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Problem of genesis of "Iranian mitraizm"



UDK 397

PROBLEM of GENESIS "IRANIAN MITRAIZM

Belgorod

university

A.G. CHEREDNICHENKO M.E. ShENTsOV

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"The Iranian mitraizm" arose in the Persian power of Akhemenidov owing to connection of the Indo-Iranian cult of Mitra as guardian of the universal law (rita-art) and communal foundations with a cult of the idolized tsar-soldier and tsar-priest Kambis. Mitraizm, perhaps, became the ideology oppositional to Zoroastrianism though both religions go back to Aryan "paganism" and the doctrine of magicians which it is hardly necessary to call "Zoroastrianism". Akhur Mazda's cult was entered by the prophet Zaratushtra reforming religion of iranoariysky zhre-tsov-magicians in the 6th century BC. In turn, the doctrine of Aryan magicians and brahmen in which center there was an idea of the universal law protected and supported by Mitra and others Adityami arose owing to reforming of the most ancient Indo-European religion in

>cherednichenko@bsu.edu.ru 11 х^1с. BC

The Indo-Iranian cult of Mitra became fundamentals of the syncretic religion which arose in the Middle East during an era of Hellenism called usually "mitraizmy". The Hellenistic-Roman mitraizm was solar religion. For example, on a monument in honor of a crowning of the tsar Kommagena of Antiochus I Teos Dikeya Epifan Filoromeya Fi-lellin (apprx. 70 — 34 BC) one of four represented gods is defined as "Apollon Mitra Helios Hermes". In inscriptions of the Roman period Mitra is called as "Deus Sol invictus" ("God the Sun Invincible"), and Mitra killing a divine bull - "Deus Sol invictus Mithra" 1. At the emperor Yulian Apostat (360-363) Helios Mitre religion nearly became dominating in the Roman Empire, having pressed hristianstvo2.

The enormous contribution to studying a mitraizm was brought by the Belgian historian Franz Kuemon. In work of "Mitra's Mystery" he recognizes impossibility of definition of the region in which the existing earlier drevneiransky Zoroastrianism accepted the main lines which formed the basis Hellenistic and Roman mitraizma3. Zoroastrianism F. Kyumon called a complex of the most ancient beliefs of the Iranian Aryans which Supreme god Akhura Mazda (Akhuramazda, Akhura-Mazda, Ormazd) became the patron of the Persian tsars from the sort Akhemenidov. According to F. Kyumon, the Indo-Iranian Mitra was one of deities of a mazdeistsky pantheon.

Due to the problem of genesis of a mitraizm it is necessary to define whether there was in Ancient Iran a Zoroastrianism as the religious system. Domestic iranist, after I.M. Dyakonov, M.A. Dandamayev, in the majority adhere to the point of view according to which dozoroastriysky beliefs of ancient Iranians and religion of an era Akhemenidov can be united under name "Zoroastrianism" 4. Representatives of the British school of an iranistika (M. Boyce, etc.) also consider Zoroastrianism the state ideology of the power Akhemenidov5. However the first evidence of honoring of Akhur Mazda (Akhuramazda) is dated time of government of the tsar Darius I (522-486 BC) when

1 B. Van der Waerden. The wakening science. 11. Astronomy birth: Transl. from English M., 1991. Page 163.
2 Emperor Yulian. The composition / Lane with drevnegr., a comment. T.G. Sidasha. SPb., 2007. Page 9 —15, 91—132.
3 F. Kuemon. Mitra's mysteries: The lane with fr. SPb., 2000. Page 31.
4 Ancient history / Under the editorship of I.M. Dyakonov, V.D. Neronova, I.S. Sventsitskaya. Prince 1: Early antiquity / Otv. edition. I.M. Dyakonov. the 3rd prod. M, 1989. Page 396 — 400; Ancient history / Under the editorship of I.M. Dyakonov, V.D. Neronova, I.S. Sventsitskaya. Prince 2: Blossoming of ancient societies / Otv. edition I.S. Sventsitskaya. the 3rd prod. M, 1989. Page 143-145.
5 M. Boyce. Zoroastrians. Beliefs and customs: Transl. from English the 3rd prod. SPb., 1994. Page 29 is ZZ, 65-84.

