a "dlinnogrebenchaty" series (fig. 3, 14-19) the broad loan of receptions from an arsenal of "korotkogrebenchaty" sample — 38.5% (fig. 3, 15, 17) is noted. At all nimbuses there are horizontal ranks of poles, on a trunk the similar figuration meets less often (15.4%) (tab. 2). Are most widespread: short prints of an inclined edge stamp (from an arsenal of adjacent group) — 61.5% (fig. 3, 15, 17), horizontal lines — 76.9% (fig. 3, 14, 16, 18, 19) and long pieces of an edge stamp with an inclination to the right — 23.1% (fig. 3, 18, 19). Geometrical patterns include: a zigzag — 23.1% (fig. 3, 16), the shaded triangles — 15.4% (fig. 3, 14, 15, 18) and rhombuses — 7.7% (tab. 2).

In "otstupayushche-nakolchaty" group (fig. 3, 8-13) the low interest of "krupnonakol-chaty" ware (12.9%) (fig. 3, 12, 13) is noted. The main ornamentira are the tools leaving tear-shaped (48.4%) (fig. 3, 8, 9, 11), subtriangular (22.6%) (fig. 3, 8, 10) prints, and a bidentate stick with parallel traces (22.6%) (fig. 3, 12, 13). Less often lozhnosh-nurovy technology (6.4%), a procherchivaniye (3.2%) and a notch (9.7%) meet (tab. 1, 2). We state wide use of poles in a nimbus zone — 22.7% and their weak representation on a trunk — 9.7%. The leading motive — horizontal lines (90.3%). Geometrical elements are presented by a zigzag (3.2%), the shaded triangles (3.2%) and other patterns of 6.4% (tab. 1, 2).

In an excavation 2 (6 nimbuses and 17 walls) products are met "korotkogrebenchaty" (39.1%), "otstu-payushche-nakolchatye" (34.8%) and "dlinnogrebenchaty" (26.1%) (tab. 1, 2).

Table 1

The techniques used at figuration of bayryksko-lybayevsky ware of excavations 1 and 2

Equipment Excavation 1 Excavation 2

1 2 3 Only 1 2 3 All

Quantity of vessels 38/46.3/100 * 13/15.8/100 31/37.8/100 82/100/100 9/39.1/100 6/26.1/100 8/34.8/100 23/100/100

"Korotkogrebenchaty" 38/84.4/100 5/11.1/38.5 2/4.4/6.4 45/100/54.9 9/81.8/100 1/9.1/16.6 1/9.1/12.5 11/100/47.8

Zhuchkovy and "zhuchkovopodobny" 2/66.6/5.3 1/33.3/7.7 — 3/100/3.6 1/100/11.1 — — 1/100/4.3

Ramchaty stamp 1/100/2.6 — — 1/100/1.2 — — — —

Curved "semi-lunar" stamp 2/100/5.3 — — 2/100/2.4 — — — —

The "receding" comb 2/100/5.3 — — 2/100/2.4 1/100/11.1 — — 1/100/4.3

"Dlinnogrebenchaty" 1/7.1/2.6 13/92.8/100 — 2/100/2.4 — 6/100/100 — 6/100/26.1

"Srednegrebenchaty" — 1/100/7.7 — 1/100/1.2 — 1/100/16.6 — 1/100/4.3

The "walking" comb 1/50/2.6 — 1/50/3.2 2/100/2.4 — — — —

Otstupayushche-nakolchaty 9/22.5/23.7 — 31/77.5/100 40/100/48.8 1/10/11.1 1/10/16.6 8/80/100 10/100/43.5

Tear-shaped 5/25/13.6 — 15/75/48.4 20/100/24.4 1/14.3/11.1 — 6/85.7/75 7/100/30.4

