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Department of economy: a way of 100 years



prognozny resources of solid minerals the program of geological survey and development of mineral resources of the Tomsk region on the near-term outlook is also developed.

Efforts of the Tomsk geologists the industrial enterprises of the Tomsk region are almost completely provided on the near-term outlook with a source of raw materials of construction sands and sand-gravel mixes, fusible clays and glass sand. Some difficulties are had with providing with the refractory clays solved, however, when commissioning Tugansk or Of St. George titanium zirconium mestorozhde-

niya. Questions of possible operation of these fields and also the Bakcharsky iron ore field and Tomsk fields of bituminous brown coals, is not a geological task, and it is rather an a subject of marketing of the market and conditions of attraction of investments for their development. Concerning prospects of an ore zolotonosnost of the Tomsk district it should be noted that this problem remains to the reliable geological information opened in view of limitation on the metal-bearing Paleozoic base buried under powerful friable deposits.

In 1904 the Council of the Tomsk Institute of Technology made the decision on reading a course of lectures on political economy.

& #34; Minutes No. 7 of a meeting of Council of TTI of June 4, 1904, Paragraph 7. Council considers a question of ensuring teaching factory hygiene, jurisprudence and political economy. First of all, is decided to begin lecturing in these objects since November when students of the fifth year ordinary come back from a practical training, to pay reading week-long two lectures on 500 rub a year in view of the fact that the lecturer will not be busy 2 months in academic year. Then decided lecturing to offer on political economy to professor Sobolev who expressed on that consent in a private conversation since Direktorom".

September 11, 1904. The academic council of institute approved the plan for a subject matter political economy. This event laid the foundation for economic education in higher education institution. At that time the political economy was considered as exclusively university discipline and in polytechnical higher education institutions was not studied. It should be noted that it did not join and in educational programs of similar higher education institutions of foreign countries.

However the Tomsk Institute of Technology unlike other technical colleges was conceived by the technical university. Therefore its educational

plans were sated with theoretical university disciplines. Polytechnical institutes in St. Petersburg, Kharkiv, Kiev and Riga had a university bias. It were the first-class higher educational institutions. At the same time foreign polytechnical colleges (for example, in Manchester) degenerated and were actually transformed to average educational institutions.

The developing capitalist production demanded knowledge of laws of commodity market and labor market. At the beginning of the 20th century from all social disciplines of the most fashionable there was political economy. Even to the heirs to the throne studying according to the individual plan, the political economy was included in the section of the highest (military) sciences. At the Tomsk Institute of Technology the course of political economy was given along with divinity, factory hygiene, the legislation, the photo. However, the last was registered as the optional, and recommended discipline. In May, 1906. Council of TTI recognized divinity and history of religion as unnecessary disciplines, and they were excluded from curricula.

The Russian scientists and engineers (for example, D.I. Mendeleyev) were engaged in basic researches more and paid attention to applied science and technical invention less. Many of them considered even senseless patenting of the works, refused from

UDC 378 (571.16): 330

DEPARTMENT of ECONOMY: The WAY OF 100 YEARS

N.V. Beringova, L.M. Borisova, E.S. Kogotkova

Tomsk Polytechnic University of E-mail: economics@tpu.ru

In October, 2004 the department of economy celebrates the 100-year birthday. Outstanding scientists-economists contributed to the history of department: V.V. Radayev, D.M. Kazakevich, V.P. Groshev. The significant contribution to development of department was brought by professor Yu.S. Nekhoroshev heading it 37 years. Since 2000 the young Doctor of Economics G.A. Barysheva manages department. Now in staff of department 4 doctors of science, 25 candidates of science. 5 associate professors, over candidate — 20 employees work on doctoral dissertations. Annually at department not less than two master's dissertations are defended.

participation in good bargains, stood for so nazyva-

m m G1

emy pure science or science for the sake of science. At the same time, technically backward Russia did favorable competent application of already known and well fulfilled inventions. Not accidentally in Russia the type of the research engineer, scientist, but not engineer-inventor was developed (as, for example, in the USA Edison, Thompson, etc.).

Professor Mikhail Nikolaevich Sobolev became the first teacher of economic science in TTI.

In the state archive of the Tomsk region the following document on the first teacher of political economy prof. Mikhail Nikolaevich Sobolev remained:

(OCTOBER, 1904 Tomsk)

Mikhail Nikolaevich! I have honor to notify you, M.N. that from the order of. The trustee of the educational district reading a course of political economy in TTI entrusted to me from the plan for hiring since September 1 of the current year with a reward on five hundred rubles a year is entrusted to you.

