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Category: History


aleksandr POPENKO


In the Concept of protection of frontier of the Russian Federation

need of creation for the Far East region of conditions for economic and other activity, counteraction of economic expansion, trafficking of drug and strategic raw materials is highlighted. In the sphere of national interests there is also a preservation of an animal and also flora. However recently illicit trade the Far East bioresources and also illegal import of cheap foreign consumer goods undermine foreign economic activity of the Russian state in the Far East.

Statement at the nation-wide level of a question of a role of the Far East in ensuring national security of the Russian Federation includes a solution on creation of modern strong barriers to smuggling. Synthesis of successful domestic experience of fight against smuggling in the 20th of the last century can be useful for development of more various and effective measures of opposition to smuggling in the Russian Far East. Studying such unexplored question as a role of party bodies of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in fight against smuggling is of special interest. Despite negative attitude of modern Russian society to activity of the Communist Party, counteraction of party bodies of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) to smuggling in the 20th of the 20th century as documents testify, was successful, so deserves the place in the history. Besides this experience is not lit in a domestic historiography.

In 1918 the Soviet government for protection of the state interests took a number of serious measures. In the resolution "About a Delivery Order Import Permit and Export of Goods" it was said that permission to export abroad and import of goods is given only by department of foreign trade of the Commissariat of trade and industry from abroad. According to the decree about nationalization of foreign trade, the transaction with the foreign states and with the separate enterprises abroad were carried out authorized by the Soviet power on behalf of RSFSR. This decree announced monopoly for foreign trade, and the state became the main regulator of foreign trade. The osudarstvenny monopoly for foreign trade was implemented through license policy which came down to delivery by competent public authorities of permission to implementation of the foreign trade operations. In RSFSR the licenses were granted by the national commissariat of foreign trade (NCFT) 1.

In January, 1923 in the Far East the customs tariff, monopoly for foreign trade were enacted and the most strict control over import and export of goods through border is established. For this purpose in Chita, Blagoveshchensk and Vladivostok bureaus of licenses - bodies of regulation of Narkomvneshtorg were open. At the beginning the activity of the Far East bureaus of licenses proceeded in the conditions of extremely adverse and very differing from areas of the central Russia. If in the Center the device of private trade was generally destroyed, and cooperation was strong, then in the Far East at weak cooperation the device of private trade kept the force. During the initial period of activity of bureau of licenses the share in foreign trade of the private capital made 87% of the general goods turnover. Private trade institutions at the beginning of 1923 covered almost all retail chain stores in the consumer market of the Far East region of (Far Eastern Military District).

In the course of work of the special commission of the National Commissariat of Foreign Trade (NCFT) which was organized for formation of license bodies in the Far East the need of modification both the principles of regulation, and a common customs tariff on import and export taking into account local features of the Far East was found. Conclusions of the commission were based on thorough study of local conditions, the states of affairs of the state trade and cooperation in the area, its boundary situation. The commission came to conclusion that the state trade and koo1 CPM FSB of the Russian Federation, p-335, 16, l. 1, inventory No. 3303; p-410, 18, l. 1, inventory No. DS. 5607/2.

a peration cannot undertake completely the organization of supply of area yet and to operate export opportunities that the private capital has to be used, but is put under strict control and in a certain framework. It was offered to carry out import through the state trade enterprises, to develop and establish the contingent of the imported goods, to make the export and import plan of area, to push aside the private capital from export torgovli1.

These conclusions and recommendations of the commission promoted partial improvement of foreign trade in the Far Eastern Military District. Slow approach to the private capital by infringement of its opportunities, first of all in export and import trade was undertaken. Reduction of a share of the private trader in trade promoted decrease in inflow of smuggling as through private trade in many respects there was a selling of illicit goods.