Subtriangular 1/12.5/2.6 — 7/87.5/22.6 8/100/9.7 — — 2/100/25 2/100/8.7

A bidentate stick with parallel — — 7/100/22.6 7/100/8.5 — — — —

traces

A bidentate stick with "dispersing" — — 2/100/6.4 2/100/2.4 — 1/100/16.6 — 1/100/4.3

traces

Lozhnoshnurovy — — 2/100/6.4 2/100/2.4 — — 1 (100)/12.5 1/100/4.3

Procherchivany — — 1/100/3.2 1/100/1.2 — — — —

Notch 3/50/7.9 — 3/50/9.7 6/100/7.3 — — 3(100)/37.5 3/100/13

Note: 1-3 — here and in tab. 2 according to group "korotkogrebenchaty", "dlinnogrebenchaty" and "from - stupayushche-nakolchatoy" ware.

* The number of vessels in group/percent from total number of vessels in a complex with this equipment/percent from total number of vessels in group with this equipment.

On "korotkogrebenchaty" nimbuses (fig. 4, 5-7) of a patching decor it is noted. In one case "bug" (fig. 4, 5) is recorded. Basic elements: short prints of an edge stamp with an inclination to the right (33.3%), short direct prints of a comb (33.3%) and direct horizontal lines (22.2%). Geometrical motives are presented by a zigzag — 33.3% (tab. 2). Receptions from an arsenal of other groups include "dlinnogrebenchaty" motives — 11.1%.

The "Dlinnogrebenchaty" sample (fig. 4, 8-10) (1 nimbus and 5 walls) includes vessels with use of a short comb (1 copy) and the otstupayushche-nakolchaty equipment (tab. 1, 2). On the only nimbus a horizontal number of poles is noted. There are no similar ranks on a trunk of ceramics. The leading element — horizontal lines — 83.3%.

"Otstupayushche-nakolchaty" group (fig. 4, 11-13) (3 nimbuses and 5 walls). On one vessel the application of a short edge stamp is noted, one more is decorated in a "krupnonakol-chaty" manner. The main traces from ornamentir: tear-shaped — 75%, subtriangular — 25%, lozhnoshnurovy — 12.5%, a notch — 37.5% (tab. 1, 2). On all nimbuses patching belts are noted. Main motives: horizontal lines — 50% and long pieces with an inclination to the left — 37.5%. Geometrical elements are presented by a zigzag — 12.5%, triangles — 12.5% and "chess" squares — 12.5% (tab. 2).

The Bayryksko-lybayevsky ceramics of an excavation 3 is not numerous — one nimbus and one wall decorated in the "korotkogrebenchaty" equipment.

Sample of an excavation 4 (5 nimbuses and 8 walls). Ware percentage with various technical and stylistic characteristics: "korotkogrebenchaty" — 46.1%, "otstu-payushche-nakolchataya" — 46.1%, "dlinnogrebenchaty" — 7.7% (tab. 1, 2).

"Korotkogrebenchaty" series (fig. 4, 1-4) (2 nimbuses and 4 walls). In one case the use of the "dlinnogrebenchaty" equipment (tab. 1) is noted. One nimbus is decorated by a horizontal number of poles. The patching decor on a trunk of ware is not recorded. Basic elements: short prints of an edge stamp with an inclination to the right — 66.7%, a zigzag — 33.3%, the filled rhombus — 16.7%, the shaded triangle — 16.7%, the blank triangle — 16.7% (tab. 1, 2).

The "Dlinnogrebenchaty" ceramics is presented by one wall with a patching twiddle on a trunk (tab. 1, 2).

