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The Karelian Isthmus in the 1940th years: migration processes on both sides of border

g. I. Bolshakova


In article some plots of history of migration of the Soviet and Finnish population in the 1940th years are considered. Leaning on the published Finnish sources and materials of the Leningrad regional state archive in Vyborg, the author shows difficulties and consequences of resettlements Finnish the Karelian, forcedly left the homeland — the territory which departed to the Soviet Union, settling and perception of "new lands" by the Soviet immigrants.


Some subjects from the history of migration of the Soviet and Finnish population in the 1940s are considered in the article. Basing on the published Finnish sources and materials of the Leningrad Regional State Archive in Vyborg, author shows difficulties and consequences of resettlements of the Finnish Karelian, forced to leave the native land — the territory, departed to the Soviet Union, settling and perception of the "new grounds" by Soviet immigrants.

Results of the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939 — 1940 and war — continuations of 1941 — 1944 (so Finns most often call the Great Patriotic War) led to painful processes of migrations

the population both in the Soviet Union, and in Finland. Under the terms of peace treaties (The Moscow 1940, truce of 1944 and after the Parisian 1947) Finland had to exempt from presence

the civilian population the territories won by the Soviet Union, and the Soviet immigrants — to occupy them and to master.

Within present borders of the Russian Federation it is located northern and southern parts of the departed territories: Pri-ladozhye to the width at which the village of Hiitola is located administratively is a part of the Republic of Karelia, the Karelian Isthmus is a part of the Leningrad Region of the Russian Federation.

The subject of organized population shift in post-war time is not new in literature. However the existing works of the Russian authors are not really numerous therefore this phenomenon did not receive exhaustive lighting for any given both objective, and subjective reasons. Moreover, problems of migration of the Finnish population, their placement in the territory of Finland were not considered by the Russian scientists at all. The research of a problem of the Soviet period of development of the Karelian Isthmus which began since March, 1939 when, as we know, Finns left the departed lands enters a circle of scientific interests of the author of this article, and the Soviet immigrants began to occupy them and to make habitable.

It should be noted what began to researches of a problem of leaving by Finns and settling by the Soviet immigrants of the Karelian Isthmus, local historians E.A. Balashov and V.N. Stepakov put. In particular, E.A. Balashov collected and published extensive local history material on stories of the Finnish and post-war periods of development of the Karelian Isthmus [4]. The collection "Border and People" published in 2005 by group of authors — participants of the expedition of the European University in St. Petersburg (Russia) and the Joensuu University (Finland) conducted in 2000 — 2003 in the territory of the Priozersk district of the Leningrad Region and the Landenpokhsky Region of Republic of Karelia is worthy attention. The collection included the sections devoted vospomina-

to niya of modern inhabitants of the region about the evacuation period, moving and adjustment of life on new lands [1]. The subject of the designated problem becomes a basis of a number of dissertation researches [3]. Now the questions raised by researchers lead to a certain public response not only in Russia and Finland, but also is far beyond their limits. For example, from some states obvious attempts to push Finland to revision of borders with Russia [5, page 88], to thereby kindle and use ethnic opposition are observed. It, in turn, cannot but affect stability of the relations in the region.

The Finnish scientists, understanding importance of the brought-up subject, actively seek to study it. It should be noted that if till 1990th the majority of publications was published in the Finnish, Swedish, English languages and it was inaccessible to the Russian citizens, then now there was literature and in Russian, turned to the Russian-speaking reader [2].

In Finland the Commission on Culture of the organization of "The Karelian societies of societies Uusi-maa" during 1997 — 1998, for example, collected at refugees from aloof territories their traveling notes and descriptions of the new residence. Data arrived as well from the organizations, and the people accepting the evacuated Finnish inhabitants. As a result, in total, more than two hundred materials were received in the form of notes and magnetic films (data for 2001 — G.B.) [9, page 19]. Studying the Soviet history of the former Finnish lands became one of the main objectives of the international project [1, page 7] headed by the Finnish historian Antti Lyne. The existing websites of the Leningrad Region [11], and online medias in the form of a forum give to Finland [12] the chance to conduct open, diverse and competent dialogue and also to report about the news relating to a problem.

Current situation, extent of development of a problem also gave the chance to continue completion of a gap in complete perception of post-war events and the related migration processes on both sides: Finnish and Soviet.