the well-known Bekhistunsky inscription was created. Besides, it is necessary to consider features of "paganism" of Indo-Iranians (ariyev, Aryans) which was reformed by the prophet Zaratushtra (living, most likely, in the 6th century BC). He suggested the Iranian arias to refuse worship of ancient gods — to maidens though among them were and very esteemed in the people Urban (Moon), the Shooting gallery (Mercury), Veretragna (Mars), Ardvi-Sura Anakhita (Venus), Zrvan (Zervan, Zurvan, Saturn). Gods of various elements — Atar (Fire), Apam-Napati ("The grandson of waters"), Asman and the Deputy (gods of the sky and earth), etc. were maidens also. Thus, all drevneiransky deities corresponded to concrete celestial bodies, or to the elements.

The Zoroastrianism appeared owing to reforming of the complex religious priestly system which arose in 11 millennium BC 6. All names which Zaratushtra gave to entities of the incorporeal world (Akhura Mazda and Amerta Spenta or Amesh Spent — "Immortal Saints") not new to Aryans, but they were before common nouns or adjectives, designated a concept and occasionally minor tribal deities. The highest incorporeal essence known to Zaratushtra from personal mystical experience was called by it the Aryan common noun of Mazda "thought, memory, wise" derivative of the difficult verb ma [n] z-da-"establish a thought, direct the attention, reason", cf., however, other - Indus. forms quarrystone. BP. mansyate or the amansta aorist to the chapter of man-"know, think, consider, believe, consider". To make a name of the Supreme deity it is closer and more clear to ordinary listeners, Zaratushtra added to it the word ahura, having referred it to Aryan category of deities of forces of celestial bodies and stars. Avestiysky to teo-them Ahura Mazda, as we know, has in structure an analog other - Indus. prilag. asura-"live; divine", sushch. masculine "the deity, spirit", were designated by the same term heavenly deities — rivals of a class of deities of deva-. The term of an akhur assumed initially antagonism with Aryan heavenly maidens, including Mitra, Varuna, Arya-mana, etc.

Thus, neither the Zoroastrianism, nor mitraistsky religion could grow from Zoroastrianism as "Zoroastrianism" is, most likely, "the scientific phantom". Teonim Akhura Mazda was entered by the prophet Zaratushtra reforming religion of iranoariysky priests-magicians in the 6th century BC. At akhemenidsky tsars Darius I (522 — 486 BC) and Xerxes (486 — 464 BC) in Iran the monotheist doctrine Za-ratushtry triumphed. However the tsar Artaxerxes I (464-423 BC) broke Zoroastrian monotheist traditions of an era of Darius I and Xerxes, having returned honoring of dev, including. Mitra, as deities-yazatov of a Zoroastrian pantheon.

The origin of a cult of Mitra traditionally contacts beliefs of ancestors indoariyev and iranoariyev which in the II millennium BC stayed on Near Vosto-ke7. In the XVII—XIV centuries BC the Aryans, along with hurrita, made a considerable part of the population of the kingdom of Mitangni (Maittani, Hanigalbat) who was settling down between a bend of Euphrates and headwaters of Tigra8. Names of gods and teoforny names of tsars of Mitangni — Mitra, Mitrasil, Varuna, Indara-Indra, In-demonstrate to it, for example,

