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F.A. Ternovsky (1838 1884) researcher of history of Byzantium



UDK 930.85

The RESEARCHER of HISTORY of BYZANTIUM

is F.A. of TERNOVSKIY (1838 - 1884)

Work is devoted to one of the most prominent researchers of history of Byzantium S.B. of SOROChAN1 to professor of FA. To F.A. In the Ukrainian lands of the Russian Empire in

the second half of the 19th century of a vizantinistik it was issued as the important direction of S.I. Estuary historical science. Authors come to a conclusion that F.A. Ternovsky was

one of leading experts in the area, and his works keep to the act -

1) Kharkiv Natsio- alnost and today. The scientific fate of the Kiev professor appeared enough

nalny university tragic. Nowadays time for more objective assessment comes.

of V.N. Karazin

2) Hark0vskaya Academy Keywords: vizantinistika, chronicle, composition, church, thesis,

cultures research.

In a domestic vizantinistika of the second half of the 19th century the special place belongs to Philip Alekseyevich F.A. The large expert in the field of the Byzantine source study and east orthodox Church, he, nevertheless, did not manage to create own historical school in Kiev where he actively taught in several, including highest, educational institutions at once, and pressure upon it from the temporal and Synod powers during counterreforms still leaves more questions, than answers about the valid reasons of disgrace and the subsequent death of the historian.

In biographic, memorial and anniversary literature which was issued at the end

XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries, the attention of authors focused almost entirely on FA Ternovskogo1 course of life. As an exception serves the small anniversary essay of M.P. Istomin with the short analysis of his main trudov2. Despite reputation of "the victim of an old regime", F.A. F.A. seldom received attention in the Soviet historiography in which, for the known reasons, authors of works of church and historical orientation were not welcomed. Even FA F.A. is only mentioned in an extensive historiographic research of the Chapter of Kurbatov as one of publishers of "The Athos acts" 3. In Post-Soviet time interest in F.A. F.A.'s creativity considerably increased. However its main works briefly are considered only in the context of studying separate problems: mediyevistika stories in Ukraine at the end of XIX — the beginning

XX centuries 4, the history of study in the Ukrainian lands of the Russian Empire at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries of various problems of medieval orthodox Tserkvi5, vizantinistika history in Kiev universitete6 and Kiev spiritual akademii7, the history of study in the Ukrainian lands of the Russian Empire in 1804 — the first half of the 1880th of government of the emperor Justinian of I8. Given

1 Biographic dictionary by professors and teachers of the university of St. Vladimir. - Kiev, 1884. - Page 640-644; F.Ya.F. Fortinsky. A. Ternovsky / / Readings in historical society of Nestor the Chronicler. - Kiev, 1888. - Prince 2. - Page 241-242; V. Ikonnikov. To the biography of professor F.A. Ternovsky (an episode from the history of the Russian censorship). - B. m, 1917.
2 M.P. Istomin. Memories of professor of FA. F.A. (concerning the 25 anniversary since his death). - Kiev, 1911.
3 G.L. Kurbatov. History of Byzantium: historiography. - L., 1975. - Page 116.
4 S.'s estuary І. Honey і є a v_stika in Ukra§n_ in k_nts_ H1H-na to an ear of the XX Article (1880-1917): yew.... edging. _st. sciences. - Hark_v, 1993. - Page 188-189.
5 S.'s estuary І. _stor_ya zarub_zhno ї pravoslavno ї churches in pratsyakh honey і є v_st_v Ukra§ni k_ntsya XIX

>- to an ear of the XX station//Culture Ukra§ni. - 1997. - VIP. 4. - Page 64-65.

6 V.Yu. Chekanov. To a problem a rozvitka of a v_zantin_stka at Ki§vskomu un_versitet_ in drug_y polovin_ H_H - on an ear of the XX article//V_snik Ki§vsky nats_onalny to an un_versitet. It is gray. _stor_ya. - 2000. - the VIP. 43. - Page 63.
7 Fayda O.V. V_zantin_stika in Ki§vsk_y Dukhovn_y Akadem і ї in 1819-1919 rr.: yew.... edging. _s-Torahs. sciences. - Lv_v, 20O6. - With.98-103.
8 Estuary S.I., S.B. Sorochan. Activity of the emperor Justinian I in estimates of researchers of the Ukrainian lands of the Russian Empire (1804-perv. floor. the 1880th)//Byzantium: society and church. - Armavir, 2006.

historiographic digression demonstrates insufficient study of scientific activity of FA of F.A. as historian-vizantinista. Thus, the purpose of this article — on the most exhaustive material to show a contribution of the Kiev professor F.A. F.A. to studying various problems of history of Byzantium and to try to find an explanation for the true reason of his so rapidly broken scientific career.