Now this question is especially relevant. In the modern world there are identical events when as a result of military operations people suffer and perish, become refugees, forcedly leave the home ground. It is important to remind that the tragedy of a military and post-war time, is that, on a bigger measure, it is endured by the simple people irrespective of nationality to which lot such terrible tests as loss of the family center, leaving of native places and all that enters the concept "homeland" fall, in our opinion.

In the forties it is test 20th century both the Finnish, and Soviet immigrants worried. The tragic element of situation Finnish the Karelian was that the people left the earth, native twice, inherited from grandfathers and fathers. Other people — the Soviet, having other culture, language, traditions, populated it, but already in own way mastered, often breaking and distorting the debugged public system of life of the population of the former Finnish earth. Leaving the transferred territories and moving on new residences in the country or abroad, the Finnish immigrants felt like derelicts — "эвакко" as they in relation to them used this word. (Evakko — from armor. evacuate — to move, devastate. — B.).

Prior to military operations diplomatic steps were repeatedly taken on November 30, 1939 for transfer of frontier deep into of the Karelian Isthmus. The frontier fixed by the contract on river. The sister, in 32 km from Leningrad, was acceptable between administrative units of one state, but concealed in herself potential danger, having become border between two-

mya independent states. The Soviet government tried to ensure safety to northwest boundaries of the country and, first of all, Leningrad which was the second largest and the importance the city of the USSR.

In 1938 it is confidential, at the beginning of October, 1939 already openly Soviet Union once again demanded negotiations and exchange of territories. Within more than two months in Moscow ineffectual negotiations were conducted. Finland persisted as transfer of the territory and also naval base in Hankoniyemi which were demanded by Stalin decisively would reduce defense capability of the country. The threat of war at that time was so obvious that to the Finnish population of border villages, Vyborg and the islands of the Gulf of Finland for safety it was offered to leave native places. From a twenty-kilometer corridor of border territories about 45 thousand Finnish the Karelian were evacuated. Leaving, inhabitants very much hoped for fast return. From memoirs of Yalo Suursokho who endured such evacuation: "In the fall of 1939 when the Soviet Union threatened Finland with war for realization of the territorial claims, inhabitants of the island of Lavansaari had to leave the places serving by it the house within centuries, and much and to refuse the habitual classes and professions. On Tuesday, October 10, at 18 o'clock 1,200 inhabitants received the order of a lensman (lensman — the main public official in rural areas. He directed activity of rural police; appeared in court as the official accuser and the bailiff; besides, knew taxation. — Of B.) within two hours to be prepared for sending to the continent. It was allowed to take only some clothes and food & lt;...>. Prior to military operations on November 30, inhabitants of the island as with the permission of officials, and without the permission repeatedly swam by boats on

the island behind the property which remained there and stock & lt;...>" [6, page 71].

In spite of the fact that the Moscow talks the next time were interrupted, and the relations between the states remained not stable, Finns did not allow war probability. Therefore further events promoted that some of evacuated returned to the houses till November, 1939. Life began to enter the former course. With fall of 1939 even schools began to work. After failure of attempt to ensure safety of Leningrad diplomatic, peacefully the soviet leadership came to a conclusion that in the conditions of the begun World War II this problem can be solved only in the military way.

The begun Soviet-Finnish war caused a new serious wave of evacuation. The Finnish population hastily left native places, throwing everything that prevented mobile movement, and left deep into Finland. When men were at the front, evacuation of children, old men, patients fell on women, elderly men and even children. At a 20-30gradusny frost, a lack of vehicles and their load, owing to military transportations some evacuated it was necessary to leave on dozens of kilometers on the dammed, narrow roads only with small amount of provisions as it was allowed to take from family economy only the most necessary. At the same time not only people, but also pets suffered. Some part of the cattle expelled from warm sheds on a frost froze in way. From memoirs of the eyewitness of events Toyni Peltonen: "My house was in Pyukhyayarvi. Old men and children were evacuated from there on Saturday December 2, 1939. It was necessary to leave the village by 17 o'clock. From my family the 67-year-old grandmother, mother, two brothers and two children of my uncle set off. The father, the sister and the wife of the uncle left on Monday together with cattle & lt;...>. I was on duty on phone -