Table 2

Ornament elements on bayryksko-lybayevsky ware of excavations 1 and 2

Element Excavation 1 Excavation 2

1 2 3 Only 1 2 3 All

Dimples on a nimbus 14/63.6 3/13.6 5/22.7 22/100 2/33.3 1/16.7 3/50 6/100/100

Dimples on a nimbus in one row 13/68.4 2/10.5 4/21 19/86.4 2/40 1/20 2/40 5/83.3

Dimples on a nimbus in two — 1/100 — 1/4.5 — — 1/100 1/16.7

parallel row

There are no dimples on a nimbus (perhaps) 1/33.3 1/33.3 1/33.3 3/13.6 — — — —

Dimples on a trunk 4/44.4/10.5 2/22.2/15.4 3/33.3/9.7 9/100/11 — — 1/100/12.5 1/100/4.3

Dimples on a trunk (perhaps) 4/80/10.5 — 1/20/3.2 5/100/6.1 2/100/22.2 — — 2/100/8.7

There are no dimples on a trunk 29/43.3/76.3 12/17.9/92.3 26/38.8/83.8 67/100/81.7 7/35/77.8 6/35/100 7/35/87.5 20/100/86.9

Short prints in a horizontal- 26/72.2/68.4 8/22.2/61.5 2/5.5/16.1 36/100/43.9 3/50/33.3 — 3/50/37.5 6/100/26.1

the ny line with an inclination to the right

Short prints in a horizontal- 1/33.3/2.6 2/66.7/15.4 — 3/100/3.6 1/50/11.1 1/50/16.7 — 2/100/8.7

the ny line with an inclination to the left

Direct short prints 16/94.1/42.1 — 1/5.9/3.2 17/100/20.7 1/33.3/11.1 — 2/66.7/25 3/100/13

in a horizontal line

Short horizontal otpechat- 4/100/10.5 — — 4/100/4.9 3/100/33.3 — — 3/100/13

ki in a horizontal line

The straight lines closed a horizontal- 4/9.5/10.5 10/23.8/76.9 28/66.7/90.3 42/100/51.2 2/18.2/22.2 5/45.4/83.3 4/36.4/50 11/100/47.8

ny lines

Long pieces in a horizontal- — 3/37.5/23.1 5/62.5/16.1 8/100/9.7 — 1/50/16.7 1/50/12.5 2/100/8.7

the ny line with an inclination to the right

Long prints in a horizontal- 1/20/2.6 — 4/80/12.9 5/100/6.1 — 1/25/16.7 3/75/37.5 4/100/17.4

the ny line with an inclination to the left

Long vertical line, obra- 1/100/2.6 — — 1/100/1.2 — — — —

zovanny short prints

Long vertical prints (lines) 2/100/5.3 — — 2/2.4 1/100/11.1 — — 1/100/4.3

"Short flight of stairs" from short prints 1/100/2.6 — — 1/100/1.2 — — — —

with an inclination to the left

"Short flight of stairs" from short prints 3/100/7.9 — — 3/100/3.6 — — — —

with an inclination to the right

The "walking" comb in gorizon- 1/50/2.6 — 1/50/3.2 2/100/2.4 — — — —

talny line

Vertical "fir-tree" — 1/100/7.7 — 1/100/1.2 — — — —

Zigzag 5/55.5/13.1 3/33.3/23.1 1/11.1/3.2 9/100/11 3/60/33.3 1/20/16.7 1/20/12.5 5/100/21.7

The filled rhombus — 1/100/7.7 — 1/100/1.2 — — — —

Alternation shaded 1/100/2.6 — — 1/100/1.2 — — — —

and not shaded rhombuses

Indefinable geometrizm 2/33.3/5.3 1/16.7/7.7 2/33.3/6.4 6/100/7.3 — 1/100/16.7 — 1/100/4.3

The shaded triangle 1/25/2.6 2/50/15.4 1/25/3.2 4/100/4.8 — — — —

Blank triangle — — — — — — 1/100/12.5 1/100/4.3

A system filled "chess" — — — — — — 1/100/12.5 1/100/4.3

squares

"Otstupayushche-nakolchaty" ware (fig. 4, 14, 15) (3 nimbuses and 3 walls). The elements executed in other manners are not recorded. Let's note lack of "krupnonakolchaty" ceramics and fixing of a "lozhnoshnurovy" lipchinsky vessel (fig. 4, 15). Main ornamentira: the tool with tear-shaped prints — 66.7%, subtriangular traces — 16.7%, "a false cord" — 16.7% and a notch — 16.7%. All nimbuses contain traces of patching belts. There is no patching figuration on a trunk of vessels. Basic elements: horizontal lines — 50%. Geometrical decors are presented by the filled rectangles (tab. 1, 2).