Philip Alekseyevich F.A. was born in 1838 in Moskve9 (according to other data — in Moscow gubernii10 in 1837 11) in family of the deacon (then the priest) Russian Orthodox Church. There are no doubts that the dignity of the father affected the interests of the son and in many respects predetermined his vital path: F.A. F.A. got an education in the Moscow theological seminary (1852-1858) and the Moscow spiritual academy (1858-1862) upon termination of which he was appointed the bachelor in the Kiev spiritual academy at first on department of accusatory divinity (1862), then on department of the Russian civil history (1863). Its further pedagogical activity was connected only with Kiev. In Spiritual academy in 1866 it became extraordinary professor of department of the Russian civil history and remained in it before the dismissal in 1883. At the same time in 1869-1872 — as the privatdozent, and since 1872 — as the associate professor of the Russian church history he taught at the university of St. Vladimir, in 186Z-1873 — in the Kiev diocesan women's school, in 1883-1884 — on the High female courses. In 1877 "Studying the Byzantine history and its tendentious application in Ancient Russia" received degree of doctor Russian of history for the composition.

Comments of listeners and F.A. Ternovsky's colleagues on him as about the teacher differ from each other a little. "When he entered our room, everything abated and all listened to his lecture — the former student Vishnevetsky wrote about him many years later him. — What wonderful there was a statement, what fine language!... It was ornament among professors of historical office" 12. On other M.P. Istomin describes his lectures in the anniversary essay: "As professor, he, however, did not rattle by force of a word and did not attract crowd of listeners in the audience as the scientist it took for the researches subjects mainly from area of the specialty, i.e. the history of the Church doomed in a university course to a supporting role" 13. And still it is much more enthusiastic responses. In spite of the fact that F.A. Ternovsky had in youth scarlet fever with a strong complication (remained the deaf), he continued the scientific and pedagogical activity. Let's bring into confirmation the most significant fact: at the beginning of 1919 in the Kiev press controlled by a petlyurovsky Directory it was fashionable to abuse not only "old regime", but also Russians. So, in "Memoirs of the former student about the Kiev university of the 70th years" practically all university professorate was represented frankly grotesquely, and especially strongly got to professors of the Russian origin. However the nice reputation of the Muscovite F.A. Ternovsky won against a political environment and national arrogance of the anonymous author who wrote the following about the teacher: "It was extremely modest, evangelically the just person, the true scientist who loved the science and sincerely worked for it. He read us the history of the Byzantine church... cleverly and scientific objectively." 14.

Except teaching activity F.A. Ternovsky conducted the huge, taking a lot of time work in various scientific organizations: he was a full member of the Moscow archaeological society, Odessa society of history and antiquities, Church and archaeological society at the Kiev spiritual academy, one of founders and the secretary of Historical society of Nestor the Chronicler at Kiev

9 Biographic dictionary by professors... - Page 641.
10 Institute of manuscripts of the AN Central scientific library of Ukraine. - T. 175: Track record of the former associate professor of the university of St. Vladimir and extraordinary professor of the Kiev spiritual academy, collegiate adviser of FA. F.A. - Unit hr. 2167. - L. 1-2.
11 Institute of manuscripts of the AN Central scientific library of Ukraine. - T. 160: Notes and memories of the prof. F.A. Ternovsk: [Memoirs of his daughter]. - Unit hr. 943. - L. 1.
12 In the same place. - L. 5.
13 N.N. Istomin. Memories of professor F.A. Ternovsky.... - Page 1.
14 Spomini of the kolishnyy student about Ki§vsky un_versitt the 70th rok_v//ours passed.-1919. - No. 1-2. - Page 68-69.

universitete15. It was included into drafting panel of the Third archaeological congress in Kiev in 1874 and is mentioned in lists of its participants as "the treasurer of a congress" 16. At last, A.F. Ternovsky was the most active member of the Slavic charitable committee operating at the end of the 1870th during Serbian-Turkish and the Russo-Turkish war, even provided the housing to wounded soldiers and personally collected for them donations in Kyiv Pechersk Lavre17. The father of four juveniles detey18, he differed in religiousness, hospitality and sociability, arranged houses performances, was on friendly terms with the famous writer N.S. of Leskovym19. One year prior to the death F.A. Ternovsky buried the wife sick with a tuberculosis and soon itself from a ridiculous bruise of a leg "fatally got sick with blood poisoning" 20. Its family tragedy and a disease coincided with office troubles which reason, in our opinion, needs to be looked for, first of all, in that part of scientific heritage which is devoted to the history of Byzantium.

