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To the honorary member of TPU to the academician G.A. Mesyatsu of 70 years

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On February 29, 1936, in day, rare according to the calendar, in Kuzbass future student, the graduate student, the head of the laboratory of TPI, and then the founder and the director of two academic institutes in Tomsk and Yekaterinburg, the Chairman OURO RAHN, the vice president of RAS and the director of the well-known Physical Institute of RAS (FIAN) Gennady Andreevich Mesyats was born.

G.A. Mesyats is a Siberian whose childhood and youth fell on hard years in the settlements of Yashkino, Topkakh of the Kemerovo region, with honors graduated from school in Belovo and in 1953 came to TPI. In student's years its high power charge - excellent study, and was shown later and scientific work were combined with work in Komsomol where it became the member of the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, the chairman of the board of young scientists. G.A. Mesyats is the bright representative of the Tomsk school of vysokovoltnik which difference always was an aspiration to understand any phenomenon, investigating its development in time.

The beginning of scientific activity of the academician G.A. Mesyats can be considered 1957 when before it,

still the student of the Tomsk Polytechnical Institute (TPI), set the task to create the high-voltage pulse generator with the nanosecond front of increase of tension. At that time it was already clear that generators with tension in dozens of kilovolts with the nanosecond duration of the front of an impulse can be created on the basis of spark rated sportsmen with compressed gas. But in general the task was represented quite difficult. It is enough to tell that at that time there were no broadband oscillographs for registration of signals with such small duration even yet. Work, in fact, was pioneer, starting with the solution of questions of creation of the generator and finishing development of methods of registration of pulse signals.

For studying the high-voltage pulse equipment the initiative student of department of the equipment of high tension G.A. Mesyats by the rector of TPI A.A. Vorobyov was sent to the high-voltage laboratories of Moscow (ENIN, VEI, MEI), best in the country, and to Leningrad (LETI, LPI). At these institutes it is directly high -

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nobody was engaged in the voltny nanosecond equipment. However some results in this area were already received. So, professor I.S. Stekol-nikov (ENIN), one of pioneers of a research of the fast-proceeding processes in electric discharges in gas, investigating the nature of a lightning and modeling lightning discharges, created broadband high-speed oscillographs which could register impulses with front duration ~ 10-8 pages

The German erudite professor F. Lange working at that time in MEI acquainted G.A. Mesyats with pre-war works of scientists of Germany on receiving high-voltage short impulses with use as the switchboard of the spark rated sportsman. Studying these works allowed G.A. Mesyatsu to formulate the basic principles of the theory of generation of impulses with the nanosecond front at short notice. Having returned from a business trip, G.A. Mesyats began to work actively on creation of the generator of impulses and a high-speed oscillograph. The task was successfully solved, and in June, 1958 in the thesis G.A. Mesyats showed data on receiving impulses of tension to 30 kV with front duration ~ to 1 nanosecond.

The thesis subject, in essence, defined further scientific activity of G.A. Mesyats which in modern terms is characterized as high-voltage pulse power of big capacities.

After the termination of G.A. Mesyats institute came to a postgraduate study and continued the researches, at the same time teaching at department. The first scientific work of G.A. Mesyats was reported at a conference on gas electronics in MSU in the fall of 1958 and published in the magazine of "The radio technician and the electronic engineer" in 1959. In 1963. A. Mesyats together with professor G.A. Vorobyov published the Russia's first monograph on powerful power "Technology of formation of high-voltage nanosecond impulses".

In 1961. A. Mesyats defended the master's thesis. The found regularities of the category in gases had a great influence on development of pulse power of big capacities. Methods of registration of tension and current were developed for high-voltage nanosecond impulses. The most important, the first operating samples of high-voltage nanosecond pulse generators for physical researches which were used for studying breakdown of dielectrics, high-speed photoregistration, power supply of pulse lasers were created. These generators got gold and silver medals at the international exhibitions, were used in TPI, MSU, FIAN, IRE AN, IYaF SO AN laboratories, etc.

Since 1962. A. Mesyats becomes page of N of page. Scientific Research Institute YaF, around it created group of graduate students, engineers and students, mainly graduates of TPI (B.M. Kovalchuk, S.P. Bugaev,

Yu.P. Usov, Yu.I. Bychkov, V.V. Kremnev, D.I. Pro-skurovsky, F.Ya. Zagulov, R.B. Baksht, etc.) which was a kernel of laboratory of the high-voltage nanosecond pulse equipment and ISE FROM AN subsequently. They developed and created the USSR's first systems for modulation of good quality of ruby and semiconductor lasers. These researches were conducted in close cooperation with FIAN USSR (A.M. Prokhorov, N.G. Basov), MSU (R.V. Khokhlov), IRE Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A series of various pulse generators with a power, record for that time, for different applications was at the same time created.

