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M.M. Alekseenko. "Father of a delovogoparlamentarizm"




In deputy corps of the pre-revolutionary State Duma several people who had the greatest impact on formation of domestic parliamentary tradition of the beginning of the 20th century - "the chairman with the Grace of God" are allocated to SA. Residents of Murom, "otetsdumsky order" of VA. Jobbers, "Duma rowdy" V.M. Purishkevich...

A specific place in this row is held by the parliamentary state employee Mikhail Martynovich Alekseenko.

A few members of pre-revolutionary State Duma’s deputy corps are marked out as those exerted the main influence on formation of Russian parliamentary tradition of the beginning of the 20th century. It is S.A. Muromtsev ("The Chairman by the Grace of God"), V.A. Maklakov ("The Father of the Duma’s regulations’), V.M. Purishkevich ("The Duma’s Brawler"). The article is devoted to the analysis in the parliamentary activities of the Chairman of the Budget Commission of the State Duma of the 3rd and 4th convocations M.M. Alekseenko, person who had laid the foundation of business parliamentarianism in Russia.

State Duma of the Russian Empire, parliamentary activity, budgetary commission, "business parliamentarism", Union on October 17; State Duma of the Russian Empire, parliamentary activities, budget commission, business parliamentarianism, "The Union of 17 October".

M.M. Alekseenko was born on October 5, 1847 in Ekaterinoslave in rich merchant family. During the doparlamentsky period of the life he achieved recognition in different fields — and as the scientist in the field of the financial right and as the rector of the Kharkiv university, both as the businessman, and as the territorial figure, and as the journalist, and as the philanthropist.

Despite vigorous public work, M.M. Alekseenko remained the person who is a little interested in policy far from party life for a long time. The fact that he did not go neither to the Duma of the first two convocations, nor to the State Council is explained by it though it was constantly elected as a member of electors. Only in the third election campaign, having secured with support of ekaterinoslavsky Octobrists, he became the deputy of the State Duma.

Having appeared in Tauride Palace, M.M. Alekseenko was included into fraction of Octobrists from which not only it was elected to the financial commission, but also became its chairman. Shortly it is elected as a member of the budgetary commission for the sake of which management he refused a similar position in the financial commission.

Activity of many Duma commissions caused fair complaints from outside of both deputies, and ministerial officials in connection with bulkiness of their device, sluggishness in hearing of cases, indiscipline of members of the commissions. The graphic evidence to that was left in the memoirs by the minister of trade and the industry in 1909 — 1915 S.I. Timashev: "The technology of work in the commissions was put extremely unsatisfactorily. Time was not appreciated absolutely, by the appointed o'clock nobody gathered, it was necessary to wait long... The small awareness of members of the commissions with a subject of discussion struck me. Except the speaker and 2 — 3 persons, the others, probably, did not even take the trouble to run the next bill, getting acquainted with business on the run, during the debate that, probably, did not prevent them to state sometimes in the most resolute and categorical form the incompetent opinion. The few members of the commissions had patience to sit until the end of the meetings, the majority was on a short vre-

Igor Konstantinovich KIRYANOV — to. and. N, associate professor; dean of istorikopolitologichesky faculty of Perm State University, head of the department of the contemporary history of Russia

mya, some left, others came, and thus the structure turned out absolutely accidental what also the accident of vote" 1 depended on.

The relation to activity of the budgetary commission under the leadership of Alekseenko who was validly called "the small State Duma" 2 was other. The same S.I. Timashev noted that on meetings of this commission "were kind of on examination, or on court more likely in a consecutive order all departments, one behind another".

The first meeting of the budgetary commission of the State Duma of the third convocation took place on November 19, 1907. By a majority vote M.M. Alekseenko was elected its chairman. Repeatedly re-elected, he remained in this position to death. At the same meeting eleven subcommittees, ten of which had to be engaged in consideration of estimates of separate departments, were formed. One more subcommittee directed by Alekseenko represented a meeting of chairmen branch podkomissiy3.

The internal organization of the commission threatened to turn it into a sluggish bureaucratic system. During the first session 66 plenary sessions of the commission were held, and 165 times sat subcommittees. The big fault of deputies of the third convocation in it was not. Without having experience of parliamentary budgetary work, they actually copied structure of the similar commission of the previous Duma convocation. However preliminary consideration of budgets in subcommittees happened only in the first session. Since the second session, according to Alekseenko's proposal for acceleration of work on the budget for each estimate the speaker was elected, other members of the commission at will could register in co-reporters. It sharply reduced a debate in the plenary session of the budgetary commission. It was provided to speakers

1 Timashev S.I. Kabinet Stolypina: from "Notes" of the minister of trade and industry//the Russian past: Historical and documentary almanac. — SPb., 1996, prince 6, p. 119.
2 L.K. Kumanin's reports from the Ministerial pavilion of the State Duma, December, 1911 — February, 1917//history Questions, 1999, No. 8, p. 3.
3 State Duma. Overview of the activities of the commissions and departments. The third convocation. Session I. 1907 — 1908

>- SPb., 1908, building 7-8.

the right to invite representatives of departments to meetings or to address directly to government agencies behind data concerning consideration smet4. Also began to start with the second session of occupation of the commission a month before opening of the general meetings of the Duma.