Reporting about it, most obediently I ask you to welcome to the hall of council of Institute on Monday 11 this September at 12 o'clock in the afternoon for discussion of setting of teaching the subject charged to you.

Accept respect.

Signature

Mikhail Nikolaevich Sobolev was the talented young scientist, the graduate of the Moscow university at this time. By the beginning of work in Tomsk in quality and. of ordinary professor M.N. Sobolev gave lectures at the Moscow university, in 1869-1892 worked abroad. The research on a subject & #34 became result of its foreign business trip; Mobilization land собственности".

On November 2, 1904 the program of a course which was previously distributed to all members of council for acquaintance was discussed at one of meetings of the academic council of TTI.

The copy of the program of a course made by the prof. M.N. Sobolev remained, and we have an opportunity to get acquainted with this document [1]:

I. Subject of political economy.

II Theory of exchange. Teoriya Highway of the credit.

IV The theory of distribution in capitalist economy.

V. Working question. Its contents.

VI Forms of capitalist production. Students of the 4th course of mechanical office and students of the 5th course of mountain, construction and chemical offices became the first listeners of discipline of political economy. Lectures were given two hours a week, seminars were not provided as the political economy was considered as an elective course at the beginning.

Table 1. A fragment of the curriculum of the Tomsk Institute of Technology on 1914/1915 uch. year [2]

Offices Mechanical Construction Mountain Chemical

Objects L/U L/U L/U L/U

Divinity 4 4 4 4

Jurisprudence 4 4 4

Political economy 4 4 4 4

Factory hygiene 4 4 - 4

Note: L are lectures, At — exercises

The circle of sources on the basis of which studying this discipline was conducted was enough shi-

Fig. 1. M.N. Sobolev among professors of the Tomsk higher education institutions (the top row, the first at the left)

fate: here both works of classics of political economy, and representatives of various directions in an economic thought of the 19th century, including K. Marx and F. Engels, Russians and foreign philosophers and historians of the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. All this provided breadth of vision of students.

Right after the October revolution the question of teaching political economy did not stand. The revolution of 1917 which cancelled a private property on fixed assets of production called into question existence of political economy as sciences. In the central press the fierce debate of the leading economists of Russia about a subject of political economy was developed. In the 20th years of the 20th century in economic science the idea dominated that the subject of political economy is limited only market, first of all to capitalist economy. And it is necessary to investigate only economic laws hidden by market elements, and & #34; at a socialist system the political economy loses the meaning, - N.I. Bukharin wrote - because human relations will be simple and clear, and to the place of regularities of spontaneous life there will be a regularity of a conscious activity коллектива" [3]. This point of view was dominating, but not only. Restriction of a subject of political economy only as economy of capitalism was opposed by authors of work & #34; Course political экономии" A.N. Bagdanov and I.K. Stepanov. I.I. Skvortsov-Stepanov submitted this problem for discussion in Communistic academy in the report & #34; What is political economy? & #34; where called restriction of a subject of political economy & #34; inexpressible methodological нелепостью" trying to prove that the political economy as science, learns economic laws of development of society at various stages of its civilization. However the bulk of speakers of the speaker did not support. As a result the provision that the political economy studies only a commodity and capitalist system according to D. Rosenberg, gained the nature of dogma and & #34; for any economist it became just indecent to reconsider this вопрос".

As for methodology, it, first, formally kept the main lines of the methodology of K. Marx based on a primacy of the sphere of production of goods; secondly, the ideological interpretation of economic problems was specifics of methodology of the Soviet economists; thirdly, infallibility of authorities was an indispensable condition of theoretical researches and discussions: K. Marx, F. Engels, V.I. Lenin, I.V. Stalin.

The question of political economy stopped being debatable after resolutions of the regular party congress or an exit of theoretical work of V.I. Lenin, I.V. Stalin. In particular, revision of provisions of work of N.I. Bukharin began in October, 1929 after a release of the XI Lenin collection in which V.I. Lenin in 1920 against N.I. Bukharin's phrase & #34; the end of capitalist commodity society will be also the end политэкономии" marked: & #34; Неверно". And

against a phrase & #34; the political economy studies commodity производство" noted: & #34; Not только". As a result publications with broad interpretation of a subject of political economy followed [4, 5].

On March 4, 1921 there was a resolution of Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR & #34; About establishment of the general scientific minimum obligatory for teaching in all the highest школах". On the basis of this resolution which became the first Charter of the higher school in a set of general education objects the course of political economy was absent. There was a splitting of political economy as sciences, it entered a set of technological courses. In the list of these courses there was a discipline & #34; economic политика" which in TTI was read by professor of TGU Nikolay Petrovich Oganovsky from 1920 to 1922.