6 I.M. Dyakonov. Mussel history: From the most ancient times until the end of the 4th century BC of M.-L.D956. Page 390 — 399; Zarathustra. Doctrine of fire. Ghats and prayer / Predisl., biographer. article, comment. A.K. Shaposhnikova. M, 2002. Page 14 — 22; L.A. Lelekov. Zoroastrianism: Phenomenon and problems / / Local and syncretic cults / Otv. edition S.A. Arutyunov. M, 1991. Page 17 — 32.
7 E. Benvenist. Dictionary of Indo-European social terms: The lane with fr. M, 1995. Page 81 — 82; Vilhelm G. Ancient people of a hurrita. Essays of history and culture: The lane with it. M, 1992. Page 44 — 55; E.A. Gran-tovsky. Iran and Iranians to Akhemenidov. Main problems. Questions of chronology. M, 1998. Page 29 — 33; Zh. Dyumezil. Supreme gods of Indo-Europeans: The lane with fr. M, 1986. Page 39 — 84; G.A. Koshelenko. Early stages of development of a cult of Mifra / / Ancient East and classical antiquity. M, 1972. Page 75 — 84; V.Yu. Kryukova. Zoroastrianism. SPb., 2005. Page 79 — 86.
8 Vilhelm G. Ancient people of a hurrita. Page 44 —49, 54—55, 72; Zh. Dyumezil. Supreme gods of Indo-Europeans: The lane with fr. M, 1986. Page 17 —21, 158—172; T.Ya. Elizarenkova. Rigveda is the great beginning of the Indian literature and culture//Rigveda: Mandalas of I—IV / Изд. podg. T.Ya. Elizarenkova. M, 1989. Page 429 — 431.

darota, Näsatyä, Agni, etc. The events described in Indo-Aryan epic poems "Mahabharata" and "Ramayana" are hardly connected with Hindustan. Archaeological researches showed that the settlement identified usually with Hastinapura, the capital of Kauravov in the 12th century BC and earlier was enough primitivnym9. Only from 11th century BC about it it is possible to speak as about the city. At the end of the 9th century BC the inhabitants abandoned Hastinapura because of a flood. Apparently, Hastinapura in the valley of Ganges received the name in memory of one of the Middle Eastern city centers where, perhaps, there were events described in the Indo-Aryan epos. Only at the end of 11 — the beginning of the I millennium BC of the Indo-aria reached dominant position in the valley of Indus, Punjab (Pyatirechye), the basins of Ganges and Dzhamny10. They moved ahead on the peninsula of Hindustan from Harayva (Haraiva - Arey, area down the river Harirud, district of the modern city of Herat) through Kabulistan and Gandhara. In the countries of "An Aryan scope" (Airyanem vaejö, Eran-vej) - Iran - remained related to Indo-arias tribes iranoariyev.

Society Iranian and Indian ariyev or Aryans (from indoiran. arya, airya — "hospitable, the owner, the person of noble, free origin, the representative of the military nobility" 11) was divided into estates Varna and was headed by priests (magicians, brahmen). Even before arrival of Aryans to Hindustan the brahmen who recorded the Veda reformed the most ancient Indo-European religion. From gods of an all-Indo-European pantheon are mentioned in anthems by Rigveda the Sky father (Dyaus-pitar, Dyaus-pita(r), cf. other - Greek Zsü? лах^р, lat. Jovis pater, Juppiter, Júpiter), Earth mother (in connection with the Sky — Dyäväprthivi), the Sun (Surya, Súrya). Cults of most of Vedic and iranoariysky deities are obviously connected with an era when society ariyev was already divided on Varna. The main concept of priestly religion indoariyev and iranoariyev is the concept of the rta-rit (avistas. an asa-asha, other - the Persian. an arta-art), designating the principle of orderliness of space process to which both the nature, and gods, and people are subordinated. Ritual sacrifice (Veda. yadzhnya, avistas. it is clear), made by brahmen and magicians, it was designed to keep world order. As a result priests began to claim that the order in the Universe depends on correctness of their actions.

The Indian Aryans have Mitra (other - Indus. in the masculine mitra of letters. "friend", in the neuter letters. "friendship", "the friendly contract") — one of Adityev which together with Varuna protects the universal law Rita (Rigveda. II, 27; III, 59; V, 62; V, 69; VII, 61)12. Aditya (aditya) — a class of God the Son of the goddess Aditi (aditi of letters. "not coherence", "infinity"): Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, Bkhaga, Daksha, Ansha, from which main — Assur Varuna. Aditya protect the universal law and are heavenly deities.

The Iranian Aryans have Mitra (avistas. mi0ra "contract") was god of the contract, including communal contract and the agreements concluded between certain tribes. Later he began to be honored as god soldier or god-kolesnichy battling on the party just, following the universal law an art (Ashe) and also as god judge and the solar deity (Avesta. Yasht 10: Mikhr-yasht) 13. Nevertheless, originally Mitra was connected not with a solar cult, and with a concept of the communal contract, the agreement concluded as between people, so between the person and god. The etymology of a teonim of Mit (h) ra ascends to and. - e. * mi-"connect (contract)", "connect, unite (in community)" (-tra, - 0ra — indoiran. maker's suffix). Cf. other - Russian "миръ" — "community" 14.

