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Main library in days of the Great Patriotic War

 "Kreshchennye blockade..."

humour and self-irony. The main thing that distinguished employees of LGPI and promoted preservation and revival of higher education institution in the most desperate situations, is a love for native institute, a peculiar departmental patriotism, high professionalism, desire and that, maybe, it is even more important, ability to work. The military biography of those who worked and studied in LGPI was full of deprivations and sufferings, but those who survived kept firmness of spirit and throughout all life with honor bore a name of Leningrad residents, gertsenovets.

1. CGA SPB. T. 4331. Op. 31. 603. L. 28-29; 606. L. 52; Op. 34. 134. L. 1-4.
2. In the same place. Op. 34. 747. L. 1-2; 746. L. 1 about., 8. 745. L. 2-2 about.; 605. L. 84.
3. In the same place. 747. L. 9.
4. In the same place. Op. 31. 754. L. 29 about., 39 about., 40; 743. L. 1.; Op. 34. 158. L. 19.
5. In the same place. Op. 31. 767. L. 1; Op. 34. 160. L. 12 about.-13.
6. In the same place. Op. 34. 16. L. 4-5; Op. 31. 758. L. 13.
7. Librarians of the besieged Leningrad: Sb. memoirs, diaries, letters and documents. Issue 2. SPb., 2003. Page 13; CGA SPB. T. 4331. Op. 34. 161. L. 11-12.
8. CGA SPB. T. 4331. Op. 31. 758. L. 26; Librarians of the besieged Leningrad: Sb. memoirs, diaries, letters and documents. Issue 2. Page 13.
9. CGA SPB. T. 4331. Op. 34. 168. L. 22-24.
10. There . 161. L. 6, 18.
11. There . 168. L. 2.
12. There . 158. L. 3, 19; 166. L. 5, 7; Op. 31. 770. L. 31-32; Op. 34. 166. L. 9.
13. There . Op. 31. 770. L. 1-3, 8-16, 25-26, 30-31; 772. L. 13-16 about.; 773. L. 1-11;

Op. 34. D. 161. L. 7-8; 168. L. 25-26; 181. L. 3-4, 8; RGPU Archive. Order No. 46 on LGPI to them. And.

I. Herzen of March 5

1945; Librarians of osazhenny Leningrad. Sb. memoirs, diaries, letters and documents. Issue 2.

Page 16-17; "Soviet teacher". May 9, 1986; Pedagogical university of A.I. Herzen. From the Imperial Educational house to the Russian state pedagogical university. SPb., 1997. Page 135.

A.I. Gradusova *


Before the Great Patriotic War the library of the Leningrad state Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen was one of the largest high school libraries of the city. It possessed the book and journal fund exceeding half a million volumes. She was visited by 10500 readers to whom 700000 books were provided annually.

The library possessed the solid help and bibliographic device consisting of a large number of the reference books and card files placed not only in a main library, but also in educational points. Big help and bibliographic work and promotion of the book in institute and at schools of the city was carried out. The collecting bibliographic materials about A.I. Herzen and K.D. Ushinsky begun in 1936 continued. Since 1934 the library began to receive the obligatory complimentary copy of All-Union book chamber on pedagogical sciences and techniques of teaching objects, and since 1936 — an obligatory paid copy on a profile of all institute departments. Currency allocations on which the foreign periodical press and books on the exact sciences were acquired were provided to library. The staff of library consisted of 52 people.

