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" and catch also tiverets a sedyakha across Dniester ". The ethnic structure of the population of Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands in the 6-13th centuries.



PROBA of the FEATHER

From edition: We open the new heading "First attempt at writing" in which we will place the first publications of young researchers in the magazine. In this number we place the messages of students of the Dnestr state university of T.G. Shevchenko (Tiraspol) which were heard at the international academic and research conference "Moldova - Russia - the Slavic world: outstanding figures".

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Ekaterina TITOVA

"... And CATCH ALSO TIVERTSA SEDYAKHU ACROSS DNIESTER."

The ethnic structure of the population of Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands in U_-HS centuries

Probably, it is impossible to live life and not to think of the one who lived on this earth earlier - hundred, three hundred, one thousand years ago. That in the first millennium B.C. in Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands there lived Scythians, remind tombs of their tsars and other noblemen - barrows. In Belgorod-Dniester there is excavation ancient Shooting galleries. In 375 g of our era near Dniester the fight took place it is ready also Huns. But what people and tribes lived here later is ready also Huns - before emergence in 1359. Moldavian state? Before on the history of Moldova admitted textbooks that in U_-HS centuries. Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands were inhabited by Slavs. But with the 90th g of the 20th century, the Chisinau publicist Evgeny Tkachuk noted in 2005, "the subject of podnestrovsky Slavic peoples became peculiar "persona non grata" in the history of the country. The monopoly for a celebration was acquired by the so-called concept of an East Romance continuity. Its essence is simple as the eaten-away egg: the present title ethnic group lived in Pruto-Dnestrovsky Entre Rios always..." 1. Whether so it?

Anta, tiverets, catch On cards of archeologists from the modern Czech Republic through the South of Poland and the West of Ukraine lasts to Moldova a wide arch. It is the territory

Prague and Korchaksky culture P-at century, a zone of primary Slavic ethnogenesis. On the Lower Danube report about Slavs also written sources. One of the first documents such - the Roman road map of Sh-GU of century - Pevtingerova of the table. About ancestors of Slavs, veneda, the historian mentioned in UG of century Jordan is ready. And the author of the book "War with Ghats" Byzantine Procopius of Scythopolis reported about the Slavic tribes living in our region - sklavina and Anta. They spoke one language, they had identical views of settlements, the nature of housekeeping, religious beliefs, clothes types, a way of life, customs, the forms of government, ways of warfare. Sklavina and Anta, Prokopy noted, since ancient times live in democracy and therefore happiness and misfortune in life is considered at them common cause. All life and laws at both tribes are identical. They together interfered for Danube. "Anta and sklavina, - the writer noted further, - created romeyam awful business", but in 540 g the Byzantines provoked collision between nimi2.

By 9th century the breeding union of ant broke up. During this period across Dniester to Danube the tribe of tiverets lived. It was numerous, and the cities of tiverets stood also in the 12th century when the monk Nestor made the first Russian chronicle - "Story of Temporary Years". In it it is told: "... and catch also tiverets a sedyakha across Dniester, a prisedyakh to Dunayevi. Bie set them: to a sedyakh bo across Dniester of Olya to the sea, and an essence their hail and to this day.". The anonymous Bavarian geographer also speaks about placement in the same territory of tiverets. In the chronicle they are called "tolkovina". Researchers long treated this word as "translators". But in 2005 the historian Sergey Sulyak proved other translation: "shepherds". Toloka - a pasture, pasture for skota3.

There passed through Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands nomads. In 678680 near Danube there were Bulgarian Turkic peoples of the khan Asparukh. Then more than one hundred years these lands were in structure of the First Bulgarian kingdom. But the Novgorod voivode Oleg took Kiev in 882 g and founded the joint Russian state. On lands of tiverets and by the Russian sea the trade and military way "from the Varangian in Greeks" lay therefore the Kiev princes tried to subordinate tiverets. In "The story of temporary years" it is told that the prince Oleg in 885 g ".s catch also tiverets to an imyasha a host". But tiverets and ulicha managed to defend independence. Perhaps, with it they were helped by Hungarians. In 896 g the Hungarian tribes under Arpad's leadership passed across Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands on the West. To Constantinople in 907 g the tiverets participated in Oleg's campaign as his allies, but not tributaries.