A considerable part of the economists standing on Marxist positions sought to prove need of theoretical studying a communistic way of production, and in this regard in scientific literature the discussion concerning contents of economic laws of development of socialism was developed again.

Summer of 1924 the presidium of the Tomsk gubkom made the decision on creation of department of social sciences in higher education institutions of Tomsk. Supported by Sibkrayk the solution of the Tomsk gubkom and promised to petition before the Central Committee of RCP(b) for that the experts who graduated institute of Red professorate were sent to the Tomsk higher education institutions.

Scientific, educational and public life of institute passed not only under close attention of party bodies, but also under rather tough guide. So, in September, 1924 on bureau of the Tomsk gubkom the list of teachers of future department & #34 was approved; Theory and practice ленинизма" and in October of the same year the department was solemnly open. Compliance or not compliance of the teacher was defined not so much by scientific knowledge, how many dedication to party and revolution. So, training course & #34; Capitalism and proletarian революция" K. Ku-lapov, the party member since 1917 who had only secondary education and arrived to Siberia according to the party order in 1922 [6] read.

Table 2. A fragment of the curriculum of the Tomsk Institute of Technology on 1924/1925 uch. year [2]

Faculties Mechanical Construction Mountain Chemical

Trimesters 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

Objects L/U L/U L/U L/U L/U L/U L/U L/U

General course

mountain 4/1 4/1

Foreign 2 2 2

language

Political 2 2 2 2

build the USSR

Capitalism and

proletarian 2 2 2 2

revolution

Having fulfilled the put term in three years, K. Coolah-pov in April, 1925 submitted the application with a request to exempt it from lecturing in connection with an overload educational instructions and to allow to leave Siberia because of the chronic disease which aggravated in local climate. & #34; Bureau губкома" considered his application and issued the following decree: & #34; To Issue to the communist K. Kulapov the reprimand on two points: first, for binge with non-parties, secondly, dancing around костра" [7].

The discussion concerning political economy and economic science continued. It is known that the truth including scientific, is born in a dispute. Scientists argued, but for some of them search of the truth cost not only freedoms, but also lives. We do not set a task to give the analysis to that terrible time, but to remember those from our colleagues on whom swept & #34; red колесо" we consider a duty.

In April, 1935 at a meeting of bureau of the Tomsk City town committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) personal case of the department chair of social and economic disciplines, the associate professor I.I. Kopyev was heard. Systematic dragging of counterrevolutionary views was incriminated to him. So, he was accused that he incorrectly consecrated a problem of creation of communism in a single country, or did not expose & #34; социал-фашистское" K. Marx's interpretation about productive work. The decision was as a result made: & #34; As the double dealer who is systematically dragging in teaching Trotskyist zinovyevskiye counterrevolutionary views, I.I. Kopyev from ranks of the Communist Party исключить". From institute he was fired, got a job on the Tomsk lesoperevalochny base the manager of planned group.

shchvyk.

- ^Н^с

And & gt; at

Fig. 2. I.I. Kopyev, the department chair of social and economic disciplines from 1933 to 1935

The second employee of department of social and economic sciences - associate professor M.I. Myaskovskaya received the strict reprimand issued to it by the Tomsk City town committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) for & #34 too; извращения" the ideas of creation of communism in a single country. Though essence of it & #34; извращения" was in a statement that the matter is still theoretically insufficiently handled. After a reprimand the resolution on prohibition within a year ra-followed

to botat as the social scientist. In May, 1935 M.I. Myaskovskaya goes to Odessa.

According to People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs in Siberia there was widely extensive network of the underground Trotskyist organization. I.I. Kopyev and M.I. Myaskovskaya were arrested as active participants who prepared terrorist attack over the secretary of the Siberian regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Eykhe. The firmness of this woman which, despite interrogations with & #34 causes admiration; пристрастием" stood up to the end on the innocence, unlike other defendants, on the first interrogations denying the fault, and on the following which recognized. But, despite this, I.I. Kopyev and M.I. Myaskovskaya were sentenced to execution. The sentence was carried out in Novosibirsk in April, 1937

In 1982 I.I. Kopyev, and M.I. Myaskovskaya in 1992, completely for the lack of corpus delicti were rehabilitated.

In September, 1930 Pavel Zakharovich Zakharov passes to work into the Tomsk industrial institute. He devoted forty six years of the life to polytechnical institute, having passed all steps of growth - from the assistant to the head of the department.