The situation of library during the first year of the Siege of Leningrad was very difficult. More than 40000 copies of the educational and other literature which was registered for the readers who went to a militia and to ranks of the Red Army were gone. There was no electricity and heating. Windows put

* Aleksandra Ivanovna (1897-1988) Gradusova — headed a main library from December, 1943 to 1972. A.I. Gradusova's memoirs are prepared for printing by a main library and the museum of history of the university.

bricks. It was necessary to move with forces of librarians and students from the academic buildings occupied with hospital, educational libraries, the room equipment, property, archive, things, etc. All this occupied working premises, reading and subscription rooms of library in the 5th building of institute. The most valuable editions, theses, currency acquisitions, a part of children's literature, rare and ancient books in the first months of war were packed and taken away to Kazan. There they were stored until the end of war. The set of the books which did not get to evacuation was reliably hidden in basements of the 5th building of institute. At the same time to us big book funds of the closed higher education institutions arrived: 100000 books of Institute of journalism to them. Thieves' and 250000 copies of library Communistic pedagogical institute of

N.K. Krupskaya. The fund from Institute of journalism, after hit to the building of a fascist bomb, was transported in a main library to Moika, 48. The library of institute of N.K. Krupskaya remained all war on the place, on Tuchkovaya Embankment, 2 as for placement it in a main library was not already places. After war this fund formed a basis for formation of fund of textbooks for pedagogical disciplines. The library of Institute of the people of Far North was difficult to be moved from Staronevsky to Moika because of bombings and firings. On a horse it was succeeded to transport only two carts of books. Other fund died on the spot.

For one day before evacuation of institute the library did not stop work with readers. The institute worked too. In air-raid shelters gave lectures, students took examinations, even 8 dissertations were defended. Reading rooms per se did not function any more as were filled up with books and other property. But from subsidiary fund the literature was given. Issue of books was made in air-raid shelters and hospitals. Also research work did not stop. Under the leadership of the deputy director of library F.A. Popova and the graduate student V.V. Timofeeva in offices evakogospitalya No. 1014 was 11 library points are organized. Here daily about 1000 books were issued to wounded fighters and commanders. "What was done by librarians in 1941-45 in our hospital was the real feat. From 8 o'clock in the morning to late evening the librarians serviced about 500 chambers of hospital" — the manager of club of institute and hospital A.A. Akhayan remembers (The Soviet teacher. 1967. No. 38. Page 5).

The team of librarians headed by the manager of help and bibliographic department M.D. Ovchinnikova in the same hospital helped medical personnel to look after wounded: librarians fed and changed clothes of seriously wounded, wrote letters to the family, read them newspapers and magazines.

Librarians actively participated in the working groups protecting the institute territory: the manager of a book-depository L.S. Dmitriyeva as a part of fire protection was on duty on roofs and extinguished fascist lighters, together with companions sewed linen, quilted jackets and mittens for veterans. N.L. Sebastiani worked in team on protection of an order. L.V. Stepanova did in sanitary team much: prepared air-raid shelters, brought rations, helped the weakened people. The first months of war all librarians were on duty on attics: brought sand, shovels, crowbars there, covered overlappings and beams to fire-prevention structures, dug in an institute garden together with teachers defensive trenches.

it became heavier than

In besieged Leningrad. Since September, raids of fascist aircraft sharply became more frequent. Badayevsky food warehouses burned down. The ration to the population decreased several times. Librarians were supplied on the second category as employees. Hungry dystrophy began. Our collective for hunger suffered heavy losses. This terrible winter at us the sixth part of all structure died. Anna Vasilyevna Levitskaya, the senior bibliographer who is most respected by all readers the worker died on a workplace. E.A. Malinina could not reconcile without coffin to bury the died mom as it was done then by many. They with the sister gave the monthly grain cards that to the old woman made a coffin and dug a grave. Soon both died. K.N. Semicheva, A.I. Pankratyeva, K.N. Trykova, M.I. Shadrina, E.L. Verzina, O.N. Bychkova, A.M. Baturicheva died one by one. Survived worked as could. Librarians together with all institute came on March 8 and 15, 1942 to a community work day on cleaning of the chilled and polluted Leningrad. Chopped off on Nevsky Avenue ice crusts about a rail that the tram which was not working all winter went.