ache stations in the neighboring village. Already there I learned about leaving of the native village. I wanted to say goodbye to the family. To the house there were about 9 kilometers. One man gave a ride to me a little on a horse. When we came out to Mount Hiyeta-akho, saw the flaring sky and a roar. Wiping tears, we looked at this terrible picture. The native village was covered with darkness. At gate the mewing cat came to me towards. It turned out that all relatives already left on a stop which was approximately in three kilometers & lt;. & gt;. At the stop was not to consider the number of people, refugees. In the beginning I found the grandmother. She sat in the dark in the middle of bales. The first that she told, was: "If to me to die to the station Pyukhyayarvi, you would put me near the grandfather in Haukkaniyemi". Also the offense because was not in good voice that it was necessary to throw also the earth inherited from fathers, and everything that made meaning of life. The premises of the station were filled. Children cried. The type of all this tormented to a shower" [9, page 19].

In March, 1940 when on the Karelian Isthmus the new frontier was established, total evacuation of the Finnish population from the territories departing the USSR was announced. The attached lands had to be cleared of hundreds of thousands of former inhabitants. Jorma Silvennoynen remembers: "We lost houses and also lt became homeless;...>. Within two days we needed to leave the house and in bags to bring so much grain how many you will be in time to the railway station. The cattle needed to be sent with the driver in the direction of new border; to ship all necessary food and clothes & lt in the cart;...>. It was it is unlikely possible to envy the fate of many Karelian families. Evacuation was finished, the severe reality ahead expected. On new places many families lived in cold log huts. With food it was difficult, the clothes remained in the homeland, and new it was impossible to buy as everything was by cards" [9, page 21].

The resettlement program was developed for movement and accommodation of the Finnish civilian population on new places of installation by the Finnish government. More than a half of Karelian immigrants were farmers, for them it was necessary to find new lands in other regions of Finland. The parliament of Finland adopted the law on urgent resettlement and on compensation of property. The plan of accommodation of immigrants concerned generally only residents of rural areas — the farmers who had rights for farmer estates. They made 35% of all immigrants. Farmers of the Karelian Isthmus were sought to be lodged at such distance from Helsinki which would correspond to distance of their former estates from Vyborg. At accommodation of immigrants the Finnish authorities aspired to that natives of one area lodged nearby from each other. For example, near Kuovol, in the territory of Valkeal's municipality the whole villages inhabited by natives from the Karelian Isthmus were formed. Resettlement of so most part of people was business hard. Evacuated in places of installation not always accorded a hearty welcome. Someone understood a situation, trying to facilitate life to immigrants. Some frankly saw in arrived "эвакко" only cheap labor and looked down on them.

As note the Finnish sources [10, page 9], mass evacuation in November — December, 1939 was badly prepared therefore not all inhabitants of the Karelian Isthmus could leave in time. Residents of east villages around Suoyarvi were taken prisoner, part of them died in camps. In the areas located further from border, evacuation took place more quietly, however and there was no opportunity to take out property.

Since March, 1940 on the Karelian Isthmus the new period of development — Soviet which proceeded till August, 1941 began. Organized resettlement Soviet nasele-

a niya "on new lands" it was carried out according to plan and was under control of appropriate authorities of the party and state power. In fifteen months peace and two months of conditionally peaceful life the Soviet immigrants only began settling and the arrangement on the departed lands. However in July — August, 1941, after the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, their evacuation began with the Karelian Isthmus.

Since September, 1941 the Finnish population began to come back to the native places again. From Mirya Kuysmin-Nurmi's memoirs: "There passed one and a half years as we left the homeland. Return took the breath away. The property was shipped on the vehicle which was pulled by a horse, and two cows followed. It was all our wordly property at that moment. There was a September, the people working at fields were surprised when we said that we go home. & lt;...> Arrived to Ikhal (native station). After Russians the station was in an awful state. Went on a horse to Mullyukyul, to the house where there lived ancestors where both the father, and the grandfather were born. In the village no sound was distributed. We were the first returned from all inhabitants. The first night was spent in the stable together with a horse. The house left by Russians was cold and dirty" [9, page 21].

The coming-back population did not know yet that they should leave the homeland once again and forever. In two years and ten months, in June, 1944 when during the military operation "The Karelian shaft" developed by the General headquarters Rate, the Soviet army began approach on the Karelian Isthmus and won it literally in ten days, the Finnish population ran from the coming front again. Successful combat operations of the Soviet troops in the Karelian Isthmus led to the fact that the Finnish government decided to begin partial evacuation from the capital of Helsinki and conferred to the State Council emergency powers.