Among the extensive list of the scientific works of F.A. Ternovsky published during the Kiev period of his life, directly about ten publications, including the major — already specified doctoral dissertation of 1875 and the extensive composition "Grekovostochnaya church in the period of ecumenical councils" are devoted to the history of Byzantium and the Byzantine church (1883).

F.A. Ternovsky's thesis represented a capital source study research of a number of the Byzantine authors, whose chronicles as proved at the time already

And. Priests in "The review of chronographs of the Russian edition", formed the basis of the majority of domestic chronographs. Importance of the similar addressing the romeysky originals which became a basis of "Slavic compilation", F.A. Ternovsky saw first of all that "from all mass of the world-wide and historical material available to our ancestors, the history of Byzantium was presented to the most suitable for the practical application, for loan of references and examples in the necessary cases" 21. Practical need of residents of Russia "to refer to history to channelize public opinion concerning any given phenomena of the present" 22 did by the heroes of the Byzantine emperors (Costantino il Grande, Justinian, Mauritius, Lev Isavr, etc.). At the same time F.A. Ternovsky's approach to data on life of emperors in works of the largest Byzantine authors (Ioann Malala, Georgy Amartol, the Successor Georgy Amartol, Mikhail Psell, Mikhail Attaliat, Ioann Zonara) differed in an amazing identity. Perhaps, this selectivity of the researcher is the brightest it was shown at analysis of narrations about Justinian I's life.

In the doctoral dissertation the great emperor appears at us twice. Both times, with different degree of extensiveness of material about its board, Justinian appear at analysis of compositions of Syrian Ioann Malala and the Constantinople monk Georgy Amartol. F.A. Ternovsky is not really scrupulous in clarification of the exact time of life and Ioann Malala's activity. The scientist defined it only approximately: Ioann Malala ".zhit — probably — in the 6th century, at the emperor Justinian with whose reign finishes the chronicle, describing the latest events with live feeling of the eyewitness" 23. Told about "latest events" really there correspond 563 g, but on this subject the Kiev scientist did not make more detailed specifications: they will appear only in 1892, thanks to E. Brooks's efforts, and dates of life of Malala known nowadays

15 Data on meetings of Historical society of Nestor the Chronicler in 1878-1887//Readings in Historical society of Nestor the Chronicler. - Kiev, 1888. - Prince 2. - Page 91.
16 Works of the Third archaeological congress in Russia which was in Kiev in August, 1874 — Kiev, 1878. - T. 1. - Page XIII.
17 Biographic dictionary by professors... - Page 643-644.
18 Track record of the former associate professor... - L. 1-2.
19 Notes and memories of the prof. F.A. Ternovsk... - L. 1-2.
20 N.N. Istomin. Memories of the prof. F.A. Ternovsky... - Page 3.
21 F. F.A. Studying the Byzantine history and its tendentious application in Ancient Russia. - Kiev, 1875. - Issue 1. - Page 2.
22 In the same place. - Page 1.
23 In the same place. - Page 4.

(491 - apprx. 574 - 578) are specified to these por24. F.A. Ternovsky does not give some valuable fragments from the chronicle of the Byzantine author and the comments on them which would reflect Ioann Malala's relation to Justinian's activity. An exception is only the description the chronicler of appearance of the emperor. By own recognition of F.A. Ternovsky, "many events of the Byzantine history could be understood and well acquired by the Russian readers already because found to themselves analogy in the Russian life" 25. Hardly in the rich activity of Justinian described by Malala there was nothing that could become bright analogy to the Russian life and at the same time force F.A. Ternovsky to comment on it.

