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EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS of the MINISTRY STATE IMUShchESTV (on the example of the Tsaritsyno County of the Saratov province)



nadezhda of ARChEBASOVA

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS of the MINISTRY STATE IMUShchESTV

(on the example of the Tsaritsyno County of the Saratov province)

Article is devoted to a research of practical activities of schools of Ministry of the State Imushchestvo. The author on the example of one of the Russian provinces (Saratov province) reveals influence of schools of Ministry of the State Imushchestvo on distribution of literacy among peasants and creation of conditions for development of country self-government. The article is dedicated to the research of practical activity of schools of Ministry of state property. Author reveals the influence of schools of Ministry of state property to spreading literacy among peasants and to forming conditions for development of peasant self-management on example of one of Russian provinces.

education, Russia, 19th century, national school, Ministry of National Education, Ministry of the State Imushchestvo; education, Russia, 19th century, public school, Ministry of public education, Ministry of state property.

One of the main directions of change of a school system during modern education reform in Russia is implementation of variability in all fields of activity of educational institutions. Studying history of national education in the period of the Russian Empire allows to make use in practice of the accumulated vast experience of interaction and the independent policy of various ministries and departments in the 19th century

Except traditionally studied activity of Ministry of National Education and the Most sacred synod of the most consecutive and work in this direction of the Ministry of the State Imushchestvo (MSI) was productive. It is interesting that the reforms undertaken among the state peasants quickly extended the state to peasants specific, and after an abolition of serfdom — to all country population. So, since 1797 for the state and specific peasants volosts were organized and volost boards were established. Rules for initial schools of the state and specific volosts were approved on October 25, 1828, and began such schools to open in settlements of the state peasants since 1830, in settlements of specific peasants — since 1832 1 considerable influence of this department on distribution of literacy and opening of national schools across all Russia Is available.

The Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA) in 1844 published the information about number of competent men in the Saratov province corresponding to average values across the European Russia. Among country people competent was more among specific (5.6%) and state (2.7%) peasants, than among landowner (1.2%) 2. Low in general literacy level indicators were strongly influenced by female illiteracy and non-obligation of educational qualification for professional activity. Most dynamically the program of creation of educational institutions of initial level among the state peasants developed.

The specifics of formation of administrative-territorial management and financing found the reflection in a variety of educational field operations not only within provinces, but also counties of the Russian Empire. One of counties, which settling

1 P.N. Milyukov. Essays on the history of the Russian culture. In 3 t. T. 2, Part 2. — M, 1994, page 321.
2 P.A. Zhiltsov, V.M. Velichkina. Teacher of rural school. — M, 1985, page 7.

Nadezhda Anatolyevna ARCHEBASOVA — to. and. N, associate professor; associate professor of history of Russia VOLGA

pagskgyayaoma @ mail.ru

occurred practically along with implementation of policy of national education, there was the Tsaritsyno County of the Saratov province. The parallelism of these processes allows to consider formation of a local education system as result of policy of the ministries and departments of the 19th century

The main population of the Tsaritsyno County was created to the middle of the 19th century 1 For this reason of establishment of education in the district center — the city of Tsaritsyno — and Dubovk's posad began to appear in 10 — the 20th, and in rural areas in 30 — the 50th of the 19th century. Till 1860th in the Tsaritsyno County the organized elementary schools (having departmental submission, stable sources of financing and controlled shots of teachers) were only in Tsaritsyno, the item Dubovka, the Cossack villages, settlements of the state and specific peasants.

It is difficult to establish total number of national educational institutions in the first half of the 19th century as they were generally fixed as additional characteristics to topographical and statistical descriptions guberniy2. A valuable source in this regard is the historical and geographical dictionary created by the member of the Saratov provincial scientific archival commission (SUAK) A.N. Minkh Saratov guber-nii3. The dictionary contains characteristic of settlements of the Tsaritsyno County with the indication of data on schools and level of literacy of the population and also the short essays of development of national education in the Tsaritsyno County, the city of Tsaritsyno and Dubovk's posad written with attraction of numerous sources which part did not remain up to now. We also used the remained data collected for annual reports by volost boards on the number and literacy of the population, about educational institutions, the list of pupils and pupils. These primary sources badly remained

1 M.K. Lyubavsky. The review of history of the Russian colonization since the most ancient times before the XX century. — M, 1996, page 10, 278-279.
2 Russia: Complete geographical description of our fatherland. The reference and road book for the Russian people / under the editorship of V.P. Semyonov. T. 6. Central and Lower Volga area and Zavolzhye. — SPb., 1901; Lists of the inhabited places of the Saratov province. Tsaritsyno County. — Saratov, 1912.
3 A.N. Minkh. Historical and geographical dictionary of the Saratov province. T. 1. — Saratov, 1901.

in archival funds that strengthens their value as illustrative material to statistical all-imperial reports.

It is known that for 1842 — 1858 in settlements of the state peasants which there were across Russia more than 20 million people 2,975 schools were open. In the 40th of the 19th century it were the most numerous and most well-planned secular rural schools which were placed generally in own domakh4. However it is already impossible to restore the history of existence of most of them fixed by the most part only in documentation of volost boards.

In the territory of the Tsaritsyno County in 40 — the 50th of the 19th century three volosts of the state peasants of the Ministry of the State Imushchestvo (MSI) — Gorodishchenskaya, Ivanovskaya and Lipovskaya treating Tsaritsyno Kamyshin educational district of MGI were created. The difficult village (specific and state peasants) of Lipovk and the village of Peskovatka with the farms of Lednev and Ilyin concerned specific peasants of the Ministry of the imperial yard and destinies.

Since 1837 it was supposed to arrange schools on one in each specific order, but by 1854 in the territory of their all Saratov provincial specific manor only 7 appeared.

In 1849 in the Tsaritsyno County the following initial schools for children of the state and specific peasants worked:

— in the Gorodishchensky volost in the village the Little bird (it is opened in 1843) for 60 boys and in the village the Ancient settlement (it is opened in 1845) 5 for 20 boys;

— in Ivanovskaya of the volost in the village Water for 36 boys;

— in the Lipovsky volost in the village of Lipovka (opened 1848) for 14 boys and in the village of Balykley for 42 boys and 3 girls;

— in the Peskovatsky volost in the village of Peskovatka for boys (specific school) 6.

From them additional to obyazatel-

4 N.A. Konstantinov, E.N. Medynsky, M.F. Shabayeva. Pedagogics history. — 4 prod., additional and reworks. — M, 1974, page 194.
5 Sheets and data on a condition of parish schools of the Gorodishchensky volost for 1849//the State Archive of the Volgograd Region (SAVR), t. I157, op. 1, unit hr. 434, l. 1, 5, 19, 20, 23, 32, 36.
6 The report on departmental specific schools for 1859//the Magazine of the Ministry of National Education (MNE), 1861, No. 11, otd. IV, page 51-59.

to the MGI ny volost schools public parish initial schools in the villages of Lipovka and Pichuga were registered. In public buildings, schools in villages the Ancient settlement and Lipovka, the others were located — in hired houses with the annual rent of 45 rub

In 1856 it was offered to have on one constant school in each volost due to public collecting and expenses of MGI. Besides, at the request of local community it was allowed to open additional schools on public means and the remains from the uchilishchny capital of MGI1.

From department of the state imushchestvo managed schools since 1837. Scientific committee of MGI, operated — provincial chambers of the state imushchestvo. The managing director of chamber had to visit each school once a year. Direct observation was carried out by district chiefs and their assistants. From them obligatory visit of each school two times a year and presence at the annual examinations was required. The formal management of specific schools was entrusted to the chief local specific kontory2. The director of national schools of the Saratov province, the inspector of the Tsaritsyno district school and decent observers of church schools exercised control of specific schools and schools of MGI from the Ministry of National Education (MNE). However in their reports on surveys of the rural schools not subordinated to Ministry of National Education, only the name of school and date osmotra3 was specified often.

From more extensive reports of regular inspectors it is visible that children and teachers ("mentors") of MGI schools visited

1 Correspondence with the assistant to the district chief and Lipovsky volost board//GAVO, t. I243, op. 1, unit hr. 193, l. 5 (about); National education in the Vyatka province for the last 10 years (1864 — 1874). — Vyatka, 1875, page 9 — 10.
2 See about it is more detailed: M.D. Vasilenko. A condition of national education of the non-russian people of the Volga region in XVSh — XIX centuries (before I.N. Ulyanov's activity)//Scientific notes of VGPU. East series. and philologist., issue 2. — Vladimir, 1956, page 166, 168 — 170.
3 According to reports of regular inspectors of schools

about a review them rural schools of the ministry of the state imushchestvo. 14.09.1859 — 09.01.1860//the State Archive of the Saratov Region (SASR), t. 13, op. 1, unit hr. 747.

studies inaccurately. The rural head of the village the Little bird asked the district chief to send instead of the died teacher combining teaching activity with duties of the parson new from number "the pupils who ended a course in seminary of that respect that from these can be engaged in training of children much more successfully, than the priest because the priest except these duties has special and quite often leaves on the arrival for correction of occasional offices" 4. The regular inspector of the Tsaritsyno schools Vinogradov in annual reports on audits of schools noted constant admissions of classes teachers-mentors and pupils. The last at the time of audit there was always less than a half from a payroll, and in 1850 in Balykleysky school Vinogradov did not see teachers, uchenikov5. Annually ended a course of elementary school of department of MGI of only 1 — 2 pupils, the others left during a training course as society loyally treated unfinished obrazova-niyu6.

The local priests receiving 85 — 90 rub silver in god7 worked as teachers. Country boys, occasionally girls, aged from 8 up to 12 years gathered in schools from neighboring villages of the state peasants in a radius up to 10 versts. Lists of the children enlisted in schools were made by volost foremen. Separately submitted the information about competent country boys of 18 years wishing to study at the MGI provincial chamber as the volost clerk. Wishing to study and at the same time able to write beautifully prakti-

4 Instructions of the Saratov chamber of the state imushchestvo and correspondence about sale of books at schools and about supply of schools with school writing-materials, data

about newly opened schools and about the sums assigned on their contents. 28.02.1849 — 4.04.1850//GAVO, t. I243, op. 1, unit hr. 402, l. 137, 150—151.

5 Data on the newly opened parish schools and the sums assigned on their contents, remarks of the inspector of the Tsaritsyno schools on a condition of rural schools of department of the state imushchestvo. 18.02.1850 — 21.01.1851//GASO, t. 13, op. 1, unit hr. 727, l. 130 — 131 (about), 174 — 175.
6 Data on the schools and the sums assigned on their contents. 5.06.1848 — 31.01.1849//GASO, t. 13, op. 1, unit hr. 265, l. 138 — 139.
7 N. Vyazov. National education in the Chistopolsky County from 1861 to 1895//the Russian school, 1897, No. 5 — 6, page 186 — 188.

Competent and pupils in the Tsaritsyno County in 1854

Population (people) men women all

only 16741 17729 34470

competent 8.7% 1% 4.8%

from them children of school age 3529 3602 7131

pupils 235 (6.7%) 21 (0.6%) 256 (3.6%)

P.G. Lyubimov. Decree. soch., page 47 — 49.

the cheska was not. So, from all Tsaritsyno and Kamyshin district in 1850/51 uch. could not find three candidates for clerks at the age of 18 years. After long correspondence between chamber of the state imushchestvo and volost foremen it was succeeded to send for training of boys of 12, 14 and 16 years from the village Water Tsaritsyno uyezda1.

Since 1851 at each MGI school opened school tutorial and student and "selling" libraries. The last intended for "distribution between peasants of reading and dukhovnonravstvenny teaching" 2.

Data on the number of pupils and competent in relation to all population, recorded by the famous statistician of the 19th century A.I. Artemyev, are tabulated.

Except analyzed by us above, in the territory of the Tsaritsyno County the expedition did not find other types of rural initial schools.

To the middle of the 1860th the number of rural schools of the county increased to 27 with the total number of pupils of 502 boys and 58 girls. From them 8 treated department of MGI, 1 specific school, and the others were parish schools and country schools gramoty3.

the territorial bodies Created in 1864

1 Correspondence with volost boards about training of country boys in record keeping. 26.01.1850-18.09.1854//GAVO, t. I243, op. 1, unit hr. 439, l. 1-1 (about), 5, 7, 8, 18, 23-23 (about), 34, 36-36 (about).
2 Instructions of the Saratov chamber of the state imushchestvo and correspondence about sale of books...//GAVO, t. I243, op. 1, unit hr. 402, l. 7.
3 Reports of the commission on a national obrazova-

a niya on the issue of participation of provincial zemstvo in national education//the Saratov HH_H another provincial territorial meeting

1895 there is Saratov, 1895, page 44.

self-government had to unify rural initial schools. In 1867 — 1868 the maintenance of MGI schools and public schools in settlements of the state peasants was provided to territorial institutions. MGI schools, a part of specific, rural public, parish and country schools of the diploma passed into the category of territorial and public initial educational institutions.

The MGI educational institutions were the first constant rural schools since on their providing in private territorial duties the constant expense was brought. From the state and specific peasants the special training session of 5 kopeks was raised from soul (at the rate of 110 — 175 rub on one shkolu4). By 1866 in the Saratov province such collecting increased to 9 kopeks from soul (only 24,487.29 rub) 5.

Thus, distribution of literacy among the state and specific peasants was a necessary condition of reform of MGI on implementation of really country self-government and receiving feedback by the center. The research of practical activities of MGI schools on the example of one of the Russian provinces allowed to show their influence on distribution of literacy among peasants, creation of conditions for development of country self-government, formation of complex variable structure of national education in Russia 19th century

4 The most part of this sum went on the salary of the teacher of 100 rub, the remained means were spent for the economic maintenance of school.
5 Reports of the commission on national education on the issue of participation of provincial zemstvo in national education//the Saratov XXIX another provincial territorial meeting of 1895 - Saratov, 1895, page 44, 65.
Christoph Damian
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