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About completing of institutions of national education of the Kaliningrad region teacher's shots in the early fifties

main building of the Elektrosvarka plant, long time which was at a stage of permanent construction. New life was received by the Kaliningrad foundry and mechanical plant transformed to experimental plant of the paper-making equipment, etc. [4, page 469, 475].

The main conclusion which can be made of obviously unfortunate experiment consists in need of granting to territorially isolated economy of area of bigger independence at increase in attention to the region from the Center.

List of sources and literature

1. State archive of the Kaliningrad region. T. 47. The internal inventory put.
2. State archive of the Kaliningrad region. T. 47. Op. 2.
3. Center of storage and studying documents of the contemporary history of the Kaliningrad region. T. 1. Op. 43.
4. The most western: The Kaliningrad region in documents and materials for 1962 — 1985 Kaliningrad, 2001. Prince 1.

About the author

G.V. Kretinin is Dr. an east. sciences, the prof. of RGU of I. Kant,

UDC 947 (470.26)

L.M. Fukson


On the basis of archival documents features of formation of the Kaliningrad schools and pedagogical shots are characterized. The factors influencing process of completing of schools by teachers and other workers of national education are considered.

Features of formation of Kaliningrad schools and the pedagogical staff, based on archival documents, are characterized. The article covers the factors influencing process of school recruitment of teachers and other educational staff.

After five years (1945 — 1950) functioning of a system of national education of the Kaliningrad region there was its some stabilization. Institutions and the organizations of national education gradually switched over to a normal operating mode, carrying out everything pla-

new actions: preparation of schools by new academic year, holding January and August teacher's meetings, preparation of schools for examinations, etc. At the same time a painful point of a system was the undermanning of institutions of education by shots.

It was the difficult, caused by many factors problem. It was required not just to find and send to schools of teachers, but also to distribute them according to the received qualification and specialty. At a boundary 40 — the 50th the main sources of completing of shots were: a) sending of teachers — young specialists to the Kaliningrad region through the Ministry of Public Education of RSFSR; b) attraction in schools of the teachers working not in the specialty; c) a call from other areas of the teachers who showed willingness to work in new Soviet area.

So, from January 1, 1949 till September 1, 1950 on business trips of the Ministry of Public Education in the area there arrived 889 people, the regional department managed to attract 118 people from other regions of Russia, internal "mobilization" about 200 experts working not in the specialty [1, op was carried out. 2, 98, l. 16]. In total 1206 teachers were employed, but the problem was not exhausted by it. In the region the high level of migration, including intraregional remained, among teachers was up to 30 — 40% of wives of the military personnel who by the nature of the activity often changed the residence. Only for

1949 160 teachers, and for the first ten months left schools

> and that it is more 1950 — 268 people [1, op. 2, 98, l. 16 — 17].

According to regional department of national education for September 1, 1950 according to applications of schools 458 teachers were required. Within a year the Ministry of Public Education of RSFSR sent 377 young specialists to the area, 53 teachers were invited oblono, 75 more is picked up on places — all 505 people [1, op are appointed. 2, 98, l. 24]. It would seem, requirement of schools was satisfied. However in a number of districts of the area, work on fixing of shots on places was not conducted. Some city and regional departments of national education without permission about - a bosom appointed and moved a large number of teachers [3, op. 11, 198, l. 26]. In 1950 in the very first days after the beginning of classes it became clear that in the area about 40 teachers [1, op are not enough. 2, 98, l. 25].

On elimination of "gap" were thrown the elementary school teacher who were transferred to work in 5 — the 7th classes therefore load of the working teachers increased. In particular, teachers of Guards and Krasnoznamensk high schools had 28 — 30 class periods of loading a week. Oblono appealed to Minpros immediately to second graduates of teacher's colleges (14 people), in addition sent 28 calls to the teachers wishing to move to the area on the permanent residence. Waiting for replenishment of occupation it was necessary to conduct by own efforts.

Strangely enough, the "delayed" war consequence became one of ways of elimination of deficiency of teachers. In the early fifties to areas the reduction of initial classes because decreased


inclusion in the first classes (children of 1942 — 1944 of the birth). A considerable part of elementary school teachers had to be reduced and employed for other works, in particular, to transfer for teaching to 5 — the 7th classes [3, op. 11, 198, l. 24].

In the conditions of formation of pedagogical collectives the big load was placed on the management of national education. In regional and city departments the big turnover of staff of departments Rhone and a city board of education, heads of schools was also observed. For example, for 1949 it was exempted from work of 8 managers, 11 inspectors, 5 directors of high schools. The situation and in 1950 when 6 managers and 17 inspectors Rhone and a city board of education, 5 directors of high schools and 10 directors of orphanages were replaced did not improve. Even in regional department it was not possible to achieve stability of list of workers: in 1950 3 inspectors of schools, 3 managers of sectors and one orphanages inspector [1, op quitted the job. 2, 98, l. 18 — 19]. Turnover of staff led to the fact that in the management of national education there were people who did not have experience of the leading work (see tab. 1, 2). Many workers oblono worked part-time teachers [3, op. 11, 198, l. 28 — 29]. The similar picture was observed also in areas. So, Malyutin managing Krasnoznamensk Rhone four days a week was employed with teaching history in local high school. Checking noted: "It is necessary to leave two days that comrade Malyutin had an opportunity to take part in check of schools" [3, op. 13, 95, l. 141]. The big turnover of inspectors of all levels did not give the chance to departments of national education and institute of improvement of teachers to organize systematic studying experience and its distribution on area. Meanwhile the leading and teacher's structure of schools of area very much needed it. In particular, the list of directors of seven-year schools was considerably updated — 56 directors were appointed again, from them 11 people just finished educational institutions. Managers of elementary schools had generally 2 — 3 years of a pedagogical experience. The teacher's structure in general was young (from 1 year to 5 years 1870 teachers from the 3309th total number of teachers in the area had an experience).

