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Review of the book: Massacre of St. Bartholomew: event and disputes. Collection of articles. M.: Grew. state. gumanit. un-t, 2001. 250 pages.



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Massacre of St. Bartholomew: event and disputes. Collection of articles. M.: Grew. state. gumanit. un-t, 2001. - 250 pages

The massacre of St. Bartholomew long since enters on August 23 - 24, 1572 a narrow pantheon of events symbols which endure themselves, remain in centuries and minds even continue to excite several centuries later. In mass historical consciousness the beating of Huguenots by Catholics became a symbol of violence and religionism. Fiction of the 19th century (O. Balzac, P. Merimee, A. Dumas) created an initial image of this event and assigned to participants of this bloody tragedy of a role of artful villains (Ekaterina Medici and Giza) and innocent victims (Parisian Protestants and their military leaders). Professional historians still continue to argue on the one who and as far as it was guilty of the Parisian slaughter whether it was in advance prepared what aims pursued and what as a result led to.

In 2001 in RGGU publishing house there was a collection of articles "A massacre of St. Bartholomew: event and disputes". It united concrete researches and historiographic reflections of thirteen historians from Russia, France, the USA, Great Britain and Israel which in 1997 took part in a colloquium "An event, memory and history. Disputes around the Massacre of St. Bartholomew" at Institute of general history of RAS. Authors of the collection do not put forward new unexpected versions all of well-known events and in general agree with each other on the majority of controversial issues which concern the actual circumstances of an event. Today very few people believe that else it will be possible to find new sources which will force us to call in question and to considerably reconsider the picture of events settled and so habitual to us long ago. As a result the disputes promised in the title of the book concern first of all the historical reasons (why?) and purposes (what for?) Parisian beating and its provincial "responses". A large number of authors and a variety of the plots elected by them not predpo-

patch neither unities of a method, nor existence of a general view on the studied phenomenon. The colloquium about the Massacre of St. Bartholomew was conceived as the platform on which the historians adhering time of different views could test efficiency of the techniques and approaches on the historical ground of one limited in space and in time (let and extremely unusual) events. This experience was obviously successful.

Researchers who took part in a colloquium, speak about need to study the Massacre of St. Bartholomew in two main forms: as event and as myth. Any event does not stop instantly, and slowly fades in a long chain more and more remote on the investigations. Some events, besides, generate the special myth about themselves or a complex of myths which continue to live when the event which brought them to life remains already yes to leu behind. And these myths becomes independent historical force. They can exclude each other, argue, win and lose in fight, revive from a non-existence and again gain strength. This perspective drew attention of historians long ago and is fruitfully developed within such scientific direction as memory history. Authors of the collection about the Massacre of St. Bartholomew consider events on August 23 - 24, 1572 at several levels: in the context of the French political history 1560 - the 1570th and the religious conflict between Catholic party and Huguenots, in broader prospect of political, cultural and religious history XVI of France century and, at last, in a long time of historical memory and mass historical consciousness.

Articles which entered the collection differ from each other not only in subject, but also on a genre. Biographic essays about Ekaterina Medici (R the Bollard) and to Margarita de Valois (V.V. Shishkin) adjoin in the book to theoretical reflections about a religion role in Religious wars and alternative models of an explanation in the history of (N.V. Ivanov). M.P. Holt asks a question why the Parisian slaughter did not extend to all country towns where there was a significant Protestant minority, and was limited to the capital and twelve largest centers. B. Difendorf tries to estimate that role which was played in beating of Huguenots by the Parisian bourgeoisie and city militia. The central place in the collection is taken by article of the French historian D. Cruz "Monarkhich of Skye vdast and a sense sacrament: message about Varfolomeevsky slaughter". It long ago

works on a problem of religious violence in the 16th century and in 1990 released about it a monumental research "God's Soldiers. Violence at the time of Religious wars of 1525 - 1610" which in 1995 the book "A massacre of St. Bartholomew followed. The ruined Renaissance dream". In article he reflects on how bloody slaughter of 1572 was compatible to the neoplatonic idea about the kingdom of Love which lay in about a snova of political theology of the French Monarchy of Valoi during this era. R. Desimon places the Massacre of St. Bartholomew in wider context of long evolution of social structures of Paris and investigates change of ritual forms of religious, municipal and royal processions in the XV-XVII centuries of M. Slukhovski and M.S. Bobko va address the history of Religious wars after Religious wars - in cinema of the 20th century

Bloody events of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew which after completion of excesses generated at once fierce polemic between Catholics (apologists of religious clarification of the country through violence) and Protestants (exposers of Catholic insidiousness and cruelty), within centuries remained subject to political manipulation and art reconsideration which could not but also have political implication. So, accusation of religionism and violence was the effective tool in borb e for religious tolerance and laicisation of policy. The massacre of St. Bartholomew was and still remains one of "places of memory" around which mass ideas of the history of France and historical consciousness of the modern French crystallize.

In Russia, we will notice, the history of similar "places of memory" (Mongol-tatarsko e a yoke and opposition with the nomadic South, the Time of Troubles and foreign intervention, Petrovsky reforms and europeanization) which on different to an istoricha sky stages served as important means of national self-identification and became objects of fierce disputes of historians, philosophers and publicists, still is not written. It is necessary only to wait.

IS. Venyavkin, M.R. Mayzuls

Melvin Barker
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