Catch, at that time living in the Dnieper Bank, are not mentioned by the chronicler, probably, because did not participate in a campaign. That is remained independent of Kiev. Unlike most of Russians ple-

exchanges, they did not obey to Oleg. His successor, the Kiev prince Igor, Nestor, about 940 g "reported... with catch also Drevlyans to an imyasha a host". Voyevoda of Igor Sveneld after a two-year siege took their main town Is crossed, but catch not to render to Kiev tribute, moved on the territory between Bug and Dniester. Further Nestor reported: "And a byasha to a sedyasha catch across Dniester down, and on seven a pereydosh mezhyyu Bug and Dniester, and a sedosha tamo" 4. But soon catch nevertheless were a part of the Old Russian state. During Igor's campaign to Tsargrad in 944 g the chronicle mentions them already as a part of army of the Kiev prince. Probably, later catch were a part of the Old Russian state and tivertsy5. Further also catch names of tiverets from chronicles disappear. As well as other residents of Russia, the Russian chroniclers began to call them Russinians, with an accent on the first syllable, "rusky people".

In _kh-H_ centuries in Pridunavye wandered Pechenegs. In 1054, Cumans intruded in these lands. The relations with Russians at them were different, but in lower reaches of Danube and in the north of the region the Russian population remained. Moreover, referring to data of ancient Arab authors, the Chisinau historian Roman Rabinovich, at the end of XI-claims

XII century on the southern edge of Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands and between mouths of Dniester and Danube also lived in the Black Sea shore settled Russian naseleniye6. In 1116 the grand duke of Russia Vladimir Monomakh, we read in the chronicle, directed the voivode Ivan Voytishich who here ". a .posazha posadnik across Danube" 7. However in 1132, after the death of the prince Mstislav Veliky, Russia broke up to principalities, and control of Kiev over Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands was lost. There was a regional statehood.

Berlad and berladnik

Most of the Russian scientists see in berladnik of the Russian people and predecessors of the Cossacks. The Romanian researchers suspect berladnik of belonging to East Romance ethnic group and object to Berladi's identification of the Russian chronicles with the Moldavian city of Byrladom8. Who is right? The answer can be found in written sources and data of archeology.

Berlad, "the piracy republic", really reminds Zaporizhia Sech. Berladnik are mentioned in the Russian chronicles two times. Once is mentioned by Berlad. But Ivan Rostislavovich Berladnik, the former prince Zvenigorod, the applicant for Ga-litsky reigning is many times mentioned. According to the diploma of 1134, it - already the prince of Berlads-ky. The cities of Berlad, Small Galich, Tekuch are mentioned in the diploma. In ten years, having undertaken invasion into the Galitsky earth, Iwan Baire-ladnik suffers a defeat under walls of Galich and runs to Danube. The prince had choice. The grand duke Kiev Izyaslav Davydovich was his faithful ally. But the prince Ivan could find in Berladi not only

the shelter, but also military forces for continuation of fight for galitsky "table". Means, on Danube there was a military contingent which could act in its protection. And berladnik supported him. But such "center of force" could not exist without presence of rather numerous population. For the aid to the prince Ivan the berladnik exposed 6-thousand voysko9. Even if to recognize what to be at war all men capable to carry arms went, then the population of Berladi, at least, was ten times more and was 60 thousand people

In fact as it is possible to assume, the population of the principality was more numerous. The Berladsky earth included not only future Dobrudja and left-bank Podunavye where there were cities of Berlad, Dichin, Tekuch and New Galich, but also all territory between the Carpathians and Dniester. The city of Berlad, scientists believe, there was not in present Byrlad's region, and on the right coast of Danube, in the area Eski-Byrlat. Also other cities of the principality - Belgorod, Derstr are called by chroniclers. Formally the principality submitted Byzantine imperatoram10 therefore the grand duke Kiev did not consider Berlad a part of Russia. But the principality had the sufficient population and military force to undertake invasion into borders of the Galitsky earth in 1159 and to take the boundary city of Ushitsu.