The different approach showed Kiev vizantinst at analysis of the description of government of Justinian by other widely famous chronicler, Georgy Amartol writing how now it is known in 846-847 26. Pages of the doctoral dissertation of F.A. Ternovsky literally dazzle with extensive fragments from Amartol's chronicle in which the tribute to the emperor for construction of the temple of St. Sofia, the publication of new laws, even improvement of morality of citizens is rendered, but at the same time the confusion which is deliberately brought by the emperor in the celebration of Easter of 546 g for the purpose of a profit from the income of dealers in ferial food, unfair persecutions on the glorified commander Velisariya, etc. 27 is noted. Thus, long before the Kazan vizantinist of S.P. Shestakov the Kiev historian F.A. Ternovsky was one of the first domestic researchers who paid special attention to this istochnik28. It is laudable that, without having given in to pattern opinion, it did not concern it as to interesting only to 813 - 843 and less informative, inexpressive for earlier time. However, giving so extensive excerpts from Amartol's chronicle, including noting the rare facts which earlier none of historians awarded due consideration, F.A. Ternovsky practically does not comment on them and the more so does not subject to the analysis. Besides, for the unclear reasons it bypassed rich data on the 6th century of such pillars of the Byzantine history as Procopius of Scythopolis and Theophanes the Confessor. This approach of the scientist causes big bewilderment because activity of many romeysky emperors, less known, than Justinian, received his most detailed scientific assessment.

In the conceptual plan F.A. Ternovsky treated time from fall of Byzantium to Petrovsky reforms (14531700) as an era "the tendentious application and direct-telnogo values of the Byzantine history in relation to the Russian life" 29. On a doctor's debate during defense of a thesis the scientist spoke the purpose of the work even more capaciously: "The subject of my composition - the history of Byzantium only in that size and a look, in that spirit and the direction as it was known in Russia to our ancestors during the period pre-Pertine" 30. However the idea of "rukovoditelny value of the Byzantine history" which is found out by the author comes into obvious conflict with his conceptual statement on a debate that Konstintinopol considering himself "the tsar nearly the half-Universe" suffered "such moral hudosochiy that he died not so much violent how many a natural death, having exhausted all efforts to prolong the

24 Brooks E.W. The Date of the Historian John Malala//The English Historical Review. - 1892. - Vol. 7. - P. 291-301; The Chronicle of John Malalas/J. Malalas, E. Jeffreys, M. Jeffreys, R. Scott,

B. Croke; Australian Association for Byzantine Studies. - Melbourne, 1986. - XLI, 371 p.; O.V. Tvorogov. Ioann Malala's chronicle//Dictionary by scribes and knizhnost of Ancient Russia / otv. edition D.S. Likhachyov. - L., 1987. - Issue I: XI - perv. floor. The 14th centuries - Page 471-474.

25 F. F.A. Studying Byzantine history... - Page 7.
26 Afinogenov D. Le manuscript Coislin gr.305: la version primitive de la Cronique de Georges le Moine//Revue des Etudes Byzantines. - 2004. - T. 62. - River 238-251.
27 F. F.A. Studying Byzantine history... - Page 69-74.
28 S.P. Shestakov. About origin and structure of the chronicle of Georgy Monakh (Amartol). - Kazan, 1891. - 173 pages; O.V. Tvorogov. Georgy Amartol's chronicle//Dictionary by scribes and knizhnost of Ancient Russia / otv. edition D.S. Likhachyov. - L., 1987. - Issue I: XI - perv. floor. The 14th centuries - Page 467-470.
28 F. F.A. Studying Byzantine history... - Page 3.
29 In the same place. - Page 3.
30 Doctor's debate of the prof. F.A. Ternovsky//Works of the Kiev spiritual academy. - 1877.-№ 6. - Page 594.

disastrous existence" 31. Hardly the similar conclusion sustained in gibbonovsky traditions could be in harmony with rapid growth of power of the Third Rome - the Russian state of the 15-17th centuries announced by full "imitator" of the Second Rome - Byzantium. Indirectly similar vulnerability of interpretations of F.A. Ternovsky was recognized also by his opponents - V.S. Ikonnikov and V.B. Antonovich who, in particular, fairly noted that "the author of dissertation in certain cases does too any parallels between the Byzantine history and the Russian. Often sees analogy where it is absent" 32.