December 4, 1942. The all-Union committee on affairs of the Higher school at SNK USSR confirmed Pavel Zakharovich Zakharov to the post of the acting as the head of the department of Marxism-Leninism; actually it executed these functions since July, 1941. In October, 1947 the department of political economy was formed, and Pavel Zakharovich becomes her manager till September, 1963. Thus, the department changed the name many times:

1924 there are theories and practicians of Leninism;
1934 - social and economic sciences;
1937 - fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism;
1947 - political economy;
1991 - bases of the economic theory;
1991 there are economies.

For operating time at institute P.Z. Zakharov becomes the noticeable personality not only in TPI, but also in the city, his name is well known to all scientific and social and political elite.

In 1953, having graduated with honors from law department of the Tomsk state university, having gained the diploma of the lawyer, on department of political economy to a position of the assistant Yu.S. Nekhoroshev is distributed. During this period the teachers who got economic education in capital higher education institutions, but Yury Sergeyevich the first among the staff of department worked at department, having finished in 1960 a one-year postgraduate study at department of political economy I LIE, defended the master's thesis. A thesis - & #34; Inventive work and its material стимулирование". In 1963 Yu.S. Nekhoroshev was elected to a position of the head of the department of political economy which headed till 2000 - 37 years. In 1975 in Tomsk go-

the sudarstvenny university Yury Sergeyevich brilliantly defends the doctoral dissertation on a subject: & #34; Use of economic forms in production and realization of products applied науки" also becomes the first doctor of science among teachers of all four departments of social sciences of TPI. Since 1989 Yury Sergeyevich is a Honored worker of science of the Russian Federation, since 1994 - the full member of Academy of the humanities, and since 1997 - the academician of the International academy of science of science.

Scientific activity of Yu.S. Nekhoroshev is rather fruitful. He wrote and published more than 180 scientific works, including 5 monographs. Scientific interest & #34; Intellectual property and the scientific and innovative market in a transitional economy of Rossii". In monographs and publications the theoretical justification of many provisions of an economic reform is given. Yu.S. Nekhoroshev as the scientist, is known in wide circles of economists of Russia and beyond its limits. It should be noted the fact that scientific work at department was strengthened since that moment when it was headed by Yu.S. Nekhoroshev. Before the emphasis was placed, mainly, on educational and methodical activity of the teacher.

Everything that Yu.S. Nekhoroshev does - does

perfectly: school with a silver medal, the honors degree, the first candidate of science at department, the first doctor of science at faculty. Monasteries of superiority is not confluence of favorable circumstances, all this is

result of huge, everyday work. Strikes Yu.S. Nekhoroshev's working ability. Throughout all the life Yu.S. Nekhoroshev daily besides the main work is engaged on 5-6 h a day, without doing an exception neither on a holiday, nor on holidays. In pre-perestroika times the teachers of departments of social sciences were obliged to give lectures for the population at factories and the plants, in state farms and collective farms. To tell the truth, often listeners had to be kept in audiences by force of the power. But when the lecture was given by Yu.S. Nekhoroshev, listeners did not hurry to leave the hall. The erudition, simplicity of statement, truthfulness of information, turned it from the regular lecturer of society & #34; Знание" in the interesting, confidential interlocutor.

To many colleagues from department Yu.S. Nekhoroshev helped to be approved at the professional level, doing it is imperceptible for people around. And life such is that there passes time, and seems that our formation is exclusively own merit. But he does not demand gratitude, just does the part, helping people that demonstrates true intelligence, which, as we know, category rather moral, than scientific.

Now at department there was own school of sciences working according to the target comprehensive program. It gave the chance in 1997 at department to open a postgraduate study in which graduate students not only from Russia, but also from abroad study for today. In February

Fig. 3. Department of political economy of the Tomsk polytechnical institute, 1959. The first row from left to right: V.M. Zubets, V.N. Kozlova, V.G. Zakharov, A.P. Goryunov, V.V. Radayev, A.I. Elov, (second row) N.G. Smirnov, I.E. Paštikov, P.Z. Zakharov, I.I. Zakarlyuk, Yu.S. Nekhoroshev, I.M. Rusanov, (third row) Yu.N. Fedorenko, I.P. Zakharova, V.V. Bulane, I.M. Ivanova, G.V. Vyatkin, A.P. Litvintseva, E.S. Kogotkova, E.M. Volodina

2000 successfully the graduate student from the People's Republic of China defended the dissertation. Under the leadership of Yu.S. Nekhoroshev the applicants protected more than 40 candidate and 1 doctoral dissertation. He is a member two problem and one the expert Russian Committee of Councils for the higher education and two Councils for award of academic degrees of the doctor and Candidate of Economic Sciences in Tomsk and Irkutsk.