About the military strength of Berladi it is possible to judge also by the fact that it did not depend on Cumans. At a siege of the boundary galitsky city of Kuchelmina which residents sympathized with it and ran across city walls to its camp, Ivan Berladnik was not afraid to refuse to nomads their desire "to take the city", that is to plunder it. Of course, defeat of the Russian city would deprive of the prince of allies in the Galitsky earth. But whether it is possible to refuse to Ivan and, the main thing, to berladsky army also noble patrimonial motives? The prince could not but understand that alone Berlad could not resist to Galich. And it is valid, leaving of Cumans weakened strength of berladnik in the face of the coming galitsky army, and they had to stop pokhod11. But berladnik were "rusky people", and Ivan - of course, taking into account opinion of the army or maybe under its pressure - made the difficult decision.

Despite the conflict near Kuchelmin, Ivan Berladnik kept the kind relations with Cumans and found at them the shelter. It served at Yury Dolgorukiy and other Russian princes. But the mighty galitsky prince Yaroslav Osmomysl (1153-1187) was his rival. It is told about its iron regiments which are propping up mountains Ugrian in "Tale of Igor's Campaign". Demanding Ivan Berladnik's extradition, he even declared war on the Kiev prince Izyaslav and inflicted defeat over its army.

Ivan was forced to go to Byzantium and in 1162 died in one of the Athos monasteries. It agrees one of versions of historians, he was poisoned. Yaroslav appeared not only the good commander, but also the "dolgoruky" governor.

Berlad was the unusual principality, she reminds Zaporizhia Sech or the Don, Tersky or Yaitsky Cossack troops in the first decades of their existence. Berladniki were capable to organize military attack and in absence in the prince. Soon after Ivan Rostislavich's departure to Kiev they took and plundered Oleshye, the Kiev customs point in the mouth of Dnieper. The army of the Kiev prince overtook berladnik already on Danube, at the city of Dichin, and selected production. But a decisive blow to Berladsky statehood was struck by Yaroslav Osmomysl. Galitsky prince, we learn from "Tale of Igor's Campaign", "shut a gate to Danube", that is included Berlad in structure of the principality. At the end of the 12th century of the earth between the Carpathians and Dniester began to be called Galitsky Ponizyem.

Brodniki and galitsky vygonets

At the beginning of the 13th century in Galich the conflict between boyars and the princely power escalated. Using internal contention, the Galitsko-Volynsky principality was actually divided among themselves by kings of Poland and Vengrii12. Ponizya's population - brodnik and galitsky vygonets - to them did not obey. About the Danube brodnik in historical science there is a representation as about outlaws, the semi-nomadic aggressive population, one more prototype of the Cossacks.

Brodniki lived also in other areas on borders of the Wild field. The Don brodnik lodged on the Russian border zone with the steppe, as well as so-called wild Cumans. According to the Moscow historian S.A. Pletneva, wild Cumans were derelicts of Polovtsian kocheviya, and brodnik - derelicts of Russians zemel13. For the first time the Russian chronicles report about brodnik in 1146 or 1147 as about allies of the Chernihiv prince Svyatoslav Olegovich in his fight against the Kiev prince Izyasla-v Mstislavich. In 1216 the brodnik are involved in interstine fight of the Russian princes at Lipitsa, and in 1223 - in battle of Russians with Tatars on Kalka. Brodnik and on the party of Polovtsian khans were at war. News of participation of the Don brodnik in fight on Kalka indicates their Christianity. At least, before battle their voivode Ploskynya, swearing fidelity, kissed a cross to the prince Mstislav of Rohm-novichu14. Brodniki endured even mongolo-tatar invasion. Other famous scientist, G.V. Vernadsky, specifies that in the districts of Nizhny Novgorod of Dniester and the Lower Danube and at the end of the 13th century there were many Russians, including brodnikov15.

Galitsky vygonets - only of all called ethnic group which did not cause at researchers a special controversy on on -

water of its archaeological and ethnic identification, concerning localization. Here what is reported about them by the Ipatyevsky chronicle in the story about gathering of the Russian troops before fight on Kalka in 1223: ". And pasture-tsi of Galichkyya of a priidosh on Dnestrou and a voiidosh in the sea. Bie Bo of boats of a tysyashch. And a voidosha in Dnepr. And vozvedosha of a poroga and stash ou Hortitse Rivers. On a brodoa ou Protolchi. Bie Bo with them Domamerich Yurg_i and Derzhikray. Volodislavich having come to conduct to camps" 16. Also Voskresensky and Tver chronicles, the Moscow annalistic arch of the end of the 15th century and other sources report about this episode. All researchers believe that vygonets lived in Galitsk Ponizye, on lands across Dniester to the south from the Galitsky principality, with valleys of the Prut Rivers and Siret.