The lack of harmonious work in all links of national education because of turnover of staff led to unsatisfactory methodical work at schools, "Teachers' Day" was carried out irregularly, subject and sectional methodical associations worked badly [1, op. 2, 98, l. 37—38].

All weight of work on skills development, retraining of teachers and heads of institutions of national education laid down on institute of improvement of teachers which was in a formation stage. For teachers the course retraining was carried out to summertime. Monthly courses in 1951 finished 287 teachers, for July 1, 1952 this figure made 294 teachers. During 1952 the institute held 9 seminars with educators, several briefings with managers Rhone and a city board of education took place.

The teacher's structure did not show activity in retraining passing that, perhaps, was connected with household disorder of teachers. In 1951 on courses of teachers of Russian 18 of 57 people, mathematics — 15 of 37, initial classes — only 105 of 200 were. The next year the picture did not improve [3, op. 11, 198, l. 25 — 26].

The regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) subjected institute and oblono to severe criticism: "The regional institute of improvement of teachers works unsatisfactorily. For all the time of the existence... did not manage to generalize experience of any school, any subject teacher. Classes on courses at institute are often given at a low level, an appearance of teachers on courses extremely low. OBLONO did not take measures to completion of institute of improvement of teachers by qualified personnel, many employees of institute had no necessary experience. Among employees of institute there is a big fluidity" [3, op. 11, 21, l. 149].

it would Seem to

>, the situation with skills development by a correspondence course was better. In 1951 at institutes and normal schools 343 teachers studied. Same year 136 more teachers [1, op came to the Kaliningrad teacher's college. 2, 98, l. 40]. However the plan of reception for the 1st course of correspondence department of teacher's college was not implemented from year to year. In 1952 at the plan in 300 people for study only 109 were taken. And it in spite of the fact that from 67 teachers 8 — the 10th classes which did not have the higher education only 17 people studied, and from 171 directors of seven-year schools — only 88. Many teachers till some years were only registered as correspondence students. So, on a summer session by July 1, 1952 486 teachers had to be, and arrived only 349 [3, op. 11, 198, l. 25].

Fixing of teachers directly depended on their material and household situation, including from that as I am carried out the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR No. 246 "About privileges and advantages to teachers of rural schools". The situation was difficult as in certain areas the facts of abnormal supply of teachers even bread, not to mention necessities" took place ". Unsatisfactorily provided with fuel of teachers at schools Ozyorsk, Kaliningrad, Railway and some other areas [1, op. 2, 98, l. 21].

The fluidity of teacher's shots threatened implementation of the law on a general compulsory education, the resolution of regional council of deputies of workers "About a condition of training semiliterate and elimination of illiteracy" was not carried out. In particular, the similar picture was observed in the Krasnoznamensk district. As a result of lack of control of a situation in settlements of the area a significant amount 14 — 15-year-old teenagers had no primary education, 31 youths of premilitary age belonged to the category semiliterate and illiterate, and their training was not organized [3, op. 13, 95, l. 139, 142].

These and other shortcomings of national education were specially noted in the resolution of regional committee of party in 1952 which estimated activity oblono unsatisfactorily. At the center the party body raised a question of acceleration of reorganization of teaching Russian on the basis of "the Stalin doctrine about language" and also demanded to reconstruct teaching biology. Besides, the regional committee noted


shortcomings of work of orphanages, schools of young and rural workers. Annually rural schools were left by more than a half of pupils. Stopped working Council for national education at oblono. It was not, naturally, and without criticism of the party organization oblono [3, op. 11, 21, l. 148 — 151]. But all this criticism did not indicate the main thing: need of completion of schools skilled, highly educated, competent teacher's shots. Party bodies understood the powerlessness in this question and preferred it not to concern.

Critically estimating activity of bodies of national education, it is necessary to recognize nevertheless that by the beginning of the 1950th in school business considerable success was achieved that admitted also at the state level. From March, 1949 till November, 1953 226 teachers and workers of national education of the Kaliningrad region were awarded the highest government awards, in the area the first honored teachers of RSFSR, owners of the medals "Excellent Student of National Education" [2, op appeared. 7, of a 273-, l. 25 — 27; 2, op. 8, 97, l. 1, 26 — 29; 2, op. 8, 346, l. 16 — 17; 1, op. 2, 44, l. 1, 301—302].

List of sources

1. State archive of the Kaliningrad region. T. 462. Management of national education of the Kaliningrad regional executive committee.
2. State archive of the Kaliningrad region. T. 297. Kaliningrad regional council of deputies of workers and its executive committee.
3. Center of storage and studying documents of the contemporary history of the Kaliningrad region. T. 1. Kaliningrad regional committee of the CPSU.

About the author

L.M. Fukson — an edging. ped. sciences, director of the Kaliningrad state college of town planning.

UDC 947 (470.26)

N.A. Stroganova


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