Regional party bodies paid huge attention to development in the village of the state trade and cooperation as to forms of counteraction to smuggling. When checking work of trade bodies in the Khabarovsk County in 1924 it was revealed that activity of the state trade does not coordinate with work of rural cooperatives and creates the unhealthy competition. The provincial union of cooperators did not give material support to rural cooperatives in which there was no productive work. Due to the lack of accounting of needs of the population and inept selection of the range of goods of consumption the negative attitude to cooperatives was created. Cooperatives did not carry out preparation of necessary goods and products for settling with the peasant for the put products, and calculation was often made by low-quality goods. In comparison with the price for products of country production of price for manufactured goods were high and did not satisfy need of the peasantry. It led to the fact that peasants refused to hand over the products to the state. Every year the peasantry of the Far Eastern Military District took out in the illicit way agricultural goods for the sum

1 GAHK, t. river 1151, op. 1, 1, l. 158-159.
1.5 million rubles. And for 20 rub gold the peasant could not buy the Soviet manufactory in enough, and in Manchuria for this money he dressed all semyyu1.

For the solution of the situation at provincial committees of RCP(b) the cooperative commissions of provincial committee of RCP(b) which submitted to the cooperative commissions of the RCP(b) Central Committee Far East bureau were created. The cooperative commissions of provincial committee of RCP(b) reported on mistakes in relationship of the provincial union and local cooperatives. So, because of bad providing with goods with the provincial union the cooperatives bought goods from the private trader. However sluggishness of repayment of debts of local cooperation to the provincial union promoted a goods delay for several weeks that resulted in worthlessness of goods. And it in addition contributed to the development of smuggling in the Far Eastern Military District.

For establishing order in work of the state trade and cooperation the cooperative commission of the RCP(b) Central Committee Far East bureau published circular No. 2326 "About practical actions of the provincial cooperative commissions in strengthening of cooperative work". In it it was said that the provincial unions have to monitor strictly selection of workers in cooperatives, nominating first of all members of RCP(b); in case of absence of the Party member to allow the non-party expert with attachment to it the capable communist for the subsequent replacement of the non-party to them; for the coordinated work to second on one member of the cooperative commission of the provincial union in kooperativy2.

At meetings of local party bodies chiefs of boundary protection and customs officials constantly made information on the activity. At meetings solutions on fight against private trade, and the staff of GPU, and then OGPU were developed, it was imputed a duty to take expeditious part in cooperation development, to control on the sites

1 RGAE, t. 413, op.14, 278, l. 82.
2 GAAO, t. item 9, op.2, 72, l. 10.

work of border trade, in every possible way to promote it, to protect it, to establish the reasons of discontent of the peasantry with work of local trade bodies.

At a meeting of staff of RCP(b) of the Amur provincial department of OGPU the direct task was set: to force out the private trader from retail trade, to protect and control the rural cooperator that will promote increase exporta1.

Decisions of local party bodies helped to reduce a smuggling stream in the Far Eastern Military District. The fact that, realizing a cooperation role in fight against smuggling, party bodies could involve employees of OGPU in expeditious participation in cooperation development was especially considerable.

At the 6th regional party conference about cooperation in 1924 as positive result it was noted that the trade turnover increased from 22 million evils. rub up to 40 million evils. rub. The Far East cooperation transferred the purchases from the foreign markets (18%) for the markets of the USSR (82%). The number of members of cooperatives during 1923-1924 in rural areas increased from 25 thousand people to 47, and in the city - from 36 to 52 thousand persons. These data confirmed approach to private trade and creation of prerequisites for reduction of illicit import from abroad.

At the regional party meeting devoted to a condition of trade in the area the resolution in which the attention was focused on need of acceptance of economic measures was adopted. According to regional party bodies, economic measures in fight against smuggling were: reduction of prices of goods of the Soviet production for the purpose of reduction of illegal import of illicit goods; reduction of overhead costs and decrease in a tariff; reduction of percent arrived to goods of mass smuggling; distribution on the goods brought to the Far Eastern Military District, privileges in a size necessary for successful fight against smuggling; supply of boundary, trade areas with goods of the corresponding range; granting privileges on crediting to the state trade and cooperation; study

1 GAAO, t. item 1411, op.1, 6, l. 41.

questions of preferential buying up of gold and export duty for furs; establishment of preferential prices for goods in border areas.

In March, 1923 at the 5th Far East party conference it was offered to allow bodies of Gostorg primary buying up of gold and furs by means of skillful price control. According to official figures the amount of gold which left every year abroad reached 175 poods, or 33% of the total amount of production.