Lessons of the first evacuation (1939) in Finland were not forgotten. Therefore at evacuation in 1944 the Finnish immigrants accommodated more orderly, mainly in provinces Uusimaa, Kyumi, Hyam and also Turku and Pori. Natives of the western regions of the Karelian Isthmus were placed in territories of the southern coast with the Finnish population, from other areas — in the northern Areas of Kyuminla-akso and Hyam. At accommodation of the population tried to consider that new lands were by economic opportunities, by the nature and transport communications are most similar to native places from which there arrived immigrants. The citizens evacuated from the departed territories and working in the industry were settled in larger cities and settlements of the country. So considerable migration led to serious problems, one of which was a sharp shortage of housing. Especially sharply it was felt in Helsinki. The whole families accommodated in the air-raid shelters transformed under the temporary accommodation, schools and other public buildings [10, page 11]. From Jorma Silvonen's memoirs: "The second evacuation took place more orderly, time for it was three weeks old. Karelians had to buy Finland independence the native places & lt again;. & gt;. Many families had on to move many times from, sometimes, unsuitable places of residence even on other end of Finland" [9, page 21]. Marta Saarinen told about difficulties of resettlement: "& lt;...> After the long and sad road of profit to Yuliviyeska where descended from the train. The look was unfavourable. All territory of the station was full of property of immigrants and animals. Hundreds, can thousands of animals, stood in the shelter. All of them shouted for hunger, from thirst, because, that are in others place. We were brought to Kalayoki, to the house of meetings of youth. From there local owners sorted on families" [9, page 21]. Accustoming to new conditions took place not -

unambiguously. Some Karelian families took parting with native places hard, others treated resettlement calmly and tolerantly. From Laura Leitsaari's memoirs: "From myself I can tell that we had no difficulties with accustoming on the new place, among new people. We were always well accepted where we lived. Treated us properly. We worked much, getting daily bread" [9, page 23].

Thus, as a result of wars more than 400 thousand Finnish the Karelian forcedly left native places, and the Soviet people occupying the freed territory had to master it and make the new homeland. The Soviet immigrants were some kind of displaced persons too. They left the home ground on which lived and adhered to traditions of centuries-old way. Full of new hopes and expectations, moved to uncertainty. On the new place the Soviet people tried to get used to new conditions. It was as much as possible used others, at the same time all that was not created was destroyed. Adjustment of life of the Soviet immigrants on the new place had destructive character. Adaptation of new settlers was painful and not so smoothly as it seems at first sight. New inhabitants experienced the sharp danger proceeding from others world. For example, people starved at abundance left in basements and holes former owners of products. The senior family member with risk for life had to try food whether she is poisoned that then to give to children. The Soviet immigrants felt difference between the recently acquired and left in the homeland things, and this distinction drew line between two worlds — Finnish and Russian. Let's notice that to the first appearance of the Soviet immigrants and up to the present there is a restructuring natural and cultural space of the Karelian Isthmus in which life of hundred -

la to proceed and proceeds still by other principles. Sharply excellent and ambiguous was the relation at its former inhabitants and at the Soviet new settlers to work, life, culture. At the Finnish population were created and the centuries-old traditions worked: the thorough and slow relation to life in general and to "trifles". It is known that trifles, actually, also create the complete finished image. The Soviet population had the vision of further stay on recently acquired lands which revival on the Soviet harmony often introduced a pernicious trend in their development. From memoirs of Boris Tikk, the direct eyewitness of events of post-war time. His family arrived to the Karelian Isthmus, to the city of Koyvisto (nowadays Primorsk. — B.) in 1945 from evacuation: "In the city struck abundance of the most various greens: the pink bush, a jasmine, an exotic ornamental shrub and are a lot of different types of trees. Accurately well-kept private gardens were evident. The house from the house was located at a great distance. Roads were accurate with an equal sandy cloth, very well rolled. When there were rains, they were dry. The main city road — Vyborgskoye Highway was marked by kilometer columns from red granite, one of which stood opposite to mail on the right side of the road to Vyborg. The figure specified distance to Vyborg. All these columns somehow imperceptibly in about two disappeared one or three years also lt;. & gt;. The one-storey house in which we were placed was in two kilometers from Koyvisto in Tervokhar-tial. The house was big, and we occupied only its third part. In this house, as well as in all others, standing nearby, everything was serviceable, and they looked as recently constructed. Electric twisted copper wires were brought to each house, but the current was not. In houses the electrical wiring by a cable in an aluminum casing which it is accurate was executed