According to the decision of the government on March 19, 1942. The institute of Herzen together with other higher education institutions was evacuated to the back. Library there left her director P.I. Vyazminova, F.A. Popova with the daughter,

L.S. Dmitriyeva with the seriously ill patient boy son. Later, during the last evacuations, M.D. Ovchinnikova, A.K. Afanasyeva, E.I. Kalvayts, Z.G. Glushkova, E.I. Kikhno, S.A. Rybina left. Our companions-librarians together with all institute transferred all weight of double evacuation: from Leningrad in Kislovodsk, and from Kislovodsk on The Urals. After

a 45-day way and bivuachny life through the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea, Central Asia the institute arrived on September 19, 1942 in the small Ural town of Kyshtym. Here 41 teachers, 128 students, 10 employees reached. From librarians there arrived two persons here: M.D. Ovchinnikova and F.A. Popova. Work of institute was developed on the basis of local normal school. Terms of service of educational process for librarians were very heavy. Neither the small bibliotechka of normal school, nor other local libraries had no high school textbooks and the corresponding scientific literature at all. Both of our librarians made huge efforts, discharging necessary educational literature from the Siberian higher education institutions. They received books from the Perm, Magnitogorsk and Chelyabinsk Pedagogical Institutes, the Molotovsky and Tashkent state universities, from All-Union library of V.I. Lenin, from the Sverdlovsk scientific and technical library, research library of the Ural management of geological funds. On this base and at the expense of the textbooks sent from Leningrad they managed to create library in 5600 volumes. They adapted to the educational schedule of institute depending on the schedule and the mode of normal school.

During preservation of institute in Leningrad for maintenance of an order, protection of buildings and property the small group of employees under the direction of E.F. Sakovich was left, to the acting as the deputy director of institute. After June evacuation of 1942 remained in this group of 30 people. They also worked the entire period of the Great Patriotic War in the Leningrad branch of institute and managed to keep buildings, archives, laboratories, the museum, a main library, the capital equipment of institute. From library workers in this group two were left: I and N.L. Sebastiani.

To imagine living conditions and works of this group, it is enough to remember that on the territory of our institute 40 artillery shells and several demolition bombs got. And lighters were also not considered! It was necessary to liquidate consequences from enemy firings — holes on roofs and in buildings, to zafanerivat the beaten-out window frames and glasses, to move property to safer places — this group had to carry out everything. Along with it we served in MPVO, were on duty on roofs at night, sorted blockages of buildings in the city after bombings, cleaned the institute territory after the first blockade winter. Kept in contact with the evacuated institute: sent them clothes, footwear, books. Librarians together with all performed all defensive works. I more than for a month was mobilized for defensive works in the city. As trudarmeyets appointed by the Kuibyshev district committee the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) worked at the 2nd hydroelectric power station. Helped library only in free time. All of us then lived in barracks in institute.

Did not pass our library and fascist "present". In a garden, near the reading room, the artillery shell exploded. Its splinters punched a thick wall of the old building of Ekaterina's times, pulled out window frames, slipped through ten-meter thickness of the heaped books, on the way cut to pieces and iskroshit up to one hundred books and got stuck in an opposite wall of the reading room. Now these "presents" — large splinters — are told to the museum of institute together with the crippled books where are stored and now.

Spring of 1942 we dug up garden beds in a garden of institute. And something grew there, despite our inexperience in agriculture. Food-cards were added by a nettle, a plantain, a dandelion, birch, lime kidneys and leaves. On July 30, 1943 all Leningrad group of ger-tsenovets was awarded with government award - the medal "For Defense of Leningrad".