Ware of andreevsky culture (fig. 5, 1-5) (1 vessel and 10 walls). Decorated in a yamochno-edge manner. The main types of poles — tear-shaped, oval, subtriangular, roundish. Edge decors are presented by prints of a short stamp.

The ceramics of the initial stage of an era of bronze corresponds to imbiryaysky tradition (fig. 5, 615) (2 nimbuses, 5 walls, 2 flat bottoms). In sample it is noted textile (fig. 5, 6-9) and not textile ware (fig. 5, 1-5, 10-15). The originality of a series is defined by the rarefied manner of drawing a decor, a combination deep having pinned also patching belts.

The ware stock is presented by products from clay and a stone. Among ceramic tools we will note 11 sinkers (fig. 6, 5-8). Sigarovidny forms (fig. 6, 5, 6) are most numerous. One GRU -

zit biconical (fig. 6, 8). Transitional forms from sigarovidny to biconical have no shlyapko-shaped terminations (fig. 6, 7). A fragment of one subject — it is possible, a rod-shaped sinker. One tool is a scraper or loshchily (fig. 6, 4).

1-1
1 1
14 1

Fig. 4. Bayryksko-lybayevsky ceramics of excavations 2 (5-7, 9-13) and 4 (1-4, 8, 14, 15):

I-7 — "korotkogrebenchaty" ware; 8-10 — "dlinnogrebenchaty" ceramics;

II-15 — "otstupayushche-nakolchaty" vessels; 15 — a vessel of lipchinsky shape

Products from a stone and waste of the industry (155 copies) are massively presented. As raw materials served the dark and light pink jasper, a sealing wax-green jasper, flint, slate, zelenokamenny breed, quartzite and sandstone. The main part of a complex belongs to an eneolit. The majority of objects come from holes 12-15 and from a layer over them in an excavation 1. Joint bedding of stone stock and bayryksko-lybayevsky ceramics allows to correlate deepenings to carriers of this tradition.

The main part of a complex of an excavation 1 is made by plates and tools on them — 83 of 105 (fig. 6, 9-21). Plates up to 0.7 cm wide (49.4%) prevail, it is much less than plates 0.7-1.0 cm wide — 24.1% and 1.0-1.5 cm — 20.5%, macrotools over 1.5 cm wide are single (6%). The retouch is noted for 39.7% of products, a vykroshennost — for 18.1% (tab. 3).

Single objects — nukleus from a sealing wax-green jasper, tips (a listovidny form from rhinestone and with side dredging — kelteminarsky type — from a gray-green slan-

tsa), a rhinestone crystal, polished on pebble, lamellar otshchepa (5 copies), otshchepa (8 copies). Polished products from zelenokamenny breed are noted: tesla and preparation of this tool.

Table 3

Characteristic of an eneolitichesky lamellar complex of the settlement of Plotinnoye

Raw materials Quantity Up to 0.7 cm 0.7-1.0 cm 1.0-1.5 cm Over 1.5 cm A retouch The Pilchaty retouch The Vykro-shennost

Sealing wax-green jasper 4 — — 2/50/2.4 * 2/50/2.4 2/50/2.4 — 1/25/1.2

Light pink jasper 33 26/78.8/31.3 6/18.2/7.2 1/3/1.2 — 4/12.1/4.8 7/21.2/8.4 8/24.2/9.6

Dark pink jasper 30 15/50/18.1 10/33.3/12 3/10/3.6 2/6.7/2.4 20/66.7/24.1 1/3.3/1.2 4/13.3/4.8