9 G.M. Bongard-Levin, G.F. Ilyin. Ancient India. M, 1969. Page 158.
16 In the same place. Page 126 — 127.
11 In the same place. Page 120 — 121; L.A. Lelekov. Zoroastrianism: phenomenon and problems//Local and syncretic cults. M, 1991. Page 17; Aranese I.M. Introduction to the Iranian philology. M, 1988. the 2nd prod. Page 51 — 57.
12 Rigveda: Chosen anthems / Lanes, comment. and vstup. T.Ya. Elizarenkova's article. M, 1972. Page 146 — 152.
13 Avesta in Russian translations (1861 — 1996) / Sost., a general edition, primech. I.V. Raka. the 2nd prod. SPb., 1998. Page 269 — 321.
14 I.V. cancer. Myths of Ancient Iran. Yekaterinburg, 2006. Page 59 — 60; I.I. Sreznevsky. Dictionary of Old Russian language: Reprint edition. T. 2. Part 1: L — O.M., 1989. Page 147 — 151.

Thus, genesis of the Indo-Iranian cult of Mitra is connected with the reforms of the most ancient Indo-European religion which are carried out by Aryan priests during stay of all Aryans in the Middle East in 11 millennium BC 15. Mitra's rapprochement with solar deities (Surya, Hurkhshed) — the phenomenon is rather later.

We can judge the Hellenistic-Roman option of religion of Mitra, only thanks to the found inscriptions and sanctuaries-mitreumam investigated by archeologists. From the known mitraistsky mythological plots the myth about murder of the first creation of Jupiter-Ormazda by Mitra — a bull is submitted to the most significant. F. Kyumon considered that the similar myth could arise among shepherds and hunters. After a victory over a bull Mitra got a nickname of "god stealing a bull" (RoikHolo? 0eo?) 16. However such representations are not characteristic of the Indo-Iranian (Aryan) tradition. For indoariyev and iranoariyev cattle, in particular, bulls, were sacred animals, sacral elements of the universe. Thus, at the heart of ideas of god killing a bull later ideas, apparently, of Middle Eastern origin lie.

Among events of an era of government of the first akhemenidsky tsars the episode which could become a prototype of a mythological plot about murder of a bull by the deity — murder in 524 by the tsar Kambis 11 (Kambudzhiya, KatsRiap attracts attention?, 530 — 522 BC), accepted a title of the Egyptian Pharaoh and idolized, a sacred bull of Apis during disorders in the won Egypt (Herod. Hist. III, 27 — 29). Contrary to opinion of the antique authors seeking to describe Kambis's activity only in negative tones there is an opinion according to which the tsar acted according to the Egyptian views, without trying to profane, thereby, religious feelings Egyptian naroda17. The Iranian tsar trying to behave as the lawful lord of Egypt sought to participate in religious life of citizens, as well as it befitted the Pharaoh-solntsu18. Besides, the identity of Kambis who became famous for conquest of Egypt was popular among the Persian and median, i.e. iranoariysky, military nobility. Being a worthy successor of Cyrus 11 Great, the tsar Kambis successfully continued policy of expansion of the Persian power. Besides, unlike Darius I who forced the uneasy median nobility to incline the head, Kambis did not encroach on positions of military estate which was its support. Perhaps, of soldiers of drevneiransky society it is possible to explain with special popularity of Kambis in Varna the subsequent wide circulation of a cult of Mitra among aggressive Hellenistic tsars (Mitridat VI Evpator, etc.) and legionaries of the Roman Empire in the 2nd one or IV century BC of century AD. The proximity of the tsar-soldier could form the simple people a basis for interpretation of an image of Mitra as fair god defender, fighter against the evil and enemies-drudzhvantami. Besides, in mysteries Mitra performs functions of the tsar-priest. Murder of a bull by the tsar-priest was perceived, probably, as the ritual act. During eras Arshakidov and Sasanidov the sacred fire of Mitra (Adur Burzen Mikhr) burning in the east of Iran was considered as fire of Varna of cattle-farmers and farmers (vayshya). But it is possible to assume that in Akhe-menidsky Iran Mitra as god guardian of contracts and the universal law rity-arts was also the deity patronizing throne.