And still the undoubted evolution of views of the Russian historiographers shown by F.A. Ternovsky from compilation and tendentious use of data of the Byzantine history for service of political and ideological orders before its scientific judgment and cautions was considered successful not only his contemporaries, but also potomkami33. Let's note that F.A. Ternovsky, both in the course of work on the thesis, and after its protection, successfully carried out approbation of its separate provisions at the Third Archaeological congress in Kiev (1874) and at meetings of Historical society of Nestor the Chronicler.

its activity at the Archaeological congress is very indicative

>: the Kiev scientist was one of the few participants who instead of one put report performed with two: "Comparative characteristic of the Byzantine reporters who were a part of the Russian summary chronograph: Ioann Malala, Georgy Amartol and Konstantin Manasseh" and "From where the custom conducts the beginning to hang up princely clothes in temples which existence it is mentioned in chronicles under 1203 and 1237".

In the first of reports on the Byzantine chroniclers F.A. Ternovsky accurately introduced the idea of different character and extent of influence on Georgy Amartol, Konstantin Manasseh and Ioann Malala's Old Russian writing. According to the scientist, "the first of them influenced Old Russian writing the historical views, and the second - the florid grandiloquent statement; influence of Malala on the Russian writing was rather insignificant" 34. Other participant of a congress N.S. Tikhonravov who said that Ioann Malala possessed "not less place of honor in the Russian writing, as well as to Amartol and Manasseh because in the most ancient type of a Slavic chronograph - Paley - of loan from Malala prevail" 35 tried to challenge the last position of F.A. Ternovsky. Meanwhile it is necessary to notice that the discussion begun at meetings of the Archaeological congress in 1874 is far from permission and until now.

Unlike the previous subject the subject of the second report of F.A. Ternovsky did not leave the place for discussions among contemporaries and descendants. The question posed was resolved brilliantly and finally. To hang up custom in temples princely clothes as the Kiev researcher fairly specified, came from orthodox Byzantium together with other religious customs. ". At the Byzantine chronographs, - F.A. Ternovsky emphasized, - we find news of the room in temples of an imperial attire" 36. Among these chronographs the Kiev scientist called Ioann Malala narrating about how Justinian I presented to antiokhiyets the toga. Besides clothes as the author noted, the Byzantine emperors left in temples for the memory of themselves wreaths and portraits much more often, but the first Russian princes could not hang up in churches of portraits as in Russia only painting of icons took place. As for F.A. Ternovsky's conclusion about that,

31 Doctor's debate of the prof. of FA. F.A.//Works of the Kiev spiritual academy. — 1877. — No. 6. - Page 592.
32 In the same place. - Page 598.
33 V.Yu. Chekanov. To a problem a rozvitka of a v_zantin_stka at Ki§vskomu un_versitet_... — Page 63; Fayda O.V. V_zantin_stka in Ki§vsk_y Dukhovn_y Akadem і ї... — Page 99-І OO.
34 F.A. F.A. Comparative characteristic of the Byzantine reporters who were a part of the Russian summary chronograph;: Ioann Malala, Georgy Amartol and Konstantin Manasseh//Works of the Third archaeological congress in Russia which was in Kiev in August, 1874 — Kiev, 1878. — T. 1. — Page 1_XX! At.
35 In the same place. — S.HHU.
36 F.A. F.A. From where the custom conducts the beginning to hang up princely clothes in temples which existence it is mentioned in chronicles under 1203 and 1237//Works of the Third archaeological congress in Russia which was in Kiev in August, 1874 — Kiev, 1878. — T. 1. — Page 112.

as if the Russian princes did not hang up in churches the wreaths as "had no them" 37, this partial conclusion of the author in terms of modern science can be called into question.

In Historical society of Nestor the Chronicler, along with further lighting former tematiki38, F.A. Ternovsky made reports on other problems. If its attempt to confirm transfer from the Greek original the Slavic text of contracts of Oleg with grekami39 was not in a historiography original in connection with earlier appeared researches on given tematike40, then his comments on the translation made by it "Avva Hagi-Georgi's appeals to all orthodox Russians concerning the last attempts at life of the Sovereign Imperator" are interesting by the general conclusions. "Submitting to society the Greek text of this appeal, - it is said in the report of a meeting of Society on November 2, 1880, - the reviewer stated that though the appeal is dated March of the present 1880, but on the world view and even to literary statement, it belongs to an era of ancient Byzantine literature and, undoubtedly, would make great success if was in Byzantium 1000 years ago. At the same time, the reviewer gave several cases from the Byzantine history when similar appeals had influence on the course of political cases". The appeal which, according to the author, affected Justinian's determination to begin war with vandals in 534 g 41 became an example.

With the scientific purpose F.A. Ternovsky went also to foreign business trips in which, in particular, during visit of Athos, examined monuments of the Byzantine church architecture and monastic libraries. Its article which appeared by results of this trip draws to us an image of the scientist who was sincerely taking care of need to order funds of library of Afono-Iversky Monastery which shook it by heaps ".besporyadochno the put books and manuscripts, a part defective, a part unimportant for science" 42. Among the most valuable exhibits of library he called two conversations of the patriarch Photius concerning invasion of ros.

Fruitful tireless work of F.A. Ternovsky in a vizantinistika was confirmed by some more valuable publications of much bigger volume. Belonged to their number remarkable on the completeness, almost six hundred-page, "The Russian and foreign bibliography on the history of the Byzantine church ^-^ to centuries" 43, the translations of compositions of Blessed Jerome of Stridon, there are a lot of years printed in "Works of the Kiev Spiritual academy", at last, the translation (together with V.N. Obolensky) "The chronicle of a vizvantiyets of Feofan" 44. The last transfer came out after F.A. Ternovsky's death, but importance of this publication is undoubted. Despite of all allowed flaws and inaccuracies, this edition still remains the only full translation of work of the outstanding Byzantine chronicler which leaders spetsialisty45 continue to address. Acquaintance to details of the Byzantine history, especially unique for VIII - the beginning of the 9th centuries begins with it for many

In the last years of life F.A. Ternovsky conceived capital work on the history of orthodox church. The first three centuries of Christianity were well investigated in church and historical science, and from this point of view its joint with the brother (S.A. Ternov -

37 F.A. F.A. From where the custom conducts the beginning to hang up princely clothes in temples which existence it is mentioned in chronicles under 1203 and 1237//Works of the Third archaeological congress in Russia which was in Kiev in August, 1874 - Kiev, 1878. - T. 1. - Page 113.
38 F.A. F.A. About the chronicle by Georgy Amartol//Reading in Historical society Nestor the Chronicler. - Kiev, 1879. - Prince 1: 1873-1877. - Page 267-268.
39 F.A. F.A. The Greek text of contracts of Oleg with Greeks//Readings in Historical society of Nestor the Chronicler. - Kiev, 1888. - Prince 2: 1878-1887. - Page 133-134.
40 Lavrovsky ON. About the Byzantine element in language of contracts of Russians with Greeks. -

SPb., 1853.

41 Data on meetings of Historical society. - Page 133.
42 F.A. F.A. A meeting of church antiquities on Athos, in Dresden and in Berlin//Works of the Kiev spiritual academy. - 1882. - No. 12. - Page 414.
43 F.A. FA the Russian and foreign bibliography on the history of the Byzantine church GU-^ of centuries

>- Kiev, 1885.

44 Chronicle by the Byzantine of V.N. Obolensky Feofan / Lane and F.A. Ternovsky. - M, 1888.
45 Cf.: I.S. Chichurov. Byzantine historical compositions Feofan's "Chronography" and "Breviary" by Nikifor. - M, 1980. - Page 21, 71; comment. 11, etc.

to sky) the publication on this subject did not become an event in istoriografii46. Others, hardly predictable, and for it personally, and for a vizantinistika in general the publication to them the work covering later period had consequences. "Grekovostochnaya church in the period of ecumenical councils" (1883) became this work.

The edition had to have generally educational character, and frequent references of the author to E. Gibbon, F. Shlosser, A.P. Lebedev, etc. were explained by it. Chronologically work covered time from 312 on 842 g — from the emperor Konstantin to the empress Feodora, a vosstanovitelnitsa of veneration of icons, and in the problem and personal plan its most curious parts should be considered the "readings" devoted to the emperor Justinian and aniconism. And though the Kiev scientist began the section of the composition given to Justinian's reign with a mistake at once (typos?) in dating of government of the emperor (year of death of Justinian appears as 595 instead of 565), nevertheless on extensiveness of the given facts from life of the governor of Byzantium and their estimates this work can be considered as one of the most detailed of devoted to it during the considered period.