Gray-green siliceous slate 4 — 1/25/1.2 3/75/3.6 — 1/25/1.2 — —

Transparent siliceous breed 4 — — 3/75/3.6 1/25/1.2 2/50/2.4 — 1/25/1.2

White flint 3 — — 3/100/3.6 — 3/100/3.6 — —

Pink tumor 3 — 2/75/2.4 1/25/1.2 — 1/25/1.2 — —

Brown siliceous slate 1 — 1/100/1.2 — — — — 1/100/1.2

Dark siliceous slate 1 — — 1/100/1.2 — — — —

Only 83 41/49.4 20/24.1 17/20.5 5/6 33/39.7 8/9.6 15/18.1

* Quantity of plates with this characteristic/percent from total number of the plates in a complex made of these raw materials/percent from the general complex of plates.

Fig. 5. Ceramics of andreevsky culture of an era of the eneolit (1-5), textile complex of imbiryaysky type (6-9) and not textile imbiryaysky ware (10-15):

1-5, 6, 7, 10 — an excavation 1; 8, 9, 11-14 — an excavation 2; 15 — an excavation 4

Fig. 6. Ceramics from holes 12-16 (1-3), a product from clay (4), ceramic sinkers (5-8) and eneolitichesky products from a stone

The collection of bayryksko-lybayevsky ware allowing to make comparison of a complex with collections of the one-cultural objects including possessing reliable dating has the considerable dating potential.

The weak representation in a "korotkogrebenchaty" complex of an excavation of 1 "zhuchkovy" figuration demonstrates its rather late age. Higher rates are characteristic of monuments of the early eneolit: Buzan of 3 — 25.5%, Lipikhinskoye of 5 — 33.3%, "lower group" of Kurya of 1 — 23.9% [Volkov, 2007, page 42, tab. 13]. About same also ware percentage with various technical and stylistic characteristics testifies: "korotkogrebencha-

3

Information on a bayryksko-lybayevsky complex of the settlement of Kurya of 1 cm in Article E. N. Volkova in this number "the Messenger...".

thawing" — 46.3%, "dlinnogrebenchaty" — 15.8%, "otstupayushche-nakolchaty" — 37.8%. Other values are characteristic of early monuments: Buzan 3 — 73.3; 24.4; 12.2%; Lipikhinskoye 5 — 68.8; 11.4; 19.6%; Curia 1 (an early complex) — 57.2; 9.7; 25%. However the collection is similar to late cultural monuments: Two-lake 1 — 26.4; 15.1; 41.5%; Nizhneingalskoye 3a — 50; 10; 40%; Staroly-bayevo 4 — 54.2; 8.3; 39.5%; The Island 2a — 38.1; 19.0; 42.8%; Curia 1 (a late complex) — 45.1; 10.6; 39.4%. In favor of late age also the reperny element of a "korotkogreben-chaty" series testifies: the lines formed by short horizontal prints of a stamp — 10.5%. In early samples this indicator is significantly higher: Buzan of 3 — 27.8%, Kurya 1 (an early complex) — 33.8%. The considerable percent of geometrical elements, especially a zigzag — 23.1%, assumes functioning of an object not at the latest stages of the eneolit. Proceeding from chronology of bayryksko-lybayevsky antiquities the complex can be carried to the end of the first half of the III millennium BC [Volkov, 2007, page 44-45].

