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Category: History

Historiography of historical and psychological researches of the 2nd half of the 20th century.



izucheniye last

(problems, approaches, the ideas, concepts, schools of sciences, biographies of scientists) allows to recreate and not to lose the saved-up data of last years and, thereby, to save new generations of researchers from possible mistakes, to help to give new interpretation to some facts, to fill some gaps in the history of domestic psychology. It is impossible to understand the past without in-depth study of the biography of psychologists, social life of psychological community.

What leading approaches to a research of a personnel in the history of psychology how they are connected with a sociohistorical context, political and ideological conditions of public life, a condition of science? What place and a role of historical scientific research of a personnel in the system of historical scientific research in relation to national history of psychology?

These questions arose in connection with a research of life and K.K. Platonov (1906-1984) creativity — one of prominent domestic scientists, the age-mate of the XX century which main works fall on the second half of the XX century. Reconstruction of stages of his life and creativity cannot be carried out out of the civil history of the country. But also in general — it is difficult to understand approaches, the principles, samples and methodological reference points of a historical and psychological research of creativity of the scientist, as well as evolution of a role and the place of historical and scientific studying a personnel in the system of history of psychology out of a sociohistorical context. In this regard history of science can be adequately reconstructed only taking into account its social history during various temporary periods.

For judgment of features of activity of psychologists and historians of psychology of the second half of the XX century in our issledo-

T.V. Zvereva, O.G. Noskova Historiography of istorikopsikhologichesky researches of the 2nd half of the 20th century

vaniya scientometric approach was chosen. In particular content-analiza1, names of the dissertation researches on history of psychology protected during the period since the beginning of the fortieth until the end of the ninetieth years of the XX century were analyzed with a support on the equipment. At the same time funds of the Russian state national library were used (Moscow). All array of names of theses of a historical and psychological perspective was broken on decades (starting with the 40th in 90th years). The total number of theses of this direction for the specified period made 300 works.

Features of historical and psychological researches in different years of the second half of the XX century are rather brightly highlighted by substantial comparison of names of dissertation works. The analysis of keywords of names of theses allowed to allocate the following their directions: 1) a research of a personnel (psychological views in creativity of the certain scientist); 2) studying separate problems of psychology in works of the scientist; 3) creativity of the scientist as leader of school of sciences, characteristic of school of sciences; 4) history of the separate concept, problem, question (subject and logical, categorial analysis of the scientific theory); 5) history of the directions, the industries in psychology; 6) philosophical and methodological analysis of approaches, principles psikholo-

Giya; 7) social history of psychological science, its industries; 8) characteristic of psychology in the country (in the region) during a certain historical period.

The first three points in the directions of historical and psychological researches designated above were united in group of "theses on a personnel", points with 4 on 8 are united in group "other subjects" of historical and psychological researches. Distribution of number of the dissertation researches on history of psychology summarized on decades is presented in table 1. At the same time the total number of theses and, among them — the number of the theses devoted to creativity of certain scientists is specified.

The provided data demonstrate that after the termination of the Great Patriotic War the intensity of istorikopsikhologichesky researches was maximum in post-war decade, at the same time 81-85% of all dissertation historical and psychological works were devoted to a personnel. In the 60th years the decrease by 1/3 total number of historical and psychological works is noted and the number of the dissertation researches devoted to creativity of certain scientists is more than twice reduced.

In the next decades (70th, 80th, 90th of the 20th century) it is possible to note maintaining this subject (istoriko-psikhologiche-

Table 1

The NUMBER of the DISSERTATIONS DEFENDED IN our COUNTRY ON the PSYCHOLOGY STORIES DURING the DIFFERENT PERIODS of the SECOND HALF of the XX CENTURY

Decades the 40th years the 50th years the 60th years the 70th years the 80th years the 90th years

Total number of theses 16 47 30 58 50 90

Including, on a personnel 13 40 14 20 16 30

Theses on a personnel (in %) 81% 85% 47% % 4 3 % 2 3 33%

Theses on other subjects (in %) 19% 15% % 3 5 66% % 8 6 67%

Fig. 1. A percentage share of theses on the personnel and other subjects of history of psychology protected in the second half of the XX century

120 100 80 60 40 20
0

□ theses on other subjects

□ theses on a personnel

19 15
53 66 68 67
81 85 47 34 33 —

the 40th the 50th the 60th the 70th the 80th the 90th

the sky analysis of creativity of certain scientists) up to the present at the level of 3234%. And it is quite justified because the scientific product is generated by creativity of the scientist which is determined by features of his personality and all cultural, social and organizational and information conditions of his activity.