Fall of 1943. Our city still in a blockade ring. Cruel firings and bombings almost do not weaken. And suddenly the joyful message comes: The Leningrad city town committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies decided to open several higher educational institutions in besieged Leningrad. It is planned to recommence lessons and in the Leningrad branch of Pedagogical Institute of Herzen. All Leningrad group of gertsenovets with enthusiasm was preparing for enrollment of students. Collected not one thousand statements, responded to letters. Trained audiences, washed zakopchenny furniture, the floors, walls (classes were supposed to be given in the 3rd case, only free from hospital chambers) and, of course, prepared library. All rooms were cleaned from glasses, crushed stone and garbage. Partially carried out all this a brig -

yes MPVO, partially and librarians. Reserved firewood. Daily for 2 hours all sawed, chopped and carried wood to the academic building and library, heated furnaces. Students over 900 people came to institute. It was the student's group of special structure: 154 teachers, 213 party and Komsomol workers, 183 workers of the plants and factories, 165 health workers from hospitals, sisters and nurses, 125 fighters and officers from the military organizations and the MPVO battalions. Many were involved in fights. The breast of the majority decorated the medal "For Defense of Leningrad". The students-gertsenovtsy who remained in Leningrad returned to native institute. The former students of Pedagogical Institute of a name came

M.N. Pokrovsky, institute of foreign languages, university. Lessons were recommenced at all faculties on October 15, 1943. The library resumed the work on service of educational process too. We issued the first book on October 19, 1943 in the only room which is not filled up with institute things and books. The order in the main book-depository of a main library was almost not broken. It allowed to use already at the beginning and scientific literature. The difficulties here, of course, were: rooms were not heated, windows are put by bricks, went to fund with oil lamps.

Service of studies was much more difficult. It was necessary to find textbooks in unsystematic dumps of books. Delivery of their of the libraries which remained in the territory of hospital depended on obtaining single admissions and was made manually. Books from Tuchkovaya Embankment were transported on sledges as neither the institute, nor at library had no transport. From the first days of work the deficiency of a number of textbooks was defined. For simplification of situation introduced the system of pre-orders. It was used as well the interlibrary subscription. For a test session on MBA got 82 copies of the most scarce textbooks. On the same line also requests of teachers for scientific literature were satisfied.

Literature was received from the house of an asset of the party, the university, the preserved Pokrovsky, Lesgaft's institutes. Pedagogical literature was concentrated in an office of the general pedagogics from where supplied with it students. Along with issue of books, we intensively sorted blockages of books in all working premises of library. Much students helped with dismantling of literature.

The small reading room on 20 jobs managed to be opened only by June, 1944 in the former clothes (the main entrance in library through these clothes was at that time closed as the lobby of the 5th case belonged to hospital). The number of readers quickly grew. For January 1, 1944 they were 703, including 624 students. For the end 1943/1944 academic years — 1599 readers.

Fascists adjusted fire to institute buildings. Firings especially amplified from 6 to 10 o'clock o'clock in the evening when students gathered for classes and left institute. However persistent fights near Leningrad in December, 1943 and January, 1944 behind which all tensely watched gave hope for close defeat of fascist hordes near Leningrad. The message about defeat of Germans in January, 1944 and lifting the siege sounded as a thunder, joyful and long-awaited. On January 27 the city, for the first time in 900 days of blackout, began to shine salute fires. The people as captivated looked at these multi-colored fires. Long time did not disperse, cried, embraced, congratulated each other.

Since the beginning of resumption of studies at institute in November, 1943 I was recalled from defensive works. Since December of the same year the management of our library was entrusted to me.

At the beginning of summer of 1944 the director of institute F.F. Golovachev brought from Kyshtym to Leningrad big crew of the students trained in working professions of carpenters, joiners, bricklayers, plasterers, painters, glaziers, electricians. This crew in summer months carried out the most urgent work on restoration of premises of institute that it was possible to begin smoothly academic year and to settle the arrived kyshtymets. New academic year began since October 1 at the full structure of gertsenovsky collective. Study not only on full-time department, but also on correspondence was resumed. Students of the Leningrad branch became students of evening department. Besides, the teacher's institute and courses on preparation for future entrants opened. Before library there was a new big task: to accept and provide with literature the contingent of readers, three times bigger, than last year. For this purpose forces of workers and by means of students executed a number of recovery work. 5 rooms in the basement of the 6th case are received and equipped. Over 100000 books are put on racks. Are lifted from the basement and funds of the most valuable literature are accepted from Kazan. The property of offices and archive stored in library is picked up and given to destination. Reading rooms and functional departments are prepared for opening. Are partially sorted and released from kir-