We will note a low indicator of "krupnonakolchaty" ceramics — 12.9% in a "otstupayushche-nakolchaty" series. For the one-cultural objects localized north of the Iset River, the considered value varies. In an early complex of Kurya of 1 — 19.3%, in late — 32.1%. Judging by the publication, "krupnonakolchaty" ware made high percent on the settlement of SAD 8 [Kovalyova, 1977, page 98-102]. However monuments and with low occurrence of such ceramics are known (for example, SBAO 6) [Yurovskaya, 1973]. Possibly, "krupnonakolchaty" samples reflect not only chronological aspect of a problem. The high percent of similar ware on some objects and low on others, perhaps, illustrates heterogeneity of their population. It is possible that the origin of tradition is connected with yugolesny Pritobolyem what materials of monuments Chechkino 2 and Yurtobor 21 do not contradict to [Zaha, 2002]. It is possible that the situation reflects local migrations of the northeast population, with various degree of success integrated into the structure of "local" groups, or the direction of traditional marriage ties of a part of the communities living here in the system of Andreevsky lakes.

Ware of an excavation 2 is close to sample of an excavation 1. The main discrepancy consists in high percent of "dlinnogrebenchaty" ceramics — 26.1 against 15.8%, for the rest indicators are comparable (tab. 1). Discrepancies can reflect both locality of simultaneous samples, and their insignificant asynchrony. In the latter case a little "young" can consider a complex of an excavation 2.

A series of an excavation 4 is not numerous, but, on the one hand, percentage "korot-kogrebenchaty" (46.1%) and "otstupayushche-nakolchaty" (46.1%) ceramics (tab. 1) indicates its later age in relation to excavations 1 and 2, with another — presence of a vessel of shap-kulsky shape with horizontal breakdown of the field and high percent of geometrichesy patterns does not exclude a possibility of earlier age of a series.

materials from holes 12-16 allow to draw Interesting conclusions on chronology of a bayryksko-lybayevsky complex. The form and specifics of arrangement do not exclude their funeral origin. Objects, similar on morphology, are known on burial grounds Buzan 3 [Matveev, etc., 1997; Matveev, Volkov, 1999], Big Andreevsky island [Zaha, etc., 1991], Chep-kul 21 [Zaha, etc., 2005]. However in a ceremony of these monuments ochre was widely used and tear-shaped pendants are massively presented. Treasures or altars with tools from a sealing wax-green and pink jasper are noted on Buzana 3. Told does not exclude that Plotinny's holes can represent one or several burials with adjacent altars with the special status of the funeral ceremony excluding use of ochre and pendants. The lack of anthropological material can speak bad safety of a bone in sand and possible "kenotafny" purpose of objects. It is impossible to exclude also option of use of deepenings as the altars localized near the burials which are not captured by an excavation. Possibly and consideration of holes as a treasure of stone products which sacral purpose is not entirely clear.

The interesting moment is noted in the analysis of stone stock from a hole 12 and the products localized over deepenings 12-16. Practically all series of an object (31 of 34 objects) is made of a light pink jasper and presented by plates. A complex mikrolitichen, about 75% of plates have width to 0.7 cm. There are no objects more than 0.85 cm wide. Feature of sample — high percent of preparations — 14 (45.2%). Survey of the retouched plates — 9 copies (29%) showed that most of them were not used in work. A considerable part of the retouched plates is covered with a pilchaty retouch — 7 copies (22.5%), the others — 8 (25.8%) ime-

yut vykroshennost which, however, could be formed also by their production. Told demonstrates that an overwhelming part of a series in work was not used and it was placed in a hole with the certain, probably sacral, purpose.

This assumption is confirmed also by the analysis of the objects localized over holes where products from a dark pink jasper are revealed: 30 plates, three otshchep and three lamellar otshche-pases. Possibly, objects are made of the same nukleus, as in a hole 12. The tendency to increase in width of plates is found: up to 0.7 cm — 50%, 0.7-1.0 cm — 33, 3%, 1.0-1.5 cm — 10%, more than 1.5 cm — 2.4% — and to increase of number of the retouched tools — 70%. Reduction of objects with a pilchaty retouch — 1 copy (3.3%) (tab. 3) is fixed. Products from other breeds in general fit into the reconstructed picture. It is impossible to exclude that noted trend reflects the cult and ritual views of the population connected with ideas of a next world or with a sacrifice of stone stock.

