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Influence of the Roman provinces on economy and society ii of Italy Century BC .

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B. R. Simonyan

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Level of economic development of many provinces considerably advanced traditional, in general agrarian, way of Italy. The huge values which are taken out from provinces contributed to the rapid development of the commodity-money relations. An additional boost was received by craft and trade. But the grown rich Italy became the center not so much of production how many consumption. Cheap bread made of provinces unprofitable production of grain and demanded restructuring of agriculture. However ruin of the small peasantry, introduction in production of slaves and freedmen generated an array of problems and social tension. The profound changes in economic, social and cultural life of Italy in many respects generated by influence of provinces prepared those social and political shocks which led to civil wars, falling of the Republic and formation of the Empire.

Economic life of antiquity regarded as of paramount importance not so much crafts and trade how many zemledeliye1. It was major activity and at rimlyan2.

By 265 BC Rome established domination over the Central and Southern Italy. From now on its interests went out of the Apennines. Rich territories of the Western Mediterranean became objects of special attention. It led to collision with Carthage that laid the foundation for an era of Great Gains. Successful wars led to emergence of the first provinces. Sicily and Sardinia with Corsica formed in 227 became them (Polyb. I.62.10; I.63.2; I.88.12). As it were mainly grain provinces, they provided Rome with cheaper bread. Later, in 177, Romans, having conquered the internal areas of Sardinia, got more than 80 thousand slaves (Liv. XLI.28.8). Sicily became the main center of large-scale slaveholding enterprise. The territory of the Sicilian province began to be considered as the property of the Roman people, and its population — as the powerless citizens obliged to pay 1/10 part of income and subordinates of an absolute power of the Roman deputies. As Sicily also other Provinces of Rima began to cope then. And still owing to the small sizes these three islands could not have significant effect on Italic economy.

In 197 two more were added to two Roman provinces in Spain: Beti and Tarrakonsky Spain (Liv. XXVIII.12.12; XXXII.28.11; XXXIV.43.6; Nep. Cat. 2.2). Richness of these lands differed in a big variety. Spain possessed such raw materials as copper and lead and also the richest silver mines which development gave the chance to the Roman state to provide a silver basis of the monetary system. At the beginning of the 2nd century BC, in 6 years Rome took out more than 200 thousand pounds of silver and 5 thousand pounds of gold from Spain. Advantages of a provincial control system were shown just on the Pyrenees. Mines alone from 178 to 157 BC brought to treasury about 50 million denariyev3. The tithe for 157 BC made 130 million dena-

1 See, for example: Felsberg E.G. Istoriya Roman agrarian system. Derpt, 1909. Page 26; M. Rostovtsev. Birth of the Roman Empire. Pg., 1918. Page 7.
2 See: I.L. Rim lighthouse of the first tsars. Genesis of the Roman policy. M, 1983; it. Romans of the early Republic. M, 1993.
3 Frank T. Rome and the Italy of the republic//ESAR/Ed. T. Frank. Vol. 1. Baltimore, 1933. P. 139.

riyev4. There was an opportunity to buy lands and to remove colonies. The climate allowed to manufacture olive oil in Spain excellent kachestva5.

Macedonia in 148 was also turned into the province. Were the main richness of this territory its gold and silver rudniki6.

In 146 50 thousand residents of Carthage were sold in slavery, its possession within the African continent are turned into the province Africa (Polyb. XXXIX.3-4). The most part of these lands was announced state ownership, its inhabitants were taxed. Africa delivered cheap grain, in large volumes, than Sicily which could not provide with bread the population of Italy which increased by this time any more (Liv. Per. 60). Therefore importance of economic control over this province was extremely high. Among exported goods there were luxury goods, ivory, dates. Carthaginians had centuries-old agricultural experience. That to master it more stoutly, Romans translated 28 books of the treatise Magona (Collum. I.1.14).

In 133 in the territory of the Pergamum kingdom the province Asia including the rich Greek policies located on the coast of the Aegean Sea in the structure was formed (Liv. XXXIX.1.3). The large cities of this region historically played a key role in trade of the Mediterranean world with the East. However Pergamum was not limited only to mediatorial function, it was the large craft, shopping and cultural center.

Narbonsky Gallia was won and turned into the Roman province in 120. Besides the qualitative wood necessary both for development of economy, and for construction of the ships, it gave to Italy wool, leather, grain, a game, pork gammons and a bristle. However the main advantage of this province — its geographical location. It was in close proximity to the Apennines and served as a buffer zone between Italy and as numerous uncontrollable Rima Gallic tribes.

Thus almost all then known world appeared in the power of Romans (Polyb. I.1.5). However Rima still should be united in a uniform economic mechanism of the province with the different level of economy. The western possession Rima were least developed. East territories much surpassed Italic economy which the level of development, at that time, did not correspond to the volume of riches which is artificially concentrated in it for a short interval of time. The enormous material resources taken from provinces in the form of tax, port charges, income from state lands, it was necessary to invest in own economy effectively.