window furnaces glasses are also inserted into them. Pre-war employees began to come back to library; their search, correspondence, calls in coordination with directorate continued all 1944/1945 academic year. By the end of this year in library its pre-war shots work: T.I. Nabokova, A.A. Evmentyeva, A.K. Afanasyeva, L.S. Dmitriyeva, L.S. Matveeva, E.S. Semennikova, M.V. Naumova, V.M. Pokrovskaya.

Continued work on completing of library. In December, 1943 signed the contract with a library collector for replenishment of book fund new editions. Since 1944-1945. The Moscow collector of scientific libraries, considering our application, began to send obligatory copies of literature on a profile of institute. The subscription for the periodical press in 1945 is made. Systematically books went to the areas and areas of the Union freed from the German occupation. So, in 1943/1944 academic year 15000 books, including stable textbooks were sent, to schools of the Kalinin region and teacher's institute of the city of Sloviansk in Donbass where fascists destroyed and burned all book funds of educational institutions and the enterprises, clubs and libraries. In 1944-1945, books are sent to the Kherson Pedagogical Institute, normal schools of Belarus, the Political department of military unit 90620, the Karpinsky coal basin, the Mogilev Pedagogical Institute, pedagogical offices of the Leningrad regional department of national education. In total about 9000 books. The library took part in collecting personal books from workers and students of institute for schools of the Leningrad Region. Them 3000 copies were collected. The help of library to affected areas of the country was positively noted in a note of the Leningradskaya Pravda newspaper of March 24, 1945

Besides performance of the duties, librarians constantly were involved in economic affairs of institute. So, 3 persons, in November — 4, in December — 2, in January, 1945 — 4, in February — 8, in March — 2 worked at unloading of firewood from the barges brought across Moika to institute from library in October, 1944. 4 times on 5 people went for cleaning of snow.

On May 9, 1945 the library collective together with all Soviet people, and especially with Leningrad residents, with immense pleasure celebrated a great holiday of the Victory over fascism.

By the end of the Great Patriotic War the library already to some extent left the most serious blockade condition. Service of educational and scientific activity of institute became more or less satisfactory. Mass work on promotion of the book, help and bibliographic and scientific and bibliographic activity is developed. Positive results in completing of fund and selection of library shots are achieved. However the actual state of library did not correspond to its legal status established by the National commissariat of education at all. Since 1944 under the terms of tariffing the library was referred only to the 3rd category of high school libraries. The functional departments created by an attendance order were not supported with the corresponding staff list. The established staff list did not provide the forthcoming volume of recovery work in book fund, the growing requirements of institute. Budgetary appropriations were insufficient. The library lost the rights for the obligatory complimentary copy on pedagogical sciences and on currency allocations. There were no funds for a cover of books. The technicians were not absolutely. Protection, cleaning, a subsock of firewood, a fire chamber of furnaces, delivery of books from shops — all this fell on librarians. Despite the additional book-depository received in 1944, on bookshelves, even in subsidiary funds, unacceptable narrowness. Racks in new book-depositories mixed, are hammered together in the most rough clumsy way, collected "chosen at random". There were no desk lamps, light everywhere only ceiling. Heating only oven. In the winter everywhere it is cold. Condition of book fund absolutely unsuccessful: all receipts of these years are only lifted and placed on racks, but not included neither in catalogs, nor in stocks; the big percent of the books which were gone for war is not considered and not excluded from documentation; book stocks and catalogs of a part of educational libraries died during blockade therefore it was necessary to organize thorough check of all book fund.

But the prospect to live and work without war, in peace conditions gave to collective new forces and filled all and everyone with ardent desire not only to lift the library to the level of pre-war years, but to achieve new, more good results.

Having started the solution of this task, librarians accomplished it with credit.

Mathisen Viktor
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