adjoined to walls and a ceiling. Coming into the room, especially if wall-paper, appear, remained that owners left it temporarily and is somewhere a row & lt;...>. In our garden there were many apples, berries, some red berries externally similar to red currant sweet with a starched kiselnoy structure grew (we called them "the Finnish berries"). We for some reason more did not meet these berries also in Koyvisto too & lt anywhere;...>. First all inhabitants actively used all what was left by Finns. However somehow imperceptibly and soon enough everything gradually began to disappear or become useless. Electric columns were almost instantly cut on firewood though the wood was a circle, and in the forest there was a lot of dead wood. Copper wires on columns and electric conducting in houses were broken, and all this was given in scrap metal yards. However in 2 — 3 the same people, but already according to the instruction and under the leadership of local authorities put new columns on the same places and anew carried out in houses an electrical wiring, but already in a Soviet way, on porcelain rollers, and on columns — aluminum wires". There were exclusively seldom examples and other relation of immigrants to life. "So, the big and close-knit family of Dmitriyev tried to use and develop the economy left by Finns fully. When in 2 — 3 in all houses the district everything was already destroyed, plundered and put out of commission, Dmitriyev addressed who for the cart who to peel or grind grain or behind any tool. It did not refuse. However the same people called it for eyes a fist, the money-grubber" — B. Tikka remembered [7, page 84 — 87]. From memoirs of M.I. Tymoshenko, the colonel in resignation who was in 1940 the lieutenant 33 boundary groups, billeted in the settlement of Syakki-Yarvi from April, 1940 to June, 1941: "The Karelian Isthmus is a severe land. Boulders, granite rocks, the small fir forest, lakes and left hu-

Torah. The city of Viipuri (Vyborg) right after its capture was remembered. There was no Finn left in the city, the destroyed houses are not enough. In some shops and in warehouses there were a lot of different goods. The city — his houses, shops, theaters and cinema with signs in a foreign language, the central square, the park of rest, bridges through the passage, fortress, the clock tower, streets paved with polished bars — made extraordinary strong impression the beauty and some power & lt;...>. Well I remember the settlement of Syakki-Yarvi (nowadays Kondratyevo. — B.) where lived. The lodge allocated to me was small, but very cozy. The ceiling, walls are upholstered with a board thin in imitation walnut, a floor — a continuous plate, very thick and warm. Kitchen — a miracle: a trekhkomforochny plate, in it the three-bucket tank for water heating, excellent shelves for dishes, cases & lt is built in;. & gt; [8, page 48 — 49]. From memoirs of the inhabitant of the item Melnikovo: "Finns lived absolutely differently. Everyone had the fenced site. The cattle walked in one place, a haymaking at them in another. If firewood was necessary, prepared them in the specially allotted place, caught fish everyone on the place. And now all the general. All ruined: fields started, melioration is broken, ditches grew. On the truth, speaking, mismanagement. There is no owner good." [1, page 89].

In conclusion it should be noted that the migration movement of both the Finnish, and Soviet population made impact on further development distressful

earth of the Karelian Isthmus. Transition of the territory "from hand to hand" turned at all times into tragedy which first of all concerned the population. With leaving of former Finnish inhabitants the whole habitat, its material and inner world disappeared. All local traditions and communications were interrupted. The former Karelian Isthmus which had reputation of economically prospering part of Finland, being considered as the mysterious "country of runopevets and gray-bearded kantelist", the place where it was carefully held historical in remembrance and where adhered to ancient ways and antiquated traditions, did not become. Communications of the Finnish immigrants with the native places were interrupted for decades as the border of the Soviet Union till 1990th was closed for the Finnish citizens.

New inhabitants are the Soviet immigrants, in this sense began life with a blank space and under the laws. Development by immigrants of new lands happened as in the field of material (the systems of land use, communication, transport, the specific list of an animal and flora, etc. changed), and in the field of ideal (the istorikopolitichesky myths justifying resettlement were created, there was own (micro) toponymics). And this development went under the law of "deterioration in time". In a sense change of the population for many years considerably delayed social and economic and cultural development of the won territory, changed its rates, character and results.


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