So, murder by the tsar Kambis who accepted a title of the Pharaoh and being honored as the solar deity (descendant of a solar falcon of Gore), Apis's bull in Egypt could become a myth basis about murder of a sacred bull by Mitra. It was the real historical event which found sympathy among simple "people army", the Iranian military nobility and a considerable part of hieratic priesthood. Like the tsar Kambis, unlike Darius I, not breaking off with more ancient Iranian traditions, Mitra was bli-

15 Vilhelm G. Ancient people of a hurrita. Page 44 — 55; E.A. Grantovsky. Iran and Iranians to Achema-nidov. Page 29 — 33.
16 F. Kuemon. Mitra's mysteries. Page 175-176.
17 M.A. Dandamayev. Political history of the power of Akhemenidov. M, 1985. Page 64.
18 In the same place. Page 63.

zok to the people. Besides, the Iranian god, as well as Kambis, was at the same time both a warrior, and the tsar-priest. Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion that existence of a mitraizm during an akhemenidsky era should not be rejected completely. A part of the Iranian hieratic priesthood quite could lean on Mitra's cult and Kambis's honoring as the ideology oppositional to Darius I and Xerxes's Zoroastrianism. However, if the mitraistsky religion nevertheless existed during a doellinistichesky era, it is necessary to belong to borders of its distribution very carefully and not to include, like A.D.H. Bivar, all not Zoroastrian elements of religion iranoariyev in the doctrine of a mitraizm.

So, it is possible with a sufficient share of confidence to claim that "the Iranian mitraizm" arose in the Persian power of Akhemenidov owing to connection of the Indo-Iranian cult of Mitra as guardian rity-arts and communal foundations with a cult of the idolized tsar-soldier and tsar-priest Kambis. Mitraizm, perhaps, became the ideology oppositional to Zoroastrianism though both religions go back to Aryan "paganism" and the doctrine of magicians which it is hardly necessary to call "Zoroastrianism". Akhur Mazda's cult was entered by the prophet Zaratushtra reforming religion of iranoariysky priests-magicians in the 6th century BC. In turn, the doctrine of Aryan magicians and brahmen in which center there was an idea of the universal law (rita-art) protected and supported by Mitra and others Adityami arose owing to reforming of the most ancient Indo-European religion in 11 millennium BC Mitraizm was one of traditional religions of the Ancient world and cannot be carried to the "Gnostic" doctrines popular in the Hellenistic kingdoms of the Middle East and in Rome Empire eras.

PROBLEM OF GENESIS OF THE "IRANIAN MITHRAISM"

This article is devoted to hypothesis of genesis of the "Iranian Mithra-ism" of in the Persian State (Empire) of Achaemenidae in consequence of syncretism of the Indo-Iranian cult of Mithra (Mitra) and the cult of the famous Persian king Cambyses. Originally Mithra was the Indo-Iranian (Aryan) god-protector of the Universal Low (rta, arta/asa) and community. King Cambyses

II was deified as king-warrior, king-priest and pharaoh. Possibly Mithraism A. G. CHEREDNICHENKO was an ideology in opposition to Zoroastrism. But both religions had origin in

M E SHENTSOV Aryan "paganism" and the doctrine of Magi. There is no reason to consider

that the name of doctrine of Magi was "Mazdeism". Prophet Zaratustra (Zo-BelgorodState University roaster) reformed the religion of Iranian-Arian priests-Magi in VI with. B.C. and

founded the cult of Ahura Mazda ("Lord of Mind"). In its turn the doctrine of e-mail: Aryan Magi and Brahmans was arisen as result of reforming of the ancient

cherednichenko@bsu.edu.ru Indo-European religion in II m. B.C. In the center of attention of the Aryan

priests there was an idea of the Universal Low. God Mithra and others Aditya protected the Universal Low rta-arta.

Nelson Nichols
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