However the general statistical data need to be supplemented with the informative analysis allowing to judge an object of research about to what figures of science and culture attention by historians of psychology in different years of the considered history period was paid.

the Data provided in table 2 and in figure 2, show the following regularities of interests of historians of psychology clearly.

In the 40-50th years in the center of attention of the historical and scientific works focused on a personnel there were works of philosophers, educators, doctors and physiologists. Researchers were interested in the psychological ideas of mainly domestic progressive cultural figures, philosophers of social democratic orientation, such as N.A. Dobrolyubov, D.I. Pisarev, N.G. Chernyshevsky, classics of literary creativity — L.N. Tolstoy, V.G. Belinsky, teachers — N.F. Bunakov, V.I. Vodovozov,

And. S. Makarenko, D.I. Tikhomirov, K.D. Ushin-sky, classics of Marxism — G.V. Plekhanov, I.V. Stalin. However most of scientific researchers addressed works of physiologists — I.M. Sechenova and I.P. Pavlova. In the next decades the percentage share of the theses devoted to works of teachers and philosophers is reduced, making 17% in the 90th years.

The number of the theses focused on identification of psychological views of domestic classics of physiology reaches a maximum in the 40-50th years, so, in particular, 17 theses are devoted I.P. Pavlova and 10 theses — to I.M. Sechenov. And it not the accidental phenomenon, but the fact which is quite adequately reflecting the phenomenon of ideological management of science which was especially brightly shown in specified pe-

Table 2

The NUMBER of the THESES DEVOTED to WORKS of PSYCHOLOGISTS, PHYSIOLOGISTS AND DOCTORS, PHILOSOPHERS, TEACHERS AND WRITERS (in %)

Personnel Decades

the 40th the 50th the 60th the 70th the 80th the 90th

Psychologists 8 9 43 65 56 78

Physiologists, doctors 17 56 14 13 6 6

Philosophers, educators, writers, teachers 75 33 43 22 38 17

Fig. 2. A ratio of number of the theses devoted to works of psychologists, physiologists and philosophers educators, teachers (in %)

riod. Interest in the psychological ideas of scientists-scientists, physiologists remains also in the subsequent time, but among a personnel of this direction new figures, including, I.P. Pavlov's opponents — V.M. Bekhterev, N.A. Bernstein, L.O. Orbeli, I.A. Sikorsky appear.

Of course, it is not the I.P. Pavlov who is deservedly awarded with the Nobel Prize, as well as not in the identity of the modest and delicate person, but the outstanding physiologist and the founder of objective psychology in Russia — I.M. Sechenova. Matter in that spiritual atmosphere of authoritativeness, dogmatism which was spread by the political country leaders, creating idols, "sign figures" from the personality and heritage of the true scientists-scientists.

In the 40-50th years the minimum interest in life and works of professional psychologists is noted, the share of such theses does not exceed 10%. Actually psikholo-

din three works are devoted during this period, namely A.F. La-zurskogo, K. Levin and N.N. Lange's creativity is investigated.

In the 60-90th years the attention of historians of psychology to that personnel which devoted the life and scientific creativity actually to psychology increases, their percentage share increases, respectively, from 43% up to 78%. The data provided in figure 2 would be incorrect to be treated in such a way that in the 1940-1950th years the domestic psychology as the industry of scientific knowledge, is for the first time isolated from philosophy, physiology, pedagogics. No, it is about restoration of this area in the rights after defeat in the mid-thirties when in the conditions of dictatorship of the proletariat humanitarian knowledge could develop only in line with the tightly regulated ideological direction.