Among vygonets there were noble seigniorial families Domazhirichey and Kormilichey and also other seigniorial childbirth, probably, expelled from the Galitsky earth at implementation of the measures of the princely power directed to restriction of seigniorial influence. In 1227 in Ponizye, to the city of Torchesk, for the political reasons also the galitsky prince Mstislav of Udaloy17 got over. At the same time the bulk of vygonets was made by commoners. In the beginning it, probably, were people who supported Ivan Berladnik in his campaigns to Galich. It is possible to assume that they entered into political alliances to return the situation on rodine18 - from here and their readiness to be involved in war. On one thousand lodiya capable to go by sea, it was possible to take out, probably, and 20-thousand army, but from all strength given about a ratio known to historians in fight at Kalka it is possible to conclude that galitsky vygonets was much less. At the end of XII - the first half

XIII century the population of Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands was more rare, than at the time of Ivan Rostislavich.

A galitsky vygonets, perhaps, were not political exiles, but shepherds. Pasture as it is already noted in a case with tiverets, is a place for a cattle pasture near the village. Vygontsa galitsky, the journalist Evgeny Tkachuk noted at a scientific conference in 2005, there were inhabitants of the Galitsky principality, vypasavshy the cattle on vygone19.

The mention of the ponizovsky city of Torchesk which exact arrangement remains to unknown gives the grounds to believe that a part of the population of Galitsky Ponizya was made at this time by nomads Torquay. If the city was to the east of Dniester, it is necessary to reconsider the available ideas of borders of the Ponizovsky earth.

Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands since the first ages of a new era were included into a zone of primary Slavic ethnogenesis. Slavic presence in the region in VI-XSh of centuries was continuous. Tivertsa also catch were the Russian tribes, from X century been a part of Old Russian nationality. From now on their descendants were called by "the Russian people", Russinians. Berladniki, brodnik, galitsky vygonets are territorial nai-

the menovaniye of the Old Russian population of the region connected with a sort of their classes. In Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands also Bulgarian Turkic peoples, Hungarians, Pechenegs, Cumans, Torquay periodically wandered. Old Russian pages of history of our region deserve further study.

LITERATURE

1. E. Tkachuk. What is looked for by us in yesterday?//International historical magazine "Rusin" [Chisinau]. 2005. N ° 2 (2). Page 107.
2. N. Telnov, V. Stepanov, N. Rusev, Rabinovich R. "and... Slavs dispersed on the ground". Chisinau, 2002. Page 72.
3. S. Sulyak Syn autocrat vseya Russia//International historical magazine "Rusin" [Chisinau]. 2005. No. 2 (2). Page 41.
4. Tsit. on: "And. .razoshlis Slavs on the ground". Page 56.
5. History of the Moldavian SSR. T.G. Kishinev, 1965. Page 68.
6. Rabinovich R. Problema presence of Galitsky Russia in Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands in 1140-1240//the International historical magazine "Rusin" [Chisinau]. 2005. No. 2 (2). Page 74.
7. Tale of Igor's Campaign. M, 1978. Page 83.
8. See: MohovN.A. Moldova feudalism eras. Chisinau, 1964. Page 81-82.
9. PSRL. 1962. Page 496-497. Tsit. on: "And. .razoshlis Slavs on the ground". Page 137.
10. "And. .razoshlis Slavs on the ground". Page 139, 192.
11. In the same place. Page 138.
12. S. Sulyak. Decree. soch. Page 14.15.
13. Pletnev S.A. Polovtsian earth//Old Russian principalities of H-HGGG of centuries of M., Science, 1975. Page 281.
14. "And .razoshlis Slavs on the ground". Page 196.
15. S. Sulyak. Decree. soch. Page 36.
16. Tsit. on:. "And .razoshlis Slavs on the ground". Page 203.
17. S. Sulyak. Decree. soch. Page 18.
18 ". Also Slavs dispersed on the ground". Page 209.
19. S. Sulyak. Decree. soch. Page 35.

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Lyudmila KISHKA

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