Since 1926 a role of regional party authorities in fight against smuggling still usililas1. Now they constantly traced the amount of smuggling and developed methods of fight against it.

Importance of broad inclusion in "anti-illicit" activity of economic levers was emphasized by the Far East committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in the confidential letter addressed to the secretary of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee V.T. Molotov. In the document signed by the secretary of DKK All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Ya.B. Gamarnik it was said that "... you will not make administrative and judicial measures much. Measures of an economic order - sufficient delivery of goods at reasonable prices, strengthening of import and support of development of the local industry are necessary." 2.

DKK All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in the spring of 1926 attentively controlled private trade in the region, work of the cooperative commission, regional commission on fight against smuggling, gave a rigid assessment to insufficient propaganda work of data of the organizations, efforts on fight against smuggling, reminded of need of the maximum support of public trade and replacement of the private trader.

on June 8, 1926 on the basis of the provided reports of DKK All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) adopted the resolution "About Strengthening of Fight against Smuggling" where two main ways of conducting fight against smuggling were specified: explanatory and propaganda and economic and retaliatory. The Far East regional party committee issued strictly confidential resolution addressed to all communists of edge on transition "to the most resolute fight against smuggling".

1 Since 1926 the Central Committee of RCP(b) was renamed into the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), and the Far East region to the Far East region.
2 GAHK, t. item 2, op. 1, 51, l. 38.

Besides development of public trade, DKK All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) controlled also a situation on protection of border. So, in December, 1926 the report of the plenipotentiary of OGPU DVK on work of OGPU on protection of border and fight against smuggling was heard. It should be noted that texts of reports of various organizations practically were identical both for administrative, and for party bodies, and the resolutions adopted by party bodies almost completely coincided with documents of administrative authorities of the power. Actually party bodies duplicated documents of administrative authorities, paying attention to propaganda and explanatory work.

In 1927 DKK All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) heard the report on work of the regional commission on fight against smuggling, studied office-work about smuggling, checked actions for suppression of export of furs and gold and also a campaign for reduction of prices. In 1928 DKK All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) adopted the resolution on results of fight against smuggling in the region. In it new solutions of a problem in fight against smuggling for OGPU, the Far East merging of the head customs office (the Far Eastern Military District GTU) and also for "okruzhkomparka" 1 were designated.

On places the district party committees were also the most directly involved in fight against smuggling. So, the Chita district committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) published the developed report on fight against smuggling in the Chita Region. In 1926. The Amur district committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) heard the report of the 56th boundary group on fight against smuggling and defined actions for fight against smuggling; in 1927 - surveyed the margins established after reduction of prices; in 1928 - created the party organizations in the village; in 1929 - took under control development of trade in the district. The Zeysky district committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in 1926 organized the correct work of cooperatives, in 1927 controlled reduction of prices, participated in cooperative stroitelstve2. The Vladivostok district committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in 1926 heard reports of frontier protection and set the tasks of fight against smuggling to the 59th boundary group, in

1 GAHK, t. item 2, op. 1, 80, l. 80-81.
2 GAAO, t. item 45, op. 1, 3, l. 10, 22, 29.
1928 monitored export smuggling and developed ways it presecheniya1. The Khabarovsk district committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) on fight against smuggling for 1926-1929 constantly heard reports of boundary groups, customs district institutions, chiefs of boundary protection of OGPU on smuggling level in the district, to its influence on cooperation formation. He developed actions for economic and security agencies in fight against smuggling in the Khabarovsk district, participated in control of decrease in retail prices.

Thus, regional party bodies honestly pursued public policy in DVK. Constant control of the party authorities behind development of public trade, behind a condition of its work and timely implementation of various resolutions promoted positive result in fight against smuggling. Reports of various security and administrative agencies before regional party bodies promoted more conscientious performance of objectives on smuggling suppression that has a positive impact on decrease in level of an illicit stream in the region.

Alexander Vladimirovich POPENKO is a teacher of department of operativnotaktichesky preparation of the Khabarovsk boundary institute FSB of Russia

1 GAPK F. Item 61. Op.1. 779. L. 47.
Mary Evans
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