His statement that "both private life, and government activity of Justinian are inseparable from life of his wife Feodora and therefore only comparative characteristic of reign of spouses can furnish to us the clue to understanding of long and complex reign of Justinian" 47 became a keynote of all estimates of F.A. F.A. The comparative characteristic presented by the author was obviously not in favor of the emperor. It assigned him a part silent, not aggressive, conducted near "strong and noble nature of Feodora" 48. The dissolute past of Feodora and her origin equally encroaching on assessment "noble" confused the author a little. "Feodora had a case brilliantly soon to justify the choice of the spouse and to prove that her personal means stand in level with height of its situation!" — specified FA. Ternovskiy49. In this case the author meant a revolt the Nika, or, by its definition, "the terrible revolt which began on a hippodrome". However, F.A. F.A. did not show a little original approach in the assessment of this event. Having recognized a revolt as "national", the scientist did not complicate himself search of its sources and driving forces. "It is difficult to understand what business began with and what was wanted by the rebels who were not able to formulate clearly the desires — believed FA. F.A. — It seems, business went about change of a dynasty because rebels proclaimed Ipati's emperor" 50. Thus, the scientist, having designated a problem, ignored full and features of social and economic development of Constantinople in the 6th century, both fight of circus parties, and their influence in political life of the country, and in general the causes of a revolt different for different gruppirovok51.

In the aspiration to remove Justinian in a shadow of his regal spouse the Kiev historian reaches sometimes obvious extremes and contradictions. On the one hand, according to the author, "the empress possessed an initiative; to the emperor — external presentability and the order into the account of details"; "... both the well-known ability to choose the state people, and glory of the major affairs of Yustinianov of reign (Corpus juris, conquest of Africa and Italy, creation of Sofia), we have to attribute not so much to Justinian, how many Feodora" 52. But, on the other hand, F.A. Ternovsky makes lower a statement which if does not contradict similar estimates, then, at least, encroaches on their inviolability. Having come to the throne at 40-year age, the author emphasized, Justinian already had the general program of reign. It consisted "in restoration of the ancient Roman Empire, in association of all countries fitting the Mediterranean Sea...". And though further FA Ternovsky without shadow of the slightest doubt noted that "the wide sizes of this program" were established by "courageous spirit of Feodora", 53 for readers of this composition was obvious that the yard of the uncle — Yustina I — with his great-power concepts Imperium

46 F.A. F.A., Ternovsky S.A. Experience of the guide to church history. — Kiev, 1878. — Issue 1: The three first ages of Christianity.
47 F.A. FA of Grekovostochnaya church in the period of ecumenical councils: readings on the church history of Byzantium from the emperor Constantine the Great to the empress Feodora (312-842). — Kiev, 1883. — Page 265.
48 In the same place. — Page 266.
49 F.A. FA. Grekovostochny church... — Page 268.
50 In the same place. — Page 268.
51 Cf.: A.A. Chekalova Constantinople in the 6th century. Nick's revolt. — M, 1997
52 F.A. F.A. Grekovostochnaya church... — Page 268.
53 In the same place. — Page 271.

SIpvShpit hardly had less impact on formation of political views of Justinian, than his spouse.

And still the definition offered by F.A. Ternovsky Justinian's "tsezareo-papacy" can be of a certain interest to researchers of church policy of the emperor. This definition received rather developed scientist's explanation. "The emperor Justinian was the largest representative of that relation of the state to Church which is known under a characteristic name of tsezario-papacy", - F.A. Ternovsky specified, marking out the most characteristic features of the phenomenon. In this part of the reasonings the author in general was correct first of all on expansion of former privileges of bishops, on a rough hramostroitelstvo and church policy in the won Italy as a result of which she really put the Pope "almost in the same subordinates of the attitude towards the Byzantine emperor in what there were other east hierarches" 54. However even this list of the main priorities of church policy of Justinian gives rise to a natural question: whether mutually exclude each other the above-stated statements of the author about submission of all church hierarches to the emperor, on the one hand, and, with another, about expansion of episcopal privileges?

Otherwise, generally with a plus, it is possible to estimate the difficult history of the ikonoborsky movement described by the author in which he tried to determine by one of the first the reasons and driving forces. At analysis of sources and a historiography of the question F.A. Ternovsky was correct on one-sided publicizing of aniconism in works of contemporaries of this event and at the same time his opponents (Feofan, Nikifor, Georgy Amartol). For this reason F.A. Ternovsky called materials of these sources materials of very doubtful quality. On the historical value the scientist compared aniconism to an era of emergence of Christianity and Reformatsii55. "All iconoclastic period, - he wrote, - there is no chaotic heap of the events made by an arbitrariness of individuals, but law-governed interaction of latent forces" 56. Among these forces he called innovators iconoclasts, conservative orthodoxes, anti-church Paulicians who resisted to one another and corresponded, according to him, to the liberal, conservative and radical currents. The analysis of views of members of these "parties" led F.A. Ternovsky to a right key conclusion that "the question of the mutual relation of two authorities - spiritual and secular - and makes itself a driving nerve of the Byzantine history during all iconoclastic period" 57. According to the created parties, according to the author, during an ikonoborsky era three types of the structure of Christian society were defined: official Church, clerical state and anti-church sektan-stvo58. However it is necessary to notice that F.A. Ternovsky did not consider a role and a measure of influence on government policy of various secular social forces in the research: officials, nobility, citizens, peasantry. In the light of the last researches the similar approach of the author to permission of this problem is represented enough odnobokim59.

Defects of the composition of F.A. F.A., as well as his advantage, are entirely obvious. And need it would not be so detailed to concern them more than hundred years later after the publication of its work if not one circumstance. Issue of this composition (1883) coincided with the beginning of counterreforms in the Russian Empire, a reason for which was Alexander's regicide 11. The country buried then together with the murdered emperor not only the constitutional illusions, but also the high school autonomy destroyed by the conservative university Charter of 1884. By S.G. Svatikov's recognition, at introduction of the Charter it was supposed to fire 16 unreliable professorov60. Political conflicts, naturally, intertwined also with purely scientific. According to V. Ikonnikov, service FA of F.A. in the Kiev spiritual academy proceeded till October, 1883, "when it

54 F.A. F.A. Grekovostochnaya church... - Page 275, 284-286.
55 In the same place. - Page 500.
56 F.A. FA. Grekovostochny church... - Page 500.
57 In the same place. - Page 507.
58 In the same place. - Page 526.
59 S.B. Sorochan. About a political role and ideological orientation of the commerce and industry population of Byzantium during iconoclasm era//the Bulletin of the Kharkiv university. - 1992. - Issue 26. - Page 91-101.
60 S.G. Svatikov. Disgraced professorate of the 80th years / / Voice of past. - 1917. - No. 2. - Page 8.

left it according to the application, owing to recognition in its work on the history of the Eastern Church of tendency to opinions and conclusions of Protestant historians" 61. According to the most widespread version, personally the chief prosecutor of the Synod of Calendar day of Pobedonos-tsev62 was engaged in business of the author of "the anti-orthodox book". Did not manage to protect F.A.'s FA from disgrace even his friend, the famous writer N.S. Leskov. "Both of us were equally and are at the same time slandered and thrown out from service as people of "undoubtedly harmful direction", - N.S. Leskov specified that this story "erased from the earth" F.A.'s FA - "the unfortunate martyr of mind and justice" 63 in the letter to the son, unambiguously including. Thus, the contents of the above-considered book became a double sentence of FA to F.A. forced to leave teaching in 1883, he in 1884 died. However laconic entry in its "Track record" - "Widows since June, 1883" 64, perhaps, will offer kuyets more plausible explanation it to the personal tragedy and negligence with what it treated the fatal disease, than charge of "nepravoslavnost", banal academic conflicts and scientific estimates of its last work. The destiny brought the talented researcher to that wreath of the last sufferings which appeared as if it is encrypted in a surname of the outstanding vizantinist.

P.H. TERNOVSKY (1838 - 1884) AS A HISTORIAN OF BYZANTIUM

S.B. SOROCHAN1 S.I. LIMAN2)

1) Kharkov National

University (Ukraine)

2) Kharkov

Academy of Cultural Studies (Ukraine)

An article tell about of Dr. Ph. Ternovsky, famous historian of Byzantium. Byzantin-ian Studies in Ukraine as a part of Russian Empire at 2-nd part of XIX cent. was an important sector of historical researches. Authors went to results that Dr. Ternovsky was one of leaders in your professional district. Your works serve its actuality today. Scientific Destiny of Kiev& Professor was tragic. Today is a Time for more objective opinions in it.

61 V. Ikonnikov. To the biography of the prof. F.A. Ternovsky... - Page 3.
62 In the same place. - Page 6.

63 Institute of manuscripts of the AN Central scientific library of Ukraine. - T. Х: M.S. Leskov's letter [to the son

Carolyn Perez
Other scientific works: