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Some aspects of paleoecological studying the population of the West Siberian forest-steppe in the early Iron Age (by results of the chemical analysis of a bone tissue)



NEKOTORYE ASPECTS of PALEOECOLOGICAL STUDYING the POPULATION of the WEST SIBERIAN FOREST-STEPPE In the early Iron Age (by results of the chemical analysis of a bone tissue)! *]

N.P. Matveeva, N.S. Larina, L.A. Zakharova, K.V. Ville

The article considers testing results regarding heavy metals content in the bone tissue of 98 individuals obtained from the Sargatka culture burial grounds of West Siberian forest steppe. Those were selected as indicators of physiological adaptation and human diet in the Early Iron Age. The authors showed dependence of the bone tissue mineral status upon sex, age, and social characteristics of the individuals, as well as geochemical conditions of their environment. The testing points to general deficiency of potassium, iron, copper and manganese. The paper sets up a hypothesis of ecological determinism as to pathological skeleton states among the groups dwelling on flood plain soils, salines, and pine forest sands. The authors conclude on systematic undernourishment in the majority of communities, as well on strict regulation and patriarchal nature of food distribution.

Statement of a problem

Assessment of adaptation of individuals to the natural and social environment is of great importance for determination of the standard of living of ancient societies. The samples of a bone tissue which are well remaining and reflecting traces of the reactions proceeding in the course of activity serve as one of objects of paleoecological researches [Kozlovskaya, 1992]. Data on the level of mineral saturation of a skeleton, on concentration of the major biogenous chemical elements bear in themselves independent information on features of adaptation of population to local geochemical conditions, the impact of stressful influences, sufficiency of food, diet type.

The purpose of our work — detection of some characteristics of physiological adaptation of the population of the early Iron Age on the basis of determination of mineral composition of bone material of big sample of burials of sargatsky culture mainly from necropolises of the average and pozdnesargatsky period [Matveeva, 2000. Page 148] (tab. 1). Further use of results of the analysis at reconstruction of living conditions and a social regulation of a food allowance of the ancient person in the early Iron Age in the territory of Western Siberia is supposed.

Methods and results

Tests of different fabrics from skeletons of people, unlike M.V. Kozlovskaya [1998] considering that in paleoecological researches it has to be used only a compact as and a problem of anthropological study bones of long extremities not always allow to apply the nature of safety of materials of burials are attracted with us. But for this purpose we previously conducted a comparative research of remains of individuals of sargatsky culture. It turned out that differences in the maintenance of minerals in different bones of a skeleton of the same person are in limits of an error of methods of the analysis. The exception makes only a backbone where iron abnormally collects [Matveeva, Larina, Koliukh, 2002]. It is established that the maintenance of the studied elements in soils is much lower, than in bone remains, except iron, therefore, direct impact of the chemical composition of the soil during an arkheo-logization of burials does not happen.

Earlier we fulfilled techniques of sampling and preparation of samples of a bone tissue [Larina, Koliukh, Ville, Guluyeva, 2002] and the small sample of 20 sargatsky burials mainly from Pritobolya which showed essential differences in the chemical composition of bones of various individuals is analyzed [Matveeva, Larina, Koliukh, 2002]. For establishment of significant dependences the sample was increased up to 98 units with attraction of materials from Priishimya and Priirtyshje.

Fig. 1. Location of the explored burial grounds:

1 — Mysovskoy; 2 — Rafaylovsky-1; 3 — Krasnogorsk-1; 4 — Savinovsky; 5 — Tyutrinsky;
6 — Staro-Lybayevsky-4 and Shchetkovo the lake; 7 — Nizhne-Ingalsky-1; 8, 9 — Abatsky-1 and Abatsky-3;
10 — Kokuy-2; 11 — Strizhevo-1; 12 — Bogdanovka; 13 — Sidorovka; 14 — Kononovka;
15-17 — Beshchaul-2, 3, 4; 18 — Isakovka-1; 19 — Kartashovo-2

Table 1

List of samples of a bone tissue of individuals of sargatsky culture

No. Place of burial Monument Floor (age)

1 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 34, item 2 Child (0-7 years)
2 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 34, item 2 Child (7-14 years)
3 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 34, item 2 Woman (40-45 years)
4 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 34, item 1 Man
5 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 31, item 2 Woman
6 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 31, item 1 Woman
7 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 31, item 3 Man (55-60 years)
8 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 31, item 4 Woman
9 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 33, item 1 Child (4.5 months)
10 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 33, item 2 Child (1.5 years)
11 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 33, item 3 Man (40-45 years)
12 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 33, item 4 Woman (20-25 years)
13 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 33, item 5 Woman (45 years)
14 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo the settlement of Shchetkovo the lake-2 The man (25-30 years)
15 16 The Omsk Region, d the Omsk Region, d Strizhevo Strizhevo Strizhevo-1, to. 13, m 3, the code of 22-11 Strizhevo-1, to. 13, item 1, code 22-10 Woman (50-60 years) Muzhchina (35-40 years)
17 The Omsk Region, d Beshchaul Beshchaul-3, to. 1, SKID sector, code 19-17 Man (40-45 years)
18 The Omsk Region, d Beshchaul Beshchaul-2, to. 4, m 1, code 19-8 Woman (50-60 years)
19 The Omsk Region, d Beshchaul Beshchaul-4, to. 1, YuV sector, code 19-21 Man (adult)
20 The Omsk Region, d Strizhevo Strizhevo-1, to. 10, item 1A, code 22-3 Man (50 years)
21 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 10, sk. 1, code 21-60 Man (adult)
22 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 9, item 2b, code 21-46 Woman (18-20 years)
23 The Omsk Region, d Beshchaul Beshchaul-2, to. 2, m 1, code 19-3 Man (20 years)
24 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 6, m 10, code 21-28 Man (35-45 years)
25 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 5, m 3, code 21-15 Teenager of 12-14 years
26 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 10, m 5, code 21-54 Woman (30-35 years)
27 The Omsk Region, d Beshchaul Beshchaul-2, to. 2, m 7, code 19-4 Man (45-50 years)
28 The Omsk Region, d Beshchaul Beshchaul-2, to. 6, m 1, code 19-11 Man (30 years)
29 The Omsk Region, d Beshchaul Beshchaul-4, to. 3, item 4, code 19-24 Man (adult)
30 The Omsk Region, d Beshchaul Beshchaul-2, to. 1, zap. hornbeam. holes, code 19-1 Woman (30 years)
31 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 10, m 4, code 21-53 Man (20-25 years)
32 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 9, item 2g, code 21-50 Man (adult)
33 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 4, m 1, code 21-8 Woman (adult)
34 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 10, m 7, code 21-57 Man (40-50 years)
35 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 3, m?, code 21-59 Man (adult)
36 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 3, m 1, code 21-1 Man (60 years)
38 The Omsk Region, d Isakovka Isakovka-1, to. 4, m 2, code 21-12 Man (adult)

| No. Place of burial Monument Floor (age)

37 The Omsk Region, of Isakovk Isakovka-1, to. 9, m 2 (Indus. 2), code 21-44 Man (adult)
39 The Omsk Region, Beshchaul Beshchaul-2, to. 2, collecting, code 19-5 Woman (20-25 years)
40 The Omsk Region, of Isakovk Isakovka-1, to. 6, m 10, code 21-28 Man (30-35 years)
41 The Omsk Region, of Strizhevo Strizhevo-1, to. 10, m 1B, code 22-4 Woman (30-35 years)
42 The Omsk Region, of Strizhevo Strizhevo-1, to. 11, m 3, code 22-8 Child (6-7 years)
43 The Omsk Region, of Isakovk Isakovka-1, to. 6, m 4, code 21-22 Woman (30-35 years)
44 The Omsk Region, of Isakovk Isakovka-1, to. 8, m 4a, sk. 2, the code 21-40 The woman (20-25 years)
45 The Omsk Region, of Strizhevo Strizhevo-1, to. 10, m 1B, code 22-5 Man (45-50 years)
46 The Omsk Region, of Strizhevo Strizhevo-1, to. 11, m 1, code 22-6 Woman (50 years)
47 The Omsk Region, of Isakovk Isakovka-1, to. 3, m 3, code 21-3 Woman (35-40 years)
48 The Omsk Region, of Isakovk Isakovka-1, to. 6, m 4(4), code 21-3 Man (40-45 years)
49 The Omsk Region, Beshchaul Beshchaul-4, to. 2, m 1, code 19-22 Man (19-22 years)
50 The Omsk Region, of Bogdanovk Bogdanovka of 79 g, to. and Child (1 year)
51 The Omsk Region, of Bogdanovk Bogdanovka of 73 g, to. item 5 Woman
52 The Omsk Region, of Bogdanovk Bogdanovka-111, to. 3, item central Woman (50 years)
53 The Omsk Region, of Bogdanovk Bogdanovka of 73 g, to. and, item 1 Man
54 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 2, item 5 Child (7 years)
55 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 2, item 2 Child (7-10 years)
56 The Omsk Region, of Bogdanovk Bogdanovka of 73 g, to. item 7 Child (2 years)
57 The Tyumen Region, of Byzovo Savinovsky, to. 1, item 1 Woman (30-35 years)
58 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 1, item 1 Child (8-9 years)
59 The Omsk Region, of Bogdanovk Bogdanovka of 76 g, to. 1, item 1 Man
60 The Omsk Region, of Kartashovo Kartashovo-2, to. 7, item 4 Man (20 years)
61 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 1, item 4 Woman (18 years)
62 The Omsk Region, of Kartashovo Kartashovo-2, to. 1, item 4 Man (20-25 years)
63 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 1, item 1-9 Woman (30 years)
64 The Omsk Region, of Bogdanovk Bogdanovka-111, to. 2, item 2, 76 g Woman (mature)
65 The Omsk Region, of Kartashovo Kartashovo-2, to. 2, item 1 Woman (20-30 years)
66 The Tyumen Region, of Byzovo Tyutrinsky, to. 2, item 1 Man (30 years)
67 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 2, item 1 Child (10-12 years)
68 The Tyumen Region, of Byzovo Tyutrinsky, to. 3, item 7 Woman (35-40 years)
69 The Tyumen Region, of Byzovo Tyutrinsky, to. 3, item 7 Child (12-14 years)
70 The Tyumen Region, of Byzovo Tyutrinsky, to. 3, item 7 Woman (20-30 years)
71 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 2, item 9 (Indus. 3) Child (10 years)
72 The Tyumen Region, of Byzovo Savinovsky, to. 6, item 1 Man (40 years)
73 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 2, item 7 (Indus. 1) Child (8-9 years)
74 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 2, item 7 (Indus. 2) The woman (20-30 years)
75 The Tyumen Region, of Byzovo Tyutrinsky, to. 4, item 4 Woman (20-30 years)
76 The Omsk Region, of Kartashovo Kartashovo-2, to. 6, item 3 Woman (60 years)
77 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 2, item 7 (Indus. 5) Woman (20-25 years)
78 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 2, item 9 (Indus. 1) Child (8-10 years)
79 The Tyumen Region, of Rafaylovo Rafaylovo, to. 1, item 3 Man (50-60 years)
80 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 2, item 10 (Indus. 3) Man (20-25 years)
81 The Tyumen Region, of Byzovo Tyutrinsky, to. 8, item 5 Man (35-40 years)
82 The Tyumen Region, of Rafaylovo Rafaylovo, to. 1, item 1 Woman (25-30 years)
83 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 5, item 4 Woman (35-40 years)
84 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-1, to. 4, item 2 (Indus. 2) Woman (20-25 years)
85 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-1, to. 3, item 11 (Indus. 1) Man (20-25 years)
86 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 5, item 6 Woman (15-20 years)
87 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Kokuy-2, to. 3, item 4 (Indus. 1) Woman (20-25 years)
88 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-1, to. 6, item 6 (Indus. 2) Woman (50-55 years)
89 Tyumen Mysovskoy, to. 11, item 2 Man (40-45 years)
90 Tyumen Region. Krasnogorsk Krasnogorsk-1, to. 17, item 1 Woman (60 years)
91 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 6, item 10 Woman (20-25 years)
92 The Tyumen Region, the settlement of Abatsky Abatsky-3, to. 6, item 10 Woman (adult)
93 The Tyumen Region, N. Ingal N-Ingalsky-1, to. 1, item 3 Teenager
94 The Tyumen Region, of Old Lybayevo Staro-Lybayevsky-4, to. 39, item 1 Woman
95 Omsk Region, of Sidorovk Sidorovka Man
96 Omsk Region, of Kononovk Kononovka Child
97 Omsk Region, of Isakovk Isakovka-1 Man
98 The Omsk Region, Beshchaul Beshchaul-3, to. 1, item 5 Man

Note. The accepted reductions: to. — barrow; the item — burial; m — a grave; sk. — congestion; Indus. — individual. Authors thank A.L. Antonov and A.N. Bagashev for selection and definition of bone materials in anthropological collections.

1 On funeral stock — the man.

Ash-content of the analyzed samples fluctuates in rather wide interval of values (from 25 to 89%), calcium content — ranging from 13 up to 49%, magnesium — on average 1.98±0.41%, phosphorus — on average 14.19±0.99% (tab. 2, fig. 2).

Table 2

Average values of ash-content and macrocells on all sample, %

Defined Average value

an element on all sample

Ash-content 73.93±2.45

Sa 28.40±1.85

Md 1.98±0.41

R 14.19±0.99

Samples of bone materials of people of the early Iron Age were analyzed on the maintenance of the following minerals: Re, R, S^ Y1, 2p, Megapixel, Bg, Si. Their choice is caused by high variability of content of heavy metals in bones of fossil organisms. It is established that significant accumulation of strontium is provided with herbivorous diets, zinc and copper — at the expense of meat food and change of a metabolism as a result of stressful influences. Lead is the indicator of consumption of meat of animals. The high share of manganese indicates trouble of adaptive reactions to changes of the environment [Kozlovskaya, 1992].

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Fig. 2. The schedule of distribution of Sa, Md, P in tests of a bone tissue of individuals from burial grounds

sargatsky culture

In the studied sample the content of all metals fluctuates in a wide interval of values, differing in 10-30 and more times (tab. 3).

The maintenance of macrocells in samples of a bone tissue of individuals from burials of SAR -

Ghat culture, %

sample No. Ash-content Sa Md R sample No. Ash-content Sa Md R

1 76.78 27.20 0.89 13.77 22 78.72 18.20 2.23 34.15
2 67.93 37.41 1.77 17.29 23 68.45 22.89 2.07 17.11
3 72.04 31.85 1.76 11.06 24 88.90 20.74 2.73 13.75
4 78.38 21.87 0.79 10.16 25 73.68 19.77 2.52 15.47
5 74.45 33.03 1.18 16.50 26 52.59 20.90 2.99 14.83
6 76.87 28.34 1.18 14.98 27 76.98 21.14 2.80 15.99
7 79.41 22.67 0.59 12.96 28 74.29 20.23 3.87 21.82
8 79.56 27.69 0.29 13.53 29 78.09 19.96 2.85 14.72
9 73.49 34.33 0.39 19.51 30 78.95 21.18 1.83 15.32
10 73.44 30.60 1.38 11.58 31 66.15 24.66 2.73 13.14
11 77.66 29.94 1.12 15.58 32 79.69 28.62 6.89 15.54
12 80.78 22.78 0.23 11.32 33 70.04 25.55 3.01 14.94
13 73.29 30.97 0.62 17.09 34 64.23 26.02 5.31 15.32
14 85.07 29.15 2.55 17.81 35 74.18 23.89 2.58 13.11
15 71.94 23.28 1.54 14.86 36 80.48 31.93 1.58 15.17
16 71.68 23.28 0.48 15.17 37 70.68 31.84 1.18 15.17
17 74.54 23.88 0.59 13.29 38 70.16 30.51 2.29 15.28
18 78.31 23.29 1.19 15.54 39 70.37 31.22 1.15 15.35
19 76.08 28.57 1.54 12.40 40 69.11 29.80 2.53 15.28
20 75.03 24.07 1.36 14.79 41 68.97 30.47 3.33 15.13
21 75.08 25.44 0.49 14.79 42 74.96 28.39 4.16 14.94

Termination of tab. 3

sample No. Ash-content Sa Md R sample No. Ash-content Sa Md R

43 71.30 27.68 1.29 14.98 71 71.47 19.34 2.09 18.56
44 75.37 26.97 1.44 13.03 72 80.46 19.77 4.43 18.91
45 79.38 27.53 1.23 11.91 73 73.54 16.33 0.91 19.89
46 71.69 30.28 7.35 14.72 74 73.06 22.33 0.88 23.78
47 73.18 32.13 1.03 14.93 75 82.44 25.31 3.84 20.06
48 75.51 27.20 3.01 14.42 76 71.84 15.47 0.65 21.34
49 71.37 21.76 5.94 14.08 77 74.06 22.52 0.23 -
50 62.70 12.84 1.02 16.23 78 71.28 22.33 0.23 18.56
51 76.39 19.56 6.26 20.35 79 87.52 18.48 0.70 20.71
52 68.58 18.29 2.99 18.67 80 73.62 19.39 1.25 17.34
53 86.78 20.63 1.43 20.71 81 84.62 24.38 1.40 15.42
54 77.38 17.19 1.96 19.31 82 82.55 13.40 0.41 25.64
55 73.37 15.82 0.97 17.16 83 71.37 21.71 3.13 20.06
56 88.96 19.34 0.78 17.28 84 74.39 31.03 1.13 17.16
57 71.06 17.41 1.83 19.08 85 81.09 22.28 4.57 13.62
58 75.99 14.44 3.94 17.34 86 72.12 20.85 1.89 20.71
59 45.43 15.69 1.23 19.37 87 81.71 21.91 2.09 15.07
60 36.13 17.62 0.49 17.92 88 73.47 15.82 0.68 19.25
61 26.78 14.19 2.54 17.98 89 82.94 24.19 2.59 15.48
62 77.79 16.12 2.50 19.54 90 71.09 22.89 0.34 19.77
63 25.01 21.92 1.30 17.11 91 74.18 25.68 2.28 22.44
64 76.46 18.96 2.29 18.04 92 76.53 17.12 0.77 16.64
65 76.27 19.82 1.34 23.38 93 70.18 14.09 - 14.39
66 72.65 13.33 0.81 19.78 94 75.13 12.08 - 21.42
67 71.44 16.33 0.91 21.23 95 74.77 16.45 - 13.18
68 81.21 18.91 1.12 16.69 96 68.72 14.83 - 15.68
69 87.44 18.78 2.16 6.83 97 65.33 14.01 - 11.47
70 69.97 19.13 3.13 17.98 98 81.50 16.16 - 13.70

Average values of minerals on all sample, %

The defined element Average value on all sample

Megapixel-10-2 6.46±1.47

Re-10-2 11.69±3.77

2p-10-2 2.43±0.29

Si-10-3 3.34±2.24

YI0-3 1.70±0.52

Bg-10-2 1.45±0.26

R-10-3 2.72±0.76

Cd■10-4 2.61±0.47

Table 5

The maintenance of minerals in samples of a bone tissue of individuals from burials of sargatsky culture, %

No. Megapixel-10-2 Ре-10&2 2p-10-2 Si-10-3 Y1-10-3 Bg-10-2 R-10-3 Cd■10-4

1 5.07 31.75 4.33 18.8 2.00 1.69 4.17 1.35
2 9.83 5.15 3.17 0.29 1.21 1.56 3.92 3.80
3 10.98 12.60 3.12 4.48 1.90 1.32 1.42 4.45
4 10.04 36.25 3.14 1.98 2.33 1.56 4.88 3.65
5 13.60 23.83 3.50 0.29 3.06 2.07 4.43 4.94
6 10.47 14.28 4.26 7.40 2.16 2.04 7.44 1.79
7 14.18 30.34 3.30 1.67 2.78 1.77 6.49 5.34
8 4.28 23.20 2.97 15.80 1.79 2.59 6.44 5.05
9 1.44 9.00 2.39 1.29 3.17 3.17 4.20 2.07
10 16.12 22.30 3.38 2.87 3.54 4.22 2.53 3.84
11 9.22 31.90 2.15 1.69 2.68 2.04 5.88 3.94
12 4.95 54.00 2.61 1.55 1.05 1.38 8.24 4.60
13 9.96 9.93 3.67 2.17 4.11 1.49 7.12 5.15
14 9.43 27.50 2.92 1.04 3.84 3.37 7.05 1.67
15 2.19 1.22 1.35 0.93 1.17 2.39 0.49 2.90
16 3.43 1.04 1.32 0.59 0.87 1.41 1.04 1.35
17 1.89 0.88 1.20 0 0.98 1.43 0.69 0.70
18 1.87 0.45 1.18 0.37 0.94 1.13 1.75 1.70
19 4.60 3.53 3.76 29.99 18.85 1.79 3.55 2.35
20 3.73 0.98 0 0 0.90 2.73 1.85 2.40
21 4.39 1.36 0.58 0 15.15 1.59 1.37 3.15
22 1.49 0.82 0.80 0.25 1.39 1.54 2.04 2.45
23 2.30 0.54 2.01 3.27 1.15 0.80 1.45 4.25
24 4.86 2.04 2.14 0.17 0.76 2.23 0.77 2.30
25 2.76 1.73 3.85 52.32 1.09 1.09 6.61 1.05
26 3.25 0.52 1.15 0.82 0.94 2.18 0.62 2.95
27 4.56 0.48 2.74 2.09 0.89 2.16 1.33 2.85
28 7.55 4.01 2.47 0.76 1.84 1.54 1.33 3.50
29 1.77 0.41 0.89 0.72 0.17 1.19 0.99 2.45
30 5.25 0.69 2.61 0.67 1.40 1.22 1.59 3.90
31 1.66 0.41 1.05 0.75 0.55 2.13 2.45 1.85
32 1.61 0.43 1.19 1.08 0.47 1.26 2.17 2.77
33 7.02 3.56 1.93 1.76 1.64 2.87 1.35 2.75
34 2.23 0.69 1.49 0.36 1.05 2.58 1.29 4.00
35 2.79 3.89 1.69 0.98 0.90 1.08 1.67 0
36 10.15 0.70 4.59 2.22 0.96 1.49 1.52 3.15
37 1.75 0.87 1.97 0.31 0.41 1.77 1.24 2.15
38 2.60 0.71 1.35 2.47 0.66 1.47 1.82 1.64
39 4.41 4.25 1.33 0.36 0.56 1.81 0.84 4.22
40 1.75 0.89 1.61 0.39 0.61 1.52 1.99 2.75
41 3.36 1.48 1.37 1.13 0.83 1.87 1.38 2.12

No. Megapixel-10-2 Re-10-2 2p-10-2 Si-10-3 Y1-10-3 Bg-10-2 R-10-3 Cd■10-4

42 5.46 0.59 1.62 1.54 0.59 4.51 1.35 1.82
43 3.48 1.35 2.10 2.12 1.39 1.11 1.98 1.12
44 7.16 2.40 2.06 0.62 0.55 1.87 1.44 3.69
45 4.93 3.45 1.46 0.71 1.35 1.44 1.31 4.51
46 4.60 0.54 0.91 0.91 1.00 1.24 1.06 1.08
47 6.88 1.99 2.63 1.68 2.09 2.79 9.68 2.29
48 4.86 0.65 2.59 0.89 0.71 1.57 1.13 1.12
49 4.72 0.41 1.93 0.50 0.98 2.00 0.69 0.5
50 1.65 5.53 1.92 0.58 1.15 0.88 1.11 2.32
51 4.85 8.39 2.89 0.04 1.08 0.70 2.88 2.48
52 1.94 3.65 1.68 1.79 0.75 0.64 1.74 2.11
53 6.62 9.21 2.06 0.12 1.92 0.53 0.42 3.13
54 1.06 9.09 2.93 0.05 0.73 0.93 3.35 1.95
55 1.76 19.25 1.04 0.47 1.01 0.62 0.92 1.93
56 0.81 1.71 0.74 0.39 0.51 0.77 1.24 2.15
57 1.74 1.75 1.41 0.43 0.75 0.65 0.62 2.44
58 3.77 18.88 1.34 0.52 0.88 0.34 1.83 1.73
59 1.87 6.35 1.12 1.05 0.49 1.05 3.33 2.78
60 2.93 2.49 2.81 0.96 0.71 0.97 0.55 3.05
61 3.68 4.73 3.84 13.07 0.96 2.26 0 1.96
62 12.99 6.27 1.36 1.33 0.87 0.68 1.15 2.75
63 5.35 4.43 0.95 0.79 0.63 0.69 0.85 0.78
64 6.25 2.91 4.07 0.15 1.18 0.71 2.96 2.70
65 4.42 5.49 1.95 0 0.85 0.87 1.51 2.70
66 1.13 4.80 1.43 1.75 0.87 0.72 6.86 2.54
67 5.08 9.05 0.98 0.62 0.86 0.74 0.91 2.20
68 4.18 3.07 2.11 0.54 0.99 1.20 1.68 2.65
69 3.66 3.18 2.13 3.84 1.26 2.93 1.71 1.53
70 5.01 5.42 0.91 0.95 0.81 1.04 0.73 1.67
71 3.36 6.21 1.04 1.24 1.22 0.42 0.75 2.10
72 1.24 6.08 1.24 0.07 0.66 1.06 1.19 1.70
73 7.90 11.71 1.84 32.65 2.09 0.49 0.94 2.87
74 15.11 6.89 1.88 0.74 1.72 0.56 1.31 2.65
75 2.82 4.73 1.69 0.53 0.88 2.17 2.19 2.79
76 3.68 7.12 2.01 1.18 1.06 0.74 1.01 2.17
77 1.39 4.08 1.42 0.73 2.01 0.43 1.41 2.77
78 1.58 16.58 0.84 0 0.89 0.56 0.71 1.88
79 3.36 3.72 0.93 0.15 0.77 0.22 1.54 1.95
80 7.16 5.89 2.09 0.93 0.94 0.65 0.94 2.54
81 2.89 17.54 1.25 0.63 2.49 1.01 0.73 2.10
82 4.42 7.66 1.31 0.81 0.57 0.58 1.37 2.18
83 7.43 4.48 2.37 1.52 1.72 0.61 1.02 0.93
84 5.46 1.60 3.11 0.77 0.69 1.14 1.07 3.02
85 1.53 19.96 1.17 0.03 0.80 1.31 0.74 1.93
86 4.45 8.55 1.16 1.24 0.39 1.22 1.59 2.12
87 2.46 24.36 0.89 0.06 1.02 1.39 1.03 2.54
88 2.71 8.36 3.06 6.41 0.73 1.01 1.73 2.07
89 16.21 21.10 1.31 0.86 1.80 1.43 1.14 2.55
90 4.02 3.57 1.78 0.06 0.95 0.72 0.86 1.85
91 5.53 5.91 1.69 1.02 0.99 0.78 1.17 2.80
92 13.12 2.49 1.44 0.93 1.38 0.93 0.56 2.43
93 3.00 5.12 2.99 0.98 0.52 1.20 0.43 0.32
94 4.70 5.12 2.79 0.49 0.91 1.92 0 0.33
95 4.87 50.51 5.13 0.50 0 2.67 0.14 1.24
96 11.50 5.66 1.72 0.23 1.22 0.99 0.41 0.16
97 13.80 5.64 2.04 0.41 0.05 0.76 0.21 0.57
98 5.47 4.90 2.16 0.67 1.20 1.22 0.56 0.19

Discussion of results

Gender and age analysis. If to divide all data on groups into tests of skeletons of men, women and children, then we will have an opportunity to establish whether physiological and social factors affect the mineral status of a bone tissue of individuals (fig. 3, 4).

Table 6

Average values macro - and minerals on gender and age groups, %

Element Men, p = 38 Women, p = 40 Children, p = 19

Ash-content 76.96±4.90 73.75±3.63 72.61±5.50

Sa 27.41±3.73 25.57±2.50 26.55±4.19

Md 1.72±0.99 1.45±0.59 1.58±0.84

R 14.86±1.64 12.51±2.61 15.22±2.32

Мп-10&2 6.99±2.34 6.60±2.24 6.95±3.69

Re-10-2 15.58±8.70 12.46±8.29 10.84±6.52

2п-10"2 2.36±0.65 2.58±0.42 2.39±0.62

Си-10&3 1.51±1.32 2.97±2.99 5.54±7.42

ЫМО&3 1.97±1.47 1.60±0.59 1.49±0.36

Bg-10-2 1.63±0.81 1.54±0.33 1.59±0.91

РЬ-10"3 2.48±1.76 3.31±1.76 2.24±1.17

С^10-4 2.37±1.09 3.61±1.02 2.16±0.73

Having compared average values of the allocated groups (tab. 4, 6), we see that the mineralization depends on gender and age of people. At the same time remains of men have higher values of ash-content, remains of children — the smallest that is caused by thickness and durability of a bone tissue (fig. 5). Calcium content in the studied groups is quite close. Feature of the mineral status of a bone tissue of skeletons of individuals from sargatsky burials is the lowered calcium content — on average 28.4%. According to literary data, the average size of concentration of calcium in a bone tissue is 37±2% [Kozlovskaya, 1992]. So low indicators are recorded for the dzhetyasarsky culture of the early Iron Age Priaralya — 21-23%, for northern groups of Slavs they are in range of 17-24% that is recognized characteristic of inhabitants of arid territories [Kozlovskaya, 1993]. However for era of the early Iron Age in a forest-steppe zone, most likely, it is connected with geochemical features of the territory [Kovalsky, 1974. Page 113] and also, perhaps, systematic malnutrition as extremely low indicators of content of calcium are recorded in 12 of 19 considered burial grounds and concern equally all gender and age groups.

Big errors of average values on magnesium demonstrate that actually there is no correlation of its contents with gender and age accessory of individuals, i.e. distinctions should be connected with a food allowance. High values of concentration of phosphorus are observed at children and men, at women they are much lower (fig. 5). Concerning children it is caused physiologically [Hmelevsky, Usatenko, 1987. Page 34], at men, probably, is connected with an essential share of dairy products (cheese, cottage cheese), meat and hemp in their diet.

Fig. 3. Distribution of macrocells in a bone tissue of children, %

On indicators of iron the men's group is in the lead, women and children have average values below. It indicates some physiological regularities of assimilation and also can be caused by existence of certain products in a food allowance (see fig. 5).

Content of manganese fluctuates slightly, i.e. it is regulated by a geochemical situation around dwelling. Let's note that high, norms are higher, there are no sizes. The low indicators characteristic of people with tumors and the changed bone tissues, it is less than 28.610-2 [Skoblin, Belous, 1968. Page 156], are inherent in almost all tests.

In values of zinc there are no big differences between groups (see fig. 5), but at women is it slightly more, than at men and children. According to literary data, the raised share of zinc indicates a significant role of fish in a food allowance. Fluctuations of values of copper are very considerable, it is not enough at men, it is a lot of at children that is connected with some specific features, perhaps, carrying copper amulets. In the majority of tests of size on copper it is necessary to recognize as low. We chose values from tab. 5 twice smaller standards of the contents it at the healthy person in terms of ashes according to A.P. Skoblin and A.M. Belous [1968. Page 156] as indicator of copper insufficiency. They appeared at 28.6% of individuals and are equally inherent in all gender and age groups in all necropolises.

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Fig. 4. Distribution of macrocells in a bone tissue of women, %

Differences in contents in bone tissues of strontium and nickel are small that is probably defined by geochemical features of the environment. Fluctuations of values of lead on gender and age groups are striking. The largest content of this element is observed at women that it is difficult to explain. The difference in cadmium shares in tests is most noticeable between men and women (see fig. 5) that it allows to assume dependence on physiological features and a food allowance here. The strontium relation to calcium which is an indicator of the consumption of vegetable food shows that at women (fig. 6) the share is many times higher than it, than at men is (fig. 7) and children.

□ Men, p = 36

□ Women, p = 40

□ Put, p = 19

g-P — 1. 1 ~ P — 1

Fig. 5. Distribution of chemical elements in gender and age groups of the sargatsky population

Individual analysis. On low indicators of ash-content samples No. 61, No. 63 belonging to skeletons of women from the burial ground Abatsky-3 are allocated. It is possible to assume in these cases presence of osteoporosis or the postponed disease with long immovability at which there occurs demineralization of a bone tissue up to 8-32%. The lack of proteinaceous food at which the ability of an organism to acquire calcium [Torbenko, Kasavina, 1977 is broken could be one of the causes of their disease state. Page 226]. As an illness indicator sizes twice smaller standards of the contents of calcium in bones — 18% and less are chosen from our data (tab. 5), those are noted at 25.5% of individuals from 12 necropolises. It turns out that the wrong mineral balance led to diseases of a considerable part of the population.

Fig. 6. The strontium relation to calcium at women from burials of sargatsky culture

Fig. 7. The strontium relation to calcium at men from burials of sargatsky culture

Much below than an average there is phosphorus level in sample No. 69, at the teenage girl from the Tyutrinsky burial ground that forces to assume in this case insufficiency of food, despite the elite nature of burial, or selectivity of a diet with an exception, for example, of meat, a liver, cheese as products for adults.

Indicators up to gland in skeletons of people differ more than by 100 times. Its shortcoming [1] is noted almost in a quarter of samples, and for people from burial grounds Strizhevo-1, Beshchaul-2, 3, 4, especially Isakovki-1 (at adult women and men) it is very characteristic. The excess of iron [2] as an exception of the rule, is recorded only in samples from barrows 33 and 34 with the high ground water level of the burial ground Staro-Lybayevskogo-4 and rich burial of Sidorovki, with abundance of iron pieces of stock that is connected with its posthumous accumulation in samples.

Some excess of strontium can be seen in sample No. 10 of the burial ground Staro-Lybayevskogo-4 and to assume presence of rickets at this one-and-a-half-year-old child [Kovalsky, 1974. Page 102]. At the general low content of zinc in a bone tissue, there is a sample in which it is not recorded at all — No. 20, from a skeleton of the man of 50 years of a necropolis of Strizhevo-1 though this element tends to accumulation in bones with age. In this case the lack of animal protein with which zinc arrives had to cause the small growth and anemia in the person as

the deficiency of zinc is followed by deficiency of copper, iron and manganese [Nozdryukhina, 1977. Page 87, 92].

Local analysis. To estimate influence of features of a geochemical and territorial situation, the studied samples were divided into groups on burial grounds and gender and age sign. The group of burial grounds is carried out so that 19 monuments are divided into territorial series (see fig. 1) on three regions of sargatsky culture [3] for identification of influence of a geochemical situation or welfare traditions of communities on their adaptation. The maximum value of ash-content is observed in Pritobolye, minimum — in the basin of Ishim. Calcium content approximately identical in tests from Pritobolya and Priirtyshje, is much lower in Priishi-mye. Concentration of magnesium is slightly more on Irtysh. It is more phosphorus in Priishimye whereas in other areas the quantity of this element is approximately identical. Fluctuations of manganese in these groups are insignificant, and the content of iron is higher in Pritobolye. Differences in the content of concentration of zinc, nickel, lead, cadmium, strontium are practically not observed.

Thus, variations within the general regularities of maintenance of elements in soils and waters of a forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia are available. But as for today detailed geochemical division into districts by ecologists it was not carried out, we have no opportunity to reveal local specifics of materials of certain areas. Effect of local landscape, soil and hydrological conditions on health and food of people was, undoubtedly, significant. In particular, the geochemical status of low inundated grounds explains sharp distinction of data Staro-Lybayevskogo-4 and Mysovsky of burial grounds in which the content of iron and manganese considerably exceeds results of other necropolises (fig. 8, 9).

Lead is saved mainly up in samples from the burial ground Staro-Lybayevskogo-4 (see fig. 8). Fluctuations of concentration of iron are very considerable, from 0,59 10-2 to 50,51 Yu-2%. Minimum content of iron at children of the burial ground of Strizhevo, maximum — at men from Sidorovka. Concerning strontium noticeable fluctuations in groups are observed: minimum — 0.5810-2% of Ra-faylovo, at children from Strizhevo maximum in 4.5110-2% (tab. 5).

The strontium relation to calcium is the highest at children and women of Staro-Lybayevskogo-4, Strizhevsky and Tyutrinsky burial grounds, i.e. it is possible to draw a conclusion that in these communities vegetable food prevailed. In Abatskom, Bogdanovke at women and men approximately identical relation of strontium to calcium. It is interesting that in the Abatsky burial ground and feature of a funeral ceremony (armament of women, abundance of stock) give smaller difference between a male and female part of community. We assume the elite military nature of these necropolises and, probably, big material security and uniformity of food of combatants and members of their families.

The increased content of strontium, copper, perhaps, is connected with prevalence in a food allowance of vegetable food [Gilbert, 1977] and fishes [Geidel, 1982]. It is more lead, iron and cadmium in a bone tissue of men and women of Staro-Lybayevskogo-4 and Sidorovki. These elements correspond to consumption of proteins, namely meat of animals, birds and mollusks.

Along with high concentrations of elements — indicators of proteinaceous food low concentration of strontium are noted that will quite be coordinated with each other and is caused by a small share of vegetable food in structure of their traditional diet.

The cluster analysis on average values of maintenance of elements in various burial grounds did not give their distribution on territorial sign in small sample [Matveeva, Larina, Ville, Zakharova, 2003], in big (fig. 10). Burials can form a uniform cluster of different necropolises. And in such clusters tests from skeletons as soon as women (No. 3, 6, 13), and men can unite with children (clusters from samples: No. 73, 36; No. 58, 78, 81; No. 55, 85; No. 1, 4, 7, 11, 14). In a number of clusters there are representatives of all gender and age groups (No. 23, 25, 92; No. 2, 62, 96, 97, 74). Burials from Sidorovka (No. 95) and burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4 kurg are isolated. 33, pogr. 4 (No. 12) with the iron content which is saved up posthumously.

Possibly, the social regulation of quantity of products and structure of dishes for different groups on gender and age, tradition of distribution of food in family, community is the main reason for distinctions of the mineral status of a bone tissue of people. The distinction of a food allowance of men and women is proved by D.I. Razhev according to tooth pathologies. At women teeth because of the use of more rigid products are more used up, it is less than enamel microinjuries from meat food [Razhev, 2002].

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Fig. 8. Distribution of minerals in a bone tissue of men

Fig. 9. Distribution of minerals in a bone tissue of women

Conclusions

1. Distinctions of level of a mineralization and the chemical composition of a bone tissue depend both on physiological features of organisms, and on a food allowance.
2. The dependence of the chemical composition of a bone tissue of people on the place of their dwelling is established, i.e. effect on health of geochemical features of landscapes was significant. The general deficiency of calcium, iron, copper and manganese, characteristic of forest and inundated soils, saline soils, pine-forest sands [Karetin, is noted 1990. Page 81-104] that through food chains affected also a metabolism in organisms of people.
3. The ecological factor along with factors of a social stress and malnutrition was one of composing the combined cause of avitaminosis, anemias, diseases of the musculoskeletal device. It should be noted that malnutrition was essential aspect of life of communities. This conclusion correlates with the result received by D.I. Razhev on an enamel hypoplasia pointing to the exhaustion periods postponed not one time in the early childhood by most of children [Razhev, 2002]. Besides, it is confirmed indirectly by our researches of food of the sargatsky population on deposits on ware which gave sharp difference in a compounding of meat, fish dishes and soups, use in food of mollusks, insects and a rich arsenal of edible plants [Matveeva, Larina, Guluyeva, Chikunova, 2002].
4. It is possible to speak about prevalence of vegetable food in a diet of most of women (except elite) and a meat and fish diet in a diet of men.

B of l: Shn ap (ZYOSHIS N 5

Fig. 10. A hierarchical dendrogramma of tests from burials of sargatsky culture

on microelement structure

In general results well correlate with mainly pastoral orientation of economy and patriarchal traditions in the culture of the sargatsky population revealed on the basis of archaeological [Matveeva, 2000. Page 253] and anthropological [Razhev, 2002] researches. The representativeness of sample does it exclusively valuable to further comparative researches in the paleoecological direction. Detailed interpretation of the obtained data in aspect of assessment of the state of health of ancient people demands attraction of new medicobiological information on regional features of the mineral status of a bone tissue of contemporaries and is a problem of future researches.

LITERATURE

KaretinL. H. Soils of the Tyumen region. Novosibirsk: Science, 1990.

V.V. Kovalsky. Geochemical ecology. M.: Science, 1974. 280 pages

M.V. Kozlovskaya. Biology of paleopopulyation. Reconstructive opportunities and prospects of researches//Ecological aspects in paleoantropologichesky and archaeological reconstruction. M.: Ying t of archeology, 1992. Page 28-36.

M.V. Kozlovskaya. Mineral part of a bone tissue//Historical ecology of the person. 1998. Issue 1. Page 220-244.

N.S. Larina, O.A. Koliukh, K.V. Ville, M.H. Guluyeva. Chemical analysis of bone material of ancient burials//Messenger of TyumGU. Tyumen, 2002. No. 4. Page 46-52.

N.P. Matveeva. Social and economic structures of the population of Western Siberia in the early Iron Age. Novosibirsk: Science, 2000. 395 pages

N.P. Matveeva, N.S. Larina, K.V. Ville, L.E. Zakharova. New data on features of food of the sargatsky population of Western Siberia//Ecology of ancient and modern societies. Dokl. konf. Tyumen: IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science publishing house, 2003. Issue 2. Page 143-147.

N.P. Matveeva, N.S. Larina, M.H. Guluyeva, I.Yu. Chikunova. Studying a food allowance of the population of the early Iron Age of Western Siberia on deposits on ware//the Messenger of TyumGU. Tyumen, 2002. No. 2.

Page 22-30.

N.P. Matveeva, N.S. Larina, O.A. Koliukh. Some data on a food allowance of the population of sargatsky culture of the West Siberian forest-steppe//Steppe of Eurasia in the ancient time and Middle Ages. Materials Mezhdunar. konf. SPb.: State Hermitage, 2002. Prince 2. Page 252-255.

L.R. Nozdryukhina. A biological role of minerals in an organism of animals and the person. M.: Science, 1977.

D.I. Razhev. Population of the forest-steppe of Western Siberia of the early Iron Age: reconstruction of anthropological features. Yew.... edging. east. sciences. Yekaterinburg, 2002. Manuscript.

A.P. Skoblin, A.M. Belous. Minerals in a bone tissue. M.: Medicine, 1968. 230 pages

V.P. Torbenko, B.S. Kasavina. Functional biochemistry of a bone tissue. M.: Medicine, 1977. 273 pages

Yu.V. Hmelevsky, O.K. Usatenko. The main biochemical constants of the person are normal also at pathology. Kiev: Health, 1987.

Geidel A. A. Trace elements studies for Mississippian skeletal remains. Findigs from neutron activation analysis//Masca J. 1982, No. 2. GilbertR. Applications of trace elements research to problems in archaeology//Biocultural adaptations in prehistorically America. Ed. by Blakely R. L., University of Georgia Press, 1977. 173-184 rr.

Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, TyumGU

Highway is 10 times lower than an average on sample.

[3] Data on Barabe in our sources are not available.

[*] Work is supported by a grant of the Russian Federal Property Fund No. 01-06-80094 "Complex studying living conditions of the sargatsky population of the early Iron Age", a regional grant of young scientists and also a grant of an IAU of the Russian Federal Property Fund No. 03-06-06083.

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