In the doctoral dissertation G.A. Mesyats (1966) except technical and electrotechnical researches for the first time described two new physical phenomena which formed the basis of the new independent scientific directions subsequently. The first is an explosive issue of electrons, sharp increase in current of issue at explosion of mikroostriya on the cathode and intake of atoms of metal in the spreading cathode plasma. In 1976 the phenomenon of explosive electronic issue was recognized as discovery with a priority from

1966 . This opening laid the foundation for the new direction in science - silnotochny electronics. In
1967 G.A. Mesyats's laboratory on the basis of the generator of nanosecond impulses and the vacuum diode with the vzryvoemissionny cathode, irrespective of the American scientists, created the silnotochny pulse accelerator of electrons which could work in the pulse and periodic mode whereas the first American similar accelerators worked only in the mode of single impulses.

The second phenomenon is a detection of an opportunity and definition of conditions of ignition of the pulse volume category in gases with high pressures. Earlier was considered that the category could be only spark. After detection of the volume categories G. A. Mesyatsem together with B.M. Kovalchuk, superfast avalanche gas switchboards with current growth rate to 1014 A/page were created. One more application of multielectronic initiation of volume categories which began to develop promptly after publication of these results — pulse gas lasers of high pressure. On the basis of researches of the volume category initiated by a bunch of electrons in 1989 the second discovery was registered.

After reports at the International conferences (since 1968) its laboratory became widely known and abroad.

A framework of high school science which at that time played a supporting role for the academic and branch science limited expansion of the scientific directions, areas of application of the high-voltage nanosecond equipment and growth of collective. Therefore the laboratory from Scientific Research Institute YaF at TPI in 1970 passes into open Institute of optics of the atmosphere. Without stopping researches, collective

News of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. 2006. T. 309. No. 2

builds to itself the case, and in 1977 on the basis of department of IOA G.A. Mesyats creates the first institute - Institute of silnotochny electronics FROM AN.

Already at this time Gennady Andreevich was created as the bright organizer of science. It was promoted also by its full-time public employment in Councils of young scientists and also leadership and human skills. Around G.A. Mesyats the on-stage performance group единомы-шленников-" was always formed; трудоголиков". Gennady Andreevich always made thrifty use of the employees, supporting them. He prepared more than 40 doctors of science, two of them became academicians, about 10 - corresponding members of AN. His many pupils are conferred awards of Lenin Komsomol, Gospremy and awards of Council of ministers of the USSR and the Russian Federation. G.A. Mesyats, besides, the winner of many prestigious scientific awards of Russia and the International awards, is awarded awards and the medals of the USSR and the Russian Federation.

In 1986 Gennady Andreevich agrees to head the Ural science and creates UrO AN. At the same time, on the basis of a landing of the Tomsk scientists (without having bared at the same time native ISE), opens Institute of electrophysics of UrO AN in Sverdlovsk. It should be noted that both created by G.A. Mesyats of Institute, having successfully endured years of reorganization, and until now are in vanguard of the offices. In 1993. A. Mesyats is elected the vice president of RAS, and in 2004 - the director of FIAN. From 1998 to 2006 was the chairman of VAK Russian Federation.

Working in Academy of Sciences, Gennady Andreevich never lost communications with Alma Mater: being the young scientist, trained students in elements vysokovol-

the tny equipment at TVN department and in laboratory, his pupils up to opening of ISE department in TPU gave lectures in the same place. Students of electrophysics and power industry were engaged in UIR, NIR, underwent practice and certification in its Institute. About a quarter of employees of ISE - graduates of TVN department and engineering electrophysics. Together with Scientific Research Institute VN ISE carried out a number of large projects. Being Honorary professor of TPU, Gennady Andreevich carries out a lot of work for the native university as the Chairman of the Board of trustees.

G.A. Mesyats published several monographs in electrophysics, basic of which were republished in different languages. Among them "Technology of formation of high-voltage nanosecond impulses (1963), "Formation of nanosecond impulses of high voltage" (1970), "Generation of powerful nanosecond impulses" (1974), "Powerful nanosecond impulses of x-ray radiation" (1983), "Pulse electric discharge in a vacuum" (1984), "Methods of multiplication and transformation of impulses in silnotochny electronics" (1987), "Pulse gas lasers" (1991), "Physics of pulse breakdown of gases" (1991), Ektona in 3 t. (1993-1994), "Application of powerful microwave impulses" (1994), "Ektona in the vacuum category: breakdown, spark, arch" (2000), "Pulse power and electronics" (2004). The last is the excellent textbook for students of electrophysicists and electropower engineering specialists.

Professor V.V. Lopatin

Byron Williams
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