The tone in work of the commission was set by its chairman. His colleague from N.V. Sa-vich fraction as follows estimated Mikhail Martynovich and his role at the commissions: "... In it the psychology of the careful, prudent producer of values, a habit of public work on a territorial field, at last, big scientific baggage of the theorist of financial questions were happily combined. If to add to it a big everyday step, enormous endurance, assiduity in work and big keenness to everything that concerned the rights of national representation, then it is not sophisticated that it got enormous influence on members of the Budgetary commission soon, not only on the fellow members on fraction, but even on oppositionists" 5. The member of the commission the cadet A.I. Shingaryov in the letter to the friend A.G. Hrushchov especially noted on November 23, 1908: "The course of the budgetary works of the Duma changed a little with last year. It should be noted that sharpness of political discord, improbable on the shamelessness and an outrage of a performance extreme right, persecution of opposition, the opportunistic and shy obsequious policy of the center — all that is characteristic of the general meetings of the State Duma, in works of the budgetary commission is almost absent, giving way to almost business work" 6. By the way, in personal fund of M.M. Alekseenko the leaf on which badly readable "professorial" handwriting wrote down short reflections about Shingaryov from which follows that for Mikhail Martynovich not the party accessory, but their business kachestva7 was the main thing in assessment of colleagues deputies remained.

All during the third convocation the budgetary commission held 300 plenary sessions, considerably advancing on intensity of the work the others of thoughts -

4 Overview of the activities of the State Duma of the third convocation. — SPb., 1912, Part I, p. 143 — 145.
5 N.V. Savich. Memoirs. — SPb.; Düsseldorf, 1993, building 34-35.
6 Tsit. on: Hrushchov A. Andrey Ivanovich Shingaryov: His life and activity. — M, 1918, p. 52.
7 RGIA, t. 1616, op. 1, 46, l. 1.

the sky commissions (the financial commission gathering 256 times was the second in number of the held plenary sessions). In five years 567 bills were transferred to the commission, it prepared and submitted to a general meeting 514 reports and more than 200 conclusions under the bills considered by other commissions. During the pre-war sessions of the Duma of the fourth convocation the commission worked with similar intensivnostyyu1.

Meetings of the budgetary commission it is considerable less than other commissions, broke due to the lack of quorum. In fight against "shirkers" usually reserved M.M. Alekseenko could threaten with application of administrative sanctions. So, in the report of the manager of the Ministerial pavilion at the State Duma L.K. Kumanin of December 11, 1912 it was reported: "In a meeting of the Budgetary commission after approval of three first small cases standing in the agenda the break was announced. Upon termination of a break by the time of resumption of a meeting from 57 (in this case either L.K. Kumanin, or publishers of the document made a mistake as 67 deputies were elected on December 3, 1912 as a member of the commission. — I.K.) was 13 members of the commission. Having waited for some time, the chairman of the commission declared a meeting closed behind lack of legal structure and declared that he considers himself obliged to inform the chairman Gos. Thoughts about not visit by members of the Budgetary commission of its meetings" 2.

At the very beginning of the Duma activity M.M. Alekseenko formulated the following general provisions by which members of the commission steadily were guided by consideration of the government budget and estimates of separate departments: "No state expense can be made if it is not based on the law issued in accordance with the established procedure; only such credits which come true earlier issued laws are included in separate estimates and in the general state painting; the conditional credits i.e. brought presumably or in a stock as not having support in earlier issued laws, are not subject races -

1 See: State Duma. Overview of the activities of the commissions and departments. Convocation 4. Session I. 1912 — 1913

— SPb., 1913, building 5 — 6.

2 L.K. Kumanin's reports...//History questions, 1999, No. 2, p. 17.

to a hodovaniye, how long under them legal basis will not be brought; separation of the conditional credits by the corresponding numbers of paragraphs of account estimates does not give to departments the chance to dispose of total sums of account paragraphs, including also the conditional credits" 3.