From the second half of the 50th years, after the XX congress of the CPSU which condemned a cult personal

I.V. Stalin's st — in our country the process of recovery of practical scientific psychology in the field of medicine, education, in various branches of the national economy, transport, in army, in art, sport began.

In the 70-80th years in national history of psychology there are relevant vnut-rinauchny problems of its development, questions of the subject and categorial analysis, a problem of methodology and the theory of history of psychology, evolution of its scientific subject are developed. At this time and, especially, in the 90th years among the dissertation works devoted to creativity of hotel scientists, figures of professional psychologists begin to hold a specific place. And, at last, the development program of national history of psychology planned by B.M. Teplov in his report at the Second Transcaucasian conference on history psikhologii2 is implemented namely, not only works of domestic professional psychologists, but also concepts of classics of world psychological science are considered. So in the 70th years among a domestic personnel attention is paid: To B.G. Ananyev, K.N. Kornilov, S.V. Kravkov. In fact, during this period the rehabilitation of pedology as science and creativity of her representatives, outstanding Russian paedologists — M.Ya. Basov, P.P. Blonsky, L.S. Vygotsky is carried out. This process becomes especially intensive in the 90th years when there is, at last, an opportunity to correlate in all completeness scientific creativity of scientists and features of a sociohistorical context of their life and scientific activity.

In the 70-90th years the comprehensive analysis of scientific heritage of the classic of objective psychology, the reflexologist V.M. Bekhterev proceeds.

In the 80-90th years such domestic personnel as B.G. Ananyev, P.P. Blonsky, L.S. Vygotsky, P.F. Kapte-rev, A.F. Lazursky, N.N. Lange, V.N. Myasi-shchev, S.L. Rubenstein, B.M. Teplov, D.N. Uz - is investigated

nadza, G.I. Chelpanov. Works of domestic psychologists are considered, as a rule, in connection with development of a world psychological thought.

In the 70-80th years the historians of psychology introduce for scientific use domestic psychology names and the ideas of classics of psychoanalysis and neofreudianism (Zh. Lakan, W. Raich, G.S. Salliven, Z. Freud, K. Horni). Creativity of such figures, known in world psychology, as A. Vallon is analyzed,

V. Vundt, M. Mayerson, Ollport, Zh. Piaget, Zh-item Sartre, B.F. Skinner, E. Fromm, K.G. Jung. It is possible to notice that in the center of interests of historians of psychology for the last thirty years there are domestic and foreign scientists, thinkers, organizers of science who made a powerful contribution to formation of the base of all-psychological knowledge, psychology of the personality, problems of differential psychology and psychology of development. At the same time the history of development of applied psychology developed through the analysis of destiny and creativity of her leaders remains so far almost not studied. The designated gap interferes with normal development of psychological science as by the beginning of HH1 of a century the domestic psychology becomes more and more mass profession exactly thanks to expansion of fields of applied psychology.

The originality of formation of the practice-focused psychology in our country as we assume, can be revealed through the historical and scientific analysis of life and creativity of her outstanding representatives.

In applied psychology of the personality — Konstantin Konstantinovich Platonov (1906-1984) can be such figure. The historiography of the domestic historical and psychological works performed in the second half of the XX century can form a methodological basis to reconstruction of a sociohistorical context, a public background on which scientific ideas of K.K. Platonov because blossoming of scientific creativity of this scientist fell on the specified period grew ripe.

1 N.N. Bogomolova, N.G. Malysheva, T.G. Ste-fanenko. Content analysis//Social psychology: Workshop: Studies. a grant for students of higher education institutions / G.M. Andreyeva, etc. M., 2006. Page 131-162.
2 B.M. Teplov. About some general questions of development of history of psychology//psychology Questions. Materials of the second Transcaucasian conference of psychologists / Under the editorship of M.A. Mazmanyan. Yerevan, 1960. Page 3-13.
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