On the basis of contemporary records by us it is established that for the 100-year period of its existence in different years worked at department 201 persons. Among them there were doctors of science, professors, academicians or statesmen following experts subsequently:

1. M.N. Sobolev is a Dr.Econ.Sci., the master of laws, professor of TGU and TTI.
2. D.M. Kazakevich is a Dr.Econ.Sci., professor, the deputy director of Institute of economy and the organization of industrial production.
3. Yu.S. Nekhoroshev is a Dr.Econ.Sci., the academician of AGN, professor of department of economy of TPU.
4. V.M. tooth is Dr.Econ.Sci., professor, the rector of the Tambov State pedagogical university.
5. V.V. Radayev is a Dr.Econ.Sci., professor, the department chair of political economy of MSU.
6.
9.

V.G. Zakharov is the department chair of the Leningrad Institute of Technology, the former Minister of Culture of the USSR.

V.P. Groshev is a Dr.Econ.Sci., professor, the chairman of the board of directors & #34; INKOM банка" rector of Academy of national economy of V.G. Plekhanov, vice president of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs.

S.V. Savin is a rector & #34; Moscow international higher school of business and рынка" (MIRBIS).

P.P. Kondakov is the First Deputy CEO of the Tomsk television, the member of the Union of journalists of Russia.

10. V.V. Eremin is a PhD Econ., the associate professor, the deputy of the State Duma of the Tomsk region.
11. A.P. Goryunov is a PhD Econ., professor, the department chair of political economy TGUSURA.
12. L.M. Goryushkin - and. N, academician, page of N of page. Institute of history of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science.
13. E.F. Gavrilenko. - PhD Econ., independent expert.
14. V.V. Sizov is a PhD Econ., professor, the department chair of political economy of TGPU.

In 2000 the department of economy is headed by the schoolgirl Yu.S. Galina Anzelmovna Nekhorosheva Baryshe-va. And on February 14, 2003 the young manager of department successfully defends the doctoral dissertation on a subject & #34; The Intellectual resource and involvement of a product of science in market оборот". It should be noted that it is the second doctoral dissertation on economy executed at the Tomsk Polytechnic University by the staff member.

Now the department of economy carries out training of specialists on internal and intramural and extramural forms of education on specialties & #34; National экономика" & #34; Accounting, analysis and аудит".

By results of 2003 the staff of department of economy became the winner among humanitarian and social and economic departments, took 1 place in rating and gained the Diploma of 1 degree.

Now the staff of department of economy actively got into gear of the project & #34; Development and approbation of the additional educational program & #34; Management of innovations in knowledge-intensive технологиях" within the target program of university level as a part of the Comprehensive program of development of TPU for 2004

To one of the monographs by G.A. Baryshev writes in the preface: & #34; The Possibility of the present researches the author is obliged by belonging to on-stage performance group of the Tomsk Polytechnic University rich with the schools of sciences, each of which played is defined -

Fig. 4. 2000 is-100 years old of TPU. In the foreground the staff of department of economy: (the first row from left to right) L.I. Safonova, V.A. Kolupayeva, L.I. Gavrilenko, (the second row on the center) G.A. Barysheva, Yu.S. Nekhoroshev, V.P. Groshev

a ny role in giving of dynamism to scientific and technical progress. The school of the prof. Yu.S. Nekhoroshev to which the author has honor of причислять" is engaged in the special researches devoted to development of fundamentals of innovative economy developing scientific

in

The department has glorious past and is directed in the future. The history of department proceeds...

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. GATO. - Fund 194, inventory 1, unit hr. 32. - Page 231.
2. Tomsk Institute of Technology of 1900-1925. Anniversary collection. — Tomsk: Edition of the Siberian Institute of Technology, 1928. — 173 pages
3. N.I. Bukharin. Political economy of the investor. — M.-L., 1925.

— 47 pages

4. A. Bogdanov, I. Stepanov Kurs political economy. — T. 2.

— Issue 4. — M, 1925. — 95 pages

5. N.K. N.K. To a question of socialism economy//the Bolshevik. — 1931. — No. 22 — 23; 1932. — No. 1 — 2.
6. PATO. — Fund 1, inventory 1, case 130. — L. 119.
7. PATO. — Fund 1, inventory 1, case 153. — L. 413.
8. G.A. Barysheva. An innovative factor and an intellectual resource in dynamization of economy of Russia / Under the editorship of the prof. Yu.S. Nekhoroshev. — Tomsk: Tomsk publishing house. un-that, 2001. — 224 pages
Larry Miller
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