On the way M.M. Alekseenko to work on the government budget affected its merchant nature protesting against excess of expenses over income. The statement of deficit-free budget for 1910 became its first large victory. The government planned deficit of 84.2 million rubles for this year. The State Duma after laborious work of the commission approved the budget with excess of income over expenses on 4.7 million. Thanks to a good harvest, the budget of 1910 was executed with surplus in 232.9 million rubles 4 V achievements of the Russian economy on the eve of World War I there is a considerable merit of M.M. Alekseenko and the Duma state employees who are brought up by it. Growth of state revenues from 1907 to 1913 was 35% (respectively, 2,530 and 3,417 million rubles). M.M. Alekseenko could say with good reason that "the favorable financial position gives to the government a support for design of more or less large actions in internal life of the country and for worthy representative office of the state and its vital interests in external relations. Very often saying of the French minister of last century repeats: "Give me good policy, and I will give you good finance". The Russian payers of state revenues can, addressing representatives of the government, to tell: "You were given good finance, give us good policy"" 5.

The budgetary commission under the leadership of M.M. Alekseenko chose a way of cooperation with the government, seeking to avoid excess collisions with it, giving to disagreements the form of a technical dispute. At the same time various approaches of the commission and the ministries on limits of the budgetary powers of the Duma could not but lead to basic protivore-

3 E.V. Sapilov. The third State Duma (1907 — 1912): (From notes of the deputy). — M, 1993, p. 32.
4 M.M. Alekseenko Pyatiletiye the budget in the 3rd State Duma. — SPb., 1912, building 33 — 34.
5 M.M. Alekseenko. Decree. soch., p. 44.

to chiya. Fight of the commission against financial violations in sea department came to the end with resignation of two ministers and reorganization of department. But M.M. Alekseenko was not succeeded to assert the rights of the Duma for its participation in delivery of permissions to private societies for construction of the railroads with the state guarantees, in control over issue of tickets of the state treasury. Not without participation of the government the State Council failed rather moderate project of changes of the rules on March 8, 1906 significantly limiting the budgetary powers of national representation.

Business relations were established between M.M. Alekseenko and the Minister of Finance V.N. Kokovtsov. According to N.V. Savich, at them "was much in common, especially in a view of methods of management of our finance... In mentality both were something the general — big care, thrift, love for legality". At the same time it seemed to Savich that they for some reason disliked each other, though "appreciated correctness of the relations which were established between them" 1.

At the end of 1910 M.M. Alekseenko was invited to Tsarskoye Selo to be presented to the emperor. The royal audience, owing to instability of position of V.N. Kokovtsov in P.A. Stolypin's government, caused the mass of rumors including about possible appointment of M.M. Alekseenko the minister finansov2.

The authority acquired by M.M. Alekseenko as the chairman of the budgetary commission was so great among Duma members that during parliamentary crisis in March, 1911 the representatives of various fractions considered it as the best candidate for the post of the Chairman of the State Duma which was vacant after A.I. Guchkov's resignation. But he refused to stand, having given way almost guaranteed to it the Duma chairman M.V. Rodzyanko with whom it was connected by joint activity in Ekaterinoslav-

1 N.V. Savich. Decree. soch., p. 36.
2 See: A.A. Bobrinsky's diary (1910 — 1911)//Red archive, 1928, t. 1 (26), p. 140.

sky provincial zemstve3.

M.M. Alekseenko's role in the fate of oktyabristsky fraction of the State Duma of the 4th convocation was extremely important. Having refused to head it instead of A.I. Guchkov who did not go to the Duma, he together with N.A. Homyakov became the leader of her left wing, conducted negotiations with P.N. Milyukov, supporting creation of parliamentary majority with kadetami4.

At the meeting of fraction which took place on November 29, 1913 it was among those who supported obligation for the Duma Octobrists of resolutions of the party conference, oppositional in relation to the government, which took place the day before. However most of members of fraction decided that "acceptance of the tactical measures proposed by a meeting in each special case has to be defined by separate decisions of fraction". In response to it M.M. Alekseenko said the exit from fraction. Next day the meeting of group of the left Octobrists at which it was spoken about the fact that "there are no forces to suffer a yoke of the right oktyabrizm" that it is necessary to form independent political group took place. At the beginning of December the oppositional Octobrists united in the territorial group "Union on October 17", and M.M. Alekseenko together with N.V. Savich headed eyo5.

M.M. Alekseenko died on February 18, 1917. He often was ill, and in the last session appeared at a meeting of the budgetary commission only once — January 20. The budget of 1917 was considered in the commission without its participation. M.V. Rodzyanko, declaring at a plenary session on February 20, 1917 to deputies M.M. Alekseenko's death, noted: "The large state and public figure, the hot patriot, the selfless toiler rested. But, having passed the course of life, Mikhail Martynovich could die quietly in consciousness that it made for the benefit of the homeland everything that was in human forces" 6.

3 See: Ya.V. Glinka. Eleven years in the State Duma. 1906 — 1917: Diary and memoirs. — M, 2001, p. 81 — 82.
4 See: L.K. Kumanin's reports.//History questions, 1999, No. 1, p. 18.
5 In the same place, No. 10, p. 11 — 17.
6 State Duma. Verbatim records. Convocation 4. Session V. — Pg., 1917, stb. 1559 — 1560.
Buck George Edward
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