Features of a stone complex are capable to help to answer a question of the sequence of settling of a monument by bayryksko-lybayevsky groups. Mass use of a pink and sealing wax-green jasper, a mikrolitichnost of a series demonstrate its ranneeneolitiche-sky age. Preference of the considered breeds, as in a complex — Buzan 3, and separately (a sealing wax-green jasper) — Chepkul 21, Lipikhinskoye 5, Shapkul 1, the Small Lamb 1 [Volkov, 2007, 2009b; Zaha, etc. 2005; Starkov, 1980], it is characteristic of monuments of the end of IV — the beginning of the III millennium BC. An early chronological marker is also the "kelteminarsky" tip [Volkov, 2007, 2009]. Even not typicality of breed, gray-green slate, and roughness of a form hardly demonstrate late age of a subject (fig. 6, 10). At the same time ware of an excavation 1 can be dated not earlier than the first third of the III millennium BC. For the purpose of clearing of a situation the analysis of planigrafichesky distribution of ceramics was carried out. It is established that from 88 fragments only 16 (18.2%) are dated for the southern part of an excavation where holes 12-16 are localized. The area of distribution of stone products assumes similar narrow dispersion synchronous to them ceramics. The confinedness of the main part of a collection to northern and central parts of an excavation, most likely, indicates two stages of settling of the area of a monument bayryk-sko-lybayevskimi by communities. It is possible to assume that holes 12-16 and the related stock are left the ranneeneolitichesky population living in the southern part of the inhabited platform for which the excavation 4 is dated. Repeated development of an object happened already in the first third of the III millennium BC

Summarizing the above, it is possible to assume that throughout the Neolithic — an early bronze age within the inhabited platform there was a series of the seasonal settlements focused on development of the appropriating economy (hunting and fishery) and one cult or funeral object. The forest spaces which are nearby had to favor to functioning of economy of hunters, and the proximity of the Duvan River was one of major factors of development of fishery. The seasonal nature of settlements is demonstrated by the weak saturation and an okrashennost of a layer and low-representative samples. The weak representation of sinkers in bayryksko-lybayevsky deposits allows to assume that these groups focused on hunting-trade economy at the subordinated fishery role. On the contrary, the main emphasis was put by carriers of andreevsky culture on fishery. The similar situation probably reflected need of "cultivation" of economic interests of the raznokulturny groups operating similar economic and ecological niches for ensuring peaceful co-existence that is confirmed by materials of more southern territories [Volkov, 2007, page 78]. Detection in filling of a bayryksko-lybayevsky hole of the 15th fragment of a moose horn, perhaps, demonstrates that the elk was one of the main trade animals of this time.

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Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science; sever626@mail.ru; ipos@tmn.ru

The article considers early building horizons of Plotinnoye multilayer settlelment localized in the system of the Duvan river. Hetero-temporal complexes of that time refer to Neolithic, Aeneolithic and early Bronze Ages, while in cultural respect, to the Kozlovo, Boborykino, Koshkino, Sosnovoostrov, Poluden, Bajryk-Lybayevo, An-dreyevo cultures and the Imbiryaj type of sites. The data characterizing development of Bajryk-Lybayevo Aeneolithic antiquities being the most informative. It is determined that bearers of the culture opened up that territory minimum twice, during early and late Aeneolithic Age. The early stage of the Aeneolithic Age is associated with a set of materials from pits 12-16, excavation 1, possibly of cultic or burial character, and probably a collection from excavation 4 (late IV — early III millennium B.C.), though the basic part of the Bajryk-Lybayevo complex is dated by the first third of III millennium B.C.

Neolithic Age, Aeneolithic Age, early Bronze Age, Andreyevo culture, Bajryk-Lybajevo culture, Imbiryaj type of sites, stone industry, raw materials base, ornamentation, long ridged stamp, short ridged stamp, retreating-and-pricked technique, arrow-head of the Kel&teminar type, notched retouch.

James Harper
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