The foundation for changes was laid by import of cheap grain, especially from Africa. The grain nature of a number of provinces and low cost of the sea transport became the main reason of considerable reduction of crops grain in Italii7. If till 3rd century BC arable farming prevailed, then already in the 1st floor. 2nd century BC, according to Catona, grain took only the 6th place on the profitability (De agr. I.7). Most likely, production of grain remained only in the central and east regions of Italy, the most remote from seaports. Need for import of grain was dictated also by growth of urban population which could not be supported only at the expense of own bread. At the same time the trend of dependence of Italy from imported prodovolstviya8 was outlined.

4 Op. cit. P. 141.
5 Frank T. Notes on Roman commerce//JRS. 1937. Vol. XXVII. Part I. P. 78-79.
6 Hill H. The Roman Middle class in the Republican Period. Oxford, 1952. P. 59.
7 V.I. Kuzishchin. Essays on the history of agriculture of Italy are the 1st century AD M., 1966 2nd century BC; it. Roman slaveholding estate. M, 1973.
8 Garnsey P., Gallant T., Rathbone D. Thessaly and the grain supply of Rome//JRS. 1984. Vol. LXXIV. P. 44; Garnsey P., Rathbone D. The background to the grain law of Gaius Gracchus//JRS. 1985. Vol. LXXV. P. 20-25.
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Due to growth of the population of the Italic cities steady demand for agricultural products was created that allowed the producer to work for the market (Cato. De agr.I.3). But as free were subject to conscription, continuous wars reduced number krestyan9, without allowing them to be engaged in the allotment thoroughly. The same wars provided inflow of hundreds of thousands of slaves who needed to be equipped. Agriculture became the main consumer of a slave labor. As use of such number of slaves demanded existence of large land property, ruin of small-scale enterprise was inevitable. To sulfurs. 2nd century BC small country farms give way to large latifundiya and villas katonovsky tipa10 which appear completely in aristocracy hands (App. BC.I.7). The large monetary capital allowed to conduct farms big razmerov11. A part of manors was capable to watch consumer demand, in case of need to increase volumes and quality of the produktsii12. The main attention in these farms was paid to vineyards, olive groves and various fruit-trees.

The population of the cities was replenished not only at the expense of Italians, but also natives of provinces among whom highly skilled handicraftsmen, most often the Greek origin occurred. Thanks to them a number of technical improvements was created: special polishing of marble, mirror tile. In the 2nd century BC the craft centers specializing in ceramics, processing of iron, bronze and lead, production of agricultural tools begin to develop (Cato. De agr.135). Some goods (woolen fabrics, pottery) are taken out to Gallia. At the expense of provinces the craft source of raw materials considerably extended. Development of fields fell only on slaves. In Spain on silver mines about 40 thousand slaves worked (Polyb. XXXIV.9).

Constructing roads and bridges for military purposes, ensuring safety on maritime routes, the state thereby created the infrastructure vital for trade. Within the won territories the system almost absolutely free tovaroobmena13 was formed. But the benefit from it was mostly received not by Romans, but Italians and merchants of Great Gretsii14.

In Rima trade was considered as occupation contemptible (See: Liv. The XXI I.25.18-19). To senators it was prohibited by the law (Liv. XXI.63.3). As a result the most part of goods was delivered by east dealers, to them got and pribyl15. Tiriytsa in the 2nd century BC carried out considerable export in Rim16. Importing a huge number of slaves, grain and various luxury goods, Romans were able to export only wine and olive maslo17. Therefore import cost considerably exceeded cost exporta18. The passivity of goods turnover was compensated for the account of import of a large number of money from provinces. But at the slightest failures postup-

9 P. Sorokin. Social and cultural dynamics. SPb., 2000. Page 632.
10 We will note that process of replacement of country farms with villas and latifundiya was not identical across all Italy. Crisis of small land tenure almost did not affect the North of Italy where country farms continued to exist in rather favorable conditions (see: Bengtson H. Grundriss der romischen Geschichte. Munchen, 1982. Bd. I. S. 165).
11 About various types of landowners' farms Rima and Italy at this time for more details see: V.I. Kuzishchin. Roman slaveholding estate... Page 53-247.
12 The period between the second and third Punic wars of V.A. Sigaro not accidentally in general considers "agrarian revolution", the transition which caused in economy from "autarchy" to commodity production (Sigaro V. A. L&agricultura italiana nel 11 sec. a. C. Napoli, 1972).
13 J. Luzzatto. Economic history of Italy. M, 1954. Page 83.
14 Russell M. Roman Ostia. Oxford, 1960. P. 29.
15 Knight M.M. Economic history of Europe to the end of the Middle Age. New York, 1926. P. 51.
16 Loan H.J. Industry and commerce of the city of Rome (50 B.C. - 200 A.D.). Baltimore, 1938. P. 25.
17 J. Luzzatto. Decree. soch. Page 88.
18 I.M. Kulisher. Evolution of profit from the capital in connection with development of the industry and trade in Western Europe. T. I. SPb., Page 117, 120; Neyrat O. Istoriya antique economy. Nikolaev, 1924. Page 62.

the line to Italy of new money immediately suffered interests both consumers of goods, and the dealers delivering them. The money extorted from provinces returned in the form of payment for goods there! Rome became the center not of production, and consumption and therefore war continued to remain an important element of its economy.

The huge values which are taken out as contribution and spoils of war from subdued gosudarstv19, contributed to the rapid development market and trade and monetary otnosheniy20. There are trading houses and banking offices, speculation accepts unprecedented scope (See: Val. Max. VIII.15.6; Cic. Ad Quint. I.1.33; Polyb. VI.17.2-4).

Distribution of usury was promoted also by the otkupny system allowing publikana to plunder provinces (Liv. XLV.18.4). Deputies not so much controlled publikan how many cooperated with nimi21. According to Diodor, pub-likana were partners of judges therefore "and did that wanted, filling the province with an arbitrariness and crimes" (XXXVII.5). In 140 the macedonians complained of oppressions of a pretor of Yuli Silan (Liv. Per. LIV; Val. Max. V.8.3). In 114 - on the consul Portia Catona (Veil. Paterc. II.8.1). Provinces remained "objects of robbery, superficial rubdown" 22 for a long time, and the Roman dominion over them degenerated in petty and short-sighted egoizm23 more and more.

The people which got under the power Rima began to have a huge impact on the conquerors. It is a lot of natives of different provinces, slaves, freedmen, voluntary immigrants were the people enterprising in different fields of activity (trade, craft, banking). Blood of efficient people, master-volnootpushchennikov24 joined the Roman society. As result, the horizons of Romans were qualitatively broadened what confirm, including, the high level of an architectural thought and development of oratory.

All these achievements, however, were followed by spiritual crisis of the Roman community. Falling of ethical standards, draft to roskoshi25, property stratification in society, and alienation of the highest circles from naroda26 led to the fact that such traditional Roman "valors" as moderation, the unpretentiousness, honesty and decency, irrevocably consigned to the past. Morals, customs, family, life — everything was shocked (Polyb. The XXXI I.11.4-6; Diod. XXXVI I.3.5). Foundations of communal life and patriarchal family on which life of the Republic was under construction decayed.

Eventually, the mentality of Romans in which the important place was taken by individualism changed. The profound changes in economic, social and cultural life of Italy caused by influence of provinces became a starting point of a new stage of the Roman history.

In many respects they prepared those social and political shocks which led to reforms of brothers Grakhov, to civil wars, falling of the Republic and formation of the Empire.

19 About economic benefits of wars Rima from 217 to 70 BC for the state in general, for senators and for other categories of the Roman citizens for more details see: Harris W. V. War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 327-70 B.C. Oxford, 1979. P. 68-104.
20 Bengtson H. Grundriss der romischen Geschichte. Munchen, 1982. Bd. I. S. 152.
21 Cambridge introduction to the history of mankind. Book 2. The Romans and their empire/Ed. T. Cairns. Cambridge, 1970. P. 27.
22 It was primitive "policy of operation" — Barrow R.H. The Romans. London, 1949. P. 58. What it led to, Cicero well showed: "We arrived in the ruined province, people cannot bring taxes, everything that can be sold — is already sold, groans and crying, to them in general in burden life everywhere" (Att. V.16.2).
23 Mommsen T. Istoriya Rima. T. 2. From fight at Pidna to Sula's death. M, 1937. Page 65.
24 About their role in this and the subsequent periods for more details see: Treggiari S. Roman Freedmen during the Late Republic. Oxford, 1969.
25 See: V.A. Kvashnin. Laws on luxury in ancient to Rima eras of Punic wars. Vologda, 2006.
26 Khachaturian V.M. Istoriya world civilizations. M, 2000. Page 105.


No. 9(64) 2009



Stavropol State University

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The level of economic development of many provinces appreciably outstripped traditional, as a whole agrarian, way of Italy. The huge values which are taken out from provinces, promoted prompt development of commodity-money relations. The additional pulse was received with craft and trade. But the grown rich Italy in power became the center not so much manufacture, how many consumption. Cheap bread has made of provinces not profitable manufacture of a grain and demanded structural reorganization of an agriculture. However ruin of fine peasantry, introduction in manufacture of slaves and libertines have generated weight of problems and social intensity. Radical changes in an economic, social and cultural life of Italy, in many respects generated by influence of provinces, also have prepared those social and political shocks which have led to civil wars, to falling of Republic and becoming of